PSC 1001 Comparative Politics Mid-Term Review
PSC 1001 Comparative Politics Mid-Term Review PSC 1001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Jennifer L. Oetken in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
WEEK 8 MIDTERM REVIEW introduction to comparative politics Prof. J. Oetken PSC 1001 Caroline E. Jok The George Washington University 1. Do you think that politics can be studied scientifically? Why or why not? Yes. Politics can be studied scientifically because it involves analyzing Theories, Hypotheses & Evidence. As discussed in class two, studying politics, like science, involves the accumulation and establishment of knowledge which has been systematized and formulated with reference to the discovery of general truths or the operation general laws. It is the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experimentation. 2. According to King et al, what makes political science "scientific"? Science has the following four characteristics: The Goal is inference The procedures are public The Conclusions are uncertain The content is the method Therefore, science is a social enterprise, and as long as “our work explicitly addresses the concerns of the community of scholars and uses public methods to arrive at inferences that are consistent with the rules of science and the information at our disposal, it is likely to make a contribution” and thus, the study of politics is scientific. Finally, both quantitative and qualitative research can be systematic and scientific. It is analytical, seeking to evaluate alternative explanations through a process of valid causal inference. 3. What challenges make it difficult to study comparative politics scientifically? It is rare that politics can be studied in controlled trials Variables are often endogenous Multicausality (lots of variables effect a single outcome) Random selection and selection Bias 4. What is the scientific method and how is it used in political science research? Scientific method: body of techniques for investigating a phenomenon, acquiring new knowledge or correcting previous knowledge Ask a research question Identify a theory Formulate Hypothesis Test Hypothesis Reject/Accept Analyze & Evaluate Performed qualitatively and quantitatively in political science. 5. Are Most-Similar-Systems and Most-Different-Systems research designs? Why are these used in comparative politics? Yes: both rely on comparison of cases Most-Similar-Systems: Compare cases that are similar in factors, but have distinct outcomes Look for the variation that explains why the cases are dissimilar Most Different Systems: Compare cases which differ in multiple factors, but have similar outcomes Find why this is so 6. Why does O'Neil (Essentials of Comparative Politics) argue that states are more institutionalized than regimes, and regimes are more institutionalized than governments? Institution: Organizations that are self perpetuating States > Regimes > Governments States: Monopoly of force over a given territory; set of institutions; characterized by its institutions Regime: Norms and rules regarding individual freedom/equality/locus of power and its use; can be changed by dramatic events Government: who is running the state? Limited by the regime (rules/norms); changes often (weakly institutionalized) 7. What institutions do states share in common? Military: to defend state territory Police: maintain law and order Taxation: revenue Government/Administration 8. What are the different ways that we can compare states? Capacity Production Ability to enact laws Ability to enforce taxation Autonomy for international and internal actors Legitimacy Centralization/Decentralization 9. According to Herbst, how did warfare between states lead to the formation of strong state organizations? War requires organizations to eliminate external threats which facilitates the institutionalization of state militaries. The organizations then eliminate internal rivals through the institutionalization of police forces. 10. Why have African states not engaged in international war? According to Herbst, how has that contributed to state weakness in the region? They don’t have the resources or key incentive (nationalism) to go to war Other than war, no types of crisis demand that the state increase taxes with such forcefulness such as warfare; Africa has a revenue crisis, that isn’t helped by the lack of nationalism 11. What are four main types of political-economic systems? How are they similar and different? Liberalism Social Communism Mercantilism Democracy Market Laissez faire Regulated; Market forces Regulated some state eliminated; state ownership planned economy Property Strongly Protected Fully Nationalized Protected; key Rights protected industries - state owned Social Limited to Higher; wealth, Economy is a Lower to Expenditure critical public re-distributed public good; all increase public goods needs provided by savings the state Taxation Low rates Higher rates Indirect; Fixed Low wages and prices Foreign Free trade Promoted; Restricted; only Trade regulated Trade stimulates domestic imports deemed to protect competition and economy necessary domestic innovation preserved economy 12. What are the main economic functions of the state? Taxation; Markets and property; Management of Public Goods; Social Expenditures; Facilitating growth 13. What are indicators of a state’s economic development? GDP, Gini Index, Human Development Index, Happiness 14. What is the difference between LDCs and NICs? LDC = Less-Developed Countries: Weak economic growth, political and social instability NIC = Newly industrializing countries: swift economic development, social stability, greater democratization 15. What is a developmental state? Developmental state: State working on improving economic growth: actively promoting domestic production and exports. 16. According to Kohli, how did South Korea's experience with colonialism lead to developmental state institutions? Expert led model of development Highly authoritarian with control over the internal organizations making corruption harder and increasing the ability for the state to collect taxes Product oriented alliances Control of the lower class 17. What are import substitution and export oriented economic models? What did one promote growth, while the other promoted economic stagnation? Import substitution: state actively promotes domestic production to meet the needs of domestic markets; large industries require financing and tend to be unsustainable because they are not profitable Export Oriented: economic production is focused on industries that can compete and be dominant in an international market; state may need to protect domestic businesses from foreign competition and directly invest in key industries, but in turn profit is produced. 18. According to Goldsmith, how is predatory rule different from developmental rule? Predatory Rule: Personal Gains; keep the elite and strong happy; Developmental Rule: Increase Welfare; Optimize public capital 19. How does Goldsmith account for the prevalence of predatory rule in sub-Saharan Africa? Leaders favor excessive current consumption and neglect the public’s capital stock. What happens after losing office is too uncertain. Deductive theory: Leaders’ first concern is maximizing their hold on power 20. What policies might be used to increase state capacity and economic development? Institutionalization: Promotion of democracy; term limitations; prosecution under international law – all to keep the state accountable and allow for growth. 21. According to the article by Schmitter and Karl, what is procedural democracy? Procedural Democracy: people/citizens have less influences than traditional liberal democracies Robert Dahl: 7 conditions of polyarchy 1. Control over government decisions about policy is constitutionally vested in elected officials 2. Elected officials chosen in frequent and fair elections 3. Practically everyone can vote 4. Practically everyone can run 5. Citizens have the right to express themselves 6. Citizens have the right to seek out alternative sources of information 7. Citizens can form independent political parties. 22. Based on the O'Neil textbook, what are some factors or conditions that support democracy? Civil Society Political Culture International Pressure Economic sophistication 23. What are the key differences between Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential models of democracy? Parliamentary: Prime Minister (indirectly elected) with no term limit, and selects the cabinet Presidential: Directly elected; fixed term; cabinet selected by president Semi-Presidential: Prime minister (head of government and indirectly elected; no term limit) and president (head of state and directly elected; term limit) 24. How do different electoral systems lead to different political outcomes? Proportional Representation systems will lead to more redistributive governments Majoritarian System: less redistributive governments. 25. What is an advanced democracy? Advanced Democracy: countries with institutional democracy and high level of economic development and prosperity (GDP over $8000 and in the top third on HDI); formerly known as first world countries; 26. According to the Iversen and Soskice article, are right governments more likely to proportional or majoritarian electoral systems? Which type of electoral system are left- leaning governments more likely to have? Left: Proportional: More redistribution: Multi-Party system: willing to spend more on social welfare Right: Majoritarian: less redistribution: 2 party system: Not as willing to spend on social welfare. 27. According to the Iversen and Soskice article, upper class voters are against wealth redistribution, while lower class voters prefer greater redistribution of wealth. What are the preferences of middle class voters with respect to wealth redistribution? Left leaning governments and societies will redistribute more Right leaning governments will distribute less. 28. What is the third wave of democracy? According to Huntington, what are the driving factors for democratic transition? Third Wave of democracy: period between 1974 and 1990 in which around 30 countries transitioned to democracy Driving factors: Legitimacy problems with authoritarian military regimes Economic growth Pressure from external actors 29. According to Huntington, which cultures are not conducive to democracy? Not conducive: Profoundly anti democratic culture eastern cultures: group over the individual cultures based on religion 30. What role do elites play regime transition? Transition Game: Elite Negotiations between military rulers and civilian political parties to legitimize the regime through more inclusive politics. There are strategic games from the very beginning the military seeks legitimization through a façade of civilian rule operating through chosen groups of politicians and a restricted electoral arena. 31. According to Collier and Mahoney, how can labor movements and organizations play a critical role in democratic regime transition? Collective action by labor organizations keep up the momentum of the transition and expand the political space for left leaning parties and organization. 32. According to the Jaffrelot article, what five factors caused India and Pakistan's political trajectories to diverge so significantly? 1. Pakistan worried a lot about foreign threats and therefore put a lot into its military 2. Internal insecurities were different in Pakistan than in India 3. Main state structure was set up in India and not Pakistan 4. Civil society 5. Ethno linguistic differences.
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