Psych 373 - Study Guide for Chapters 5 and 9
Psych 373 - Study Guide for Chapters 5 and 9 Psych 373
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Introduction to Clinical Psychology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lisa Montanez on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 373 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. LaBine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYCH 373 STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTERS 5 &9 CHAPTER 5 PERSON-CENTERED THEORY AND THERAPY THIS CHAPTER: Carl Rogers and his distinctive approach to therapy, person- centered therapy (PCT), is the focus of this chapter Carl Rogers was a super-optimist. His approach to therapy is founded on an abiding belief in the capacity for persons, when unfettered by social and familial obstacles, to develop into positive, creative, flexible, and altruistic beings. He referred to this capacity as an actualizing or formative tendency. o The idea behind this is that there’s a developmental force underlying the behavior of individual humans and is an oft-repeated philosophical or theoretical concept Evolution of Person-Centered Therapy Roger’s practice of person-centered theory and principles can be divided into four developmental periods: Nondirective counseling is characterized by Roger’s growing aversion to directive, traditional therapy methods. o Therapist is tracking and following the client (walking alongside of client) o Therapist NEVER chooses the direction Client-centered therapy is the client’s ability to lead the therapy. Becoming a person is self-development [for the client]. o Human potential movement o Changed this approach to person-centered therapy (PCT). Worldwide issues is Roger’s dedication much of his work to improving interracial relations and efforts toward world peace Progression of theory: - Academic: behaviorism - Clinical Psychoanalytic - Non-directive therapy - Client-centered therapy o (phenomenology) -> What does the client experience? COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information - Person-centered therapy (becoming the person you are) - International/work THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES Theory of Personality Roger’s 19 theoretical propositions are collapsed into four core features of his personality Basic Propositions of Personality (10) (1) Every individual (organism) exists in a continually changing world of experience of which he is the center a. Always changing, nothing is permanent/stable i. Ex: thoughts, feelings, experience b. The organism is the entire realm of experience (both conscious and unconscious parts) c. A portion of the organism’s experience becomes differentiated as the “self” i. part of you -> mine, list your basic traits, can be conscious and only part of your experience *Self is an important part of experience (2) The best vantage point four understanding behavior is from internal frame of reference of the individual (the phenomenological approach) a. Emphasis is on direct personal experience i. Experiencing is the direct non-verbal sensing of patterns and relationships, within the world, between the self and the world, and within the self (intuitive knowledge) (3) The organism has one basic tendency and strive -> the actualizing tendency a. Healthy, independent b. Believes we are fundamentally positive (4) In addition to the actualizing tendency, there are two learned needs: a. The need for positive regards i. Ex: love and belongingness b. The need for self-regard (basic need) (5) Two types of processes contribute to the sense of self and the values that are expressed a. Organismic valuing process i. Ongoing process in which individuals freely rely on the evidence of the own tenses for value judgement b. Introjected values (conditions of worth) i. Introjected is to take in [values of others] COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information (6) Once our sense of self is formed (based on our own organismic valuing tendency and/or introjected value), we act in ways and interpret events consistent with our sense 0f self (7) When the experience of the organism is inconsistent with the experience of the self, this discrepancy is called (incongruence and may lead to anxiety) (8) Organismic experiences inconsistent with sense of self, they may be defined or distorted, may be perceived as a threat, even if you are not consciously aware a. Subception: when a person unconsciously perceives a threatening object or situation (9) Awareness of emotion is key a. Emotion accompanies and facilitates behavior b. Can be a guide i. Includes anger, sadness, anxiety, joy *Clients need to be AWARE of their emotions and ACCEPT their emotions (10) Healthy adjustment a. (Full functioning person) b. When the individual is able to perceive and integrate new experiences into the sense of self i. More open to new experiences and more congruent ii. Trust in one’s organism iii. More accepting of others iv. A willingness to be a process (always changing) THEORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Roger’s ideas on psychopathology, as stated by Bohart, “Psychological problems are neither faulty beliefs or perceptions nor inadequate or inappropriate behavior per se. As humans confront challenges in life they will periodically misperceive, operate on mistaken beliefs, and behave inadequately. Dysfunctionality occurs if we fail to learn from feedback and therefore remain stuck in our misperceptions or inadequate behavior. Dysfunctionality is really a failure to learn and change.” Psychopathology: - Failure to learn from experience – dysfunction occurs when we fail to learn from feedback and thereby remain stuck our misperceptions and inadequate behavior 3 Approaches to Psychopathology: 1. Caring 2. Acceptance 3. Non- possessive love COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information *empathy is essential as well THEORY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY Roger’s theory of psychotherapy is directly related to his theory of personality. If psychotherapy originally stems from the individual’s experience of judgement or invalidation of the self by significant others, it logically follows that a non-judgmental atmosphere will facilitate psychological health. Roger’s believed that if therapists can trust clients and provide a therapeutic relationship, then clients will be able to begin trusting themselves; they will experience a steady and powerful movement toward greater personal development and psychological health Rogers outlined his relationship-based theory of psychotherapy: 6 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions: (1) Two people are in psychological contact (relationship) (2) The client is in a state of incongruence, a discrepancy; the distinction between organism and self makes it possible for an individual’s self to be inconsistent with its overall psychological experience, feeling vulnerable/anxious (3) Therapist is congruent, defined as authenticity and sometimes referred to as transparency; it’s the self’s experiences and perceptions are consistent with the organism’s total experience, genuine/transparent (4) Unconditional positive regard a. Cautions about this directly: i. Clients may be overwhelmed and either react by wanting more or by withdrawing ii. Direct statements may be seen as phony (5) Empathy a. Basic empathy b. Advanced empathy i. Seeing if you can sense the deeper meanings of the client’s experience 1. Walking within – using first person pronouns as if they were the client (6) The communication to the client of the therapist’s empathy and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal achieved *What you feel is what you are, and what you are is beautiful *Need all 6 for therapeutic change; argument: necessary, but not necessarily sufficient COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING: A CONTEMPORARY PCT APPROACH Motivational interviewing -> person-centered approach developed by William Miller, originally for the treatment of addictions - This creates Ambivalence -> a discrepancy between client values and behavior o Afraid, can the client do it? o Concern about cost, can the client afford it? o With ambivalence comes resistance -> an invitation to explore Technique used in motivational interviewing -> Amplified Reflection – the reason why clients do what they do because of their addiction Ex: Client – alcohol helps me relax because of stress= work, family, financial issues, etc. o Alcohol is a “lifesaver” *Therapist need to accept that clients won’t change and/or want to change CHAPTER 9 CHOICE THEORY AND REALITY THERAPY THIS CHAPTER: William Glasser and his reality therapy and choice theory is the focus on this chapter THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES William Glasser: 1965 -> working with adolescents - Doesn’t believe in mental illness; believes they are behaviors in attempt to get their needs met Choice theory holds that humans are internally motivated. Comparing this basic assumption of choice theory to the primary theoretical assumption of behaviorism leaves a contradiction between choice theory and behaviorism (1) Internal control theory vs. external control psychology Internal control theory Our behavior is determined by the choices we make; we are internally controlled; environmental factors just provide information External control psychology Behaviorism COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information We are controlled by factors external to ourselves o Currently dominates human thinking and reasoning Glasser considers the domination of our thinking by external control psychology to be an unfortunate reality with many negative consequences *Glasser would like the world to discard external control psychology and replace it with his approach to human psychology: choice theory (2) Five basic needs: 1. Survival a. (The survival of the individual and the species) i. The only physical/physiological need 2. Love and belonging a. (The primary human need) i. Strongest psychological need 1. We need others to get our needs met 2. Includes acquaintanceship, sexual love, friendship love, and romantic love a. Ex: Romeo and Juliet i. Chose love over their survival 3. Power a. Can be good or bad; depending on how power is acquired and used (inner control, achievement accomplishment) i. Able to influence other people/environment ii. Often viewed negatively iii. Most humans enjoy have some power because it’s intrinsically gratifying 1. Experiencing less power may result in unhappiness and a need for counseling b. Glasser -> people get preoccupied with meeting power needs, freedom or play needs in two circumstances: i. The inability to be involved in a satisfying relationship ii. Some people incorrectly use external control psychology (power) as a means of getting love and belongingness needs met 4. Freedom a. Creativity i. When someone tries to take it away, then it becomes a pressing issue 1. Increased in the presence of threats 5. Fun a. Basic human need i. The day we stop playing is the day we stop learning ii. Easiest need to satisfy COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information YOUR QUALITY WORLD According to choice theory, your quality world or your world of wants may be best thought of as a mental “picture album” that holds images of all that we value and/or possess, or wish to eventually value and/or possess. Therapist needs to understand the client’s quality world and needs to become a part of the client’s quality world Includes three categories: o People o Things or experiences or activities o Ideas or systems of belief TOTAL BEHAVIOR According to choice theory, all we do from birth to death is behave. Glasser believes that behavior is very inclusive, as choice theory includes a concept referred to as total behavior. Total Behavior includes 4 distinct, but inseparable components that are always occurring simultaneously: 1. Acting (we control directly) Drive wheels 2. Thinking (we control directly) 3. Feeling (impacted indirectly) Passive followers 4. Physiology (impacted indirectly) Total behavior is often described as an automatic analogy: The engine represents your basic needs because it’s the client’s desire to have those needs fulfilled that powers your overall system Putting the car into gear and stepping on the accelerator to get where you want to go represents the direction of your quality world because the client wants their needs met as efficiently as possible CHOICE THEROY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Pathology – reflects behaviors we choose in an attempt to get our needs met Glasser’s perspective on psychopathology includes 3 primary principles: 1. Restraining anger (depressing) – safer alternative a. Depressing is the most common solution to the problem of anger i. Reality therapists viewed depressing as a means by which anger is restrained or managed 2. Getting help COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information a. With help comes compassionate therapists who gently and empathically help clients critically evaluate whether their symptoms are helping them fulfill their basic needs 3. Avoiding things – people let you off the hook a. May include fear, aversion to doing something, or lack of motivation Teaching clients to use choice theory involves the distinct process of teaching clients to use the Wubbolding’s Wanting Doing Evaluating and Planning model W ant (how hard is the client willing to work for it?) D oing (what is the client doing to meet his/her goal?) E valuating (how is this working for the client?) P lan (what plan is the client using to get what they want in a more effective way?) HELPING CLIENTS DEVELOP EFFECTIVE PLANS Nearly always, therapists help clients make positive and constructive plans. This acronym is SAMIC . 3 S = Simple. Effective plans are simple. If a plan is too complex, then client may become confused or overwhelmed and therefore not follow through A = Attainable. Effective plans are attainable and realistic. If the plan is not, then the client will probably become discouraged M = Measurable. Effective plans are measureable. Clients need to know if the plan is working and if they’re making progress I = Immediate. Effective plans can be enacted immediately, or at least very soon. If not, and the client waits too long, then the immediate motivation will be compromised C = Controlled. Effective plans are controlled exclusively by the planner. Be sure to avoid having clients develop plans that are contingent on someone else’s behavior C = Committed. Clients need to commit to their plans. If not, then the plan is less likely to succeed C = Continuous. Effective plans are continuously implemented. When functioning well, reality therapy clients have continuous awareness of what they want and of their plan for getting what they want. COLOR CODE: Yellow: main subject, idea or term Pink: examples Blue: definition of term Green: “star” information
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