Soc 150 Study Guide Two
Soc 150 Study Guide Two SOC 150
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thanh Notetaker on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 150 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Sheldon Zink in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 155 views. For similar materials see Priciples of Sociology in Sociology at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
SOC 150 Study Guide For 2 Test Format: 1. Remember the Graph from Chapter 5 about Acquisition of Self: Stage 1: Language: Baby born -> Understand language (from infancy to 2 years old) -> Start speaking (2-3.5 years old) through the process of looking glass self) Stage 2: Role taking: Start speaking -> play stage (4ish years old) -> game stage (7-8 years old) - > 20’s generalized others. Important terms: Looking-glass self: Sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others. Role-taking: Ability to see oneself from the perspective of others and to use that perspective in formulating one’s own behavior. Play stage: Stage in the development of self during which a child develops the ability to take a role, but only from the perspective of one person at a time. Game stage: Stage in the development of self during which a child acquires the ability to take the role of a group or community (the generalized other) and to conform his or her behavior to broad, societal expectations. Generalized other: Perspective of the larger society and its constituent values and attitudes. 2. Connecting the two approaches of deviance with their characteristics: 1) Absolutist: Characteristics: 1) Behavior is inherently good or bad 2) Look at action broadly without accounting for individual circumstance 3) Deviant act defines the social worth of an individual 4) Judgements often based on stereotypes 5) Crime is considered an individual act disconnected from social forces and other factors 2) Relativist: Characteristics: 1) Behavior is not inherently good or bad 2) Idea of Deviance changes through time 3) Look at behavior( How people act), ideas (How people think), attributes(How people appear) 4) Deviance relative to cultural standard 5) Intent/ Context/ Outcome Goodluck with the test. Sociologists do not judge whether an approach is good or bad/ action is good or bad – they use descriptive analysis to understand it within a culture 3. Connecting the three difference views of deviance with their characteristics 1) The SF view by Durkheim/ Erikson: 1. Helps society define boundaries 2. Determines rules of right and wrong 3. Increases feelings of “in group togetherness” 4. Continues to maintenance and continuity of society 5. Defines social worth of an individual 2) Conflict Perspective of Deviance: 1. Deviance is a form of social control 2. Way of exerting influence of more powerful people over less powerful 3. Poor have harsher prison sentences then the wealthy 4. Legal representation determined by economics (bad) 5. Those who are deemed deviant have less access to resources and information. 3) Symbolic Interactionist (a view by relativists): 1. The act is only as bad as label attached to it 2. Powerful use of language to isolate people who are not deviant (part of labeling theory) 3. Labeling can cause as well as deter acts of deviance 4. Language is used to “create” crime or criminal behavior influences legal outcomes 5. As an individual – To commit a deviant act on a regular basis you must learn to perceive it as normal. 4. Terms and Definitions: Chapter 5: Self: Unique set of traits, behaviors, and attitudes that distinguishes one person from the next; the active source and passive object of behavior. Identity: Essential aspect of who we are, consisting of our sense of self, gender, race, ethnicity, and religion. Socialization: Process through which one learns how to act accordingly to the rules and expectations of a particular culture Agents of Socialization: The various individuals, groups, and organizations who influence the socialization process Goodluck with the test. Anticipatory Socialization: Process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future For example: A young kid learns not to touch the queen or the royal family in England Collective Culture: Culture in which personal accomplishments are less important in the formation of identity than group member ship Individualist culture: Culture in which personal accomplishments are a more important component of one’s self-concept than group membership Compare the two cultures: Individual: Collective: Personal Accomplishment Group Accomplishment Self Reliance Individuals in group- Reflections of all members Focused on acquisition of individual Wealth Cooperative-forced overcome individual member interests Socialization: Process through which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a particular culture Resocialization: Process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one. Reflexive behavior: Behavior in which the person initiating an action is the same as the person toward whom the action is directed Total Institutions: Places where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life. For example, colleges Goodluck with the test. Chapter 6: Erving Goffman (1959) - How Identities are created -Foundation of class interaction Impression Management: Act of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgements. Impression Formation: The process by which we define others based on observable cues such as age, ascribed status characteristics such as race and gender, individual attributes such as physical appearance, and verbal and nonverbal expressions. Embarrassment: Spontaneous feeling that is experienced when the identity someone is presenting is suddenly and unexpectedly discredited in front of others. Account: Statement designed to explain unanticipated, embarrassing, or unacceptable behavior after the behavior has occurred. Aligning Action: action taken to restore an identity that has been damaged For example, Saying “Do I know you?” to someone who doesn’t know you then you follow with “Do you have a sister/ brother?” Disclaimer: Assertion designed to forestall any complaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statement that is about to occur. For example, Say “this is embarrassing but I’m going to tell you this story” Stigma: Deeply discrediting characteristics this is viewed as an obstacle to competent or morally trustworthy behavior. For example, Passing out in the first day of college stigmatized the professor. Chapter 8: Deviance has 3 important elements: Expectation: Some sort of behavioral expectation must exist, a norm that defines appropriate, acceptable behavior, ideas, or characteristics. The expectations may be implicit or explicit, formal or informal, and more or less widely shared. Violation: Deviance implies some violation of normative expectations. The violation may be real or alleged; that is, an accusation of wrong doing may be enough to give someone the reputation of being a deviant Reaction: An individual, group, or society must react to the deviance. The reaction is likely to lead to some sort of response: avoidance, criticism, warnings, punishment, or Goodluck with the test. treatment. The reaction may accurately reflect the facts, or it may bear little relation to what really happened, as when people are punished or ostracized for acts they did not commit. Absolutism: Approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that all human behavior can be considered either inherently good or inherently bad. Relativism: Approach to defining deviance that tests on the assumption that deviance is socially created by collective human judgements and ideas. Criminalization: Official definition of an act of deviance as a crime Labeling theory: Theory stating that deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an offender; a deviant is an individual to whom the identity “deviant” has been successfully applied. Deviance: Behavior, ideas, or attributes of an individual or group that some people in society find offensive. Medicalization: Definition of behaviors as a medical problem and mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it. Deterrence theory: Theory of Deviance positing that people will be prevented from engaging in deviant acts if they judge the costs of such an act to outweigh its benefits. Chapter 9: Social Dilemma: Potential for a society’s long term ruin because of individuals’ tendency to pursue their own-short term interests. The conflict between: Individual – Common goods / Capitalism – Democracy Oligarchy: A system of authority in which many people are ruled by a privileged few. Tragedy of the commons: Situation in which people are acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available (but limited) resources, creating disaster for the entire community. Free-rider problem: Tendency for people to refrain from contributing to the common good when a resource is available without requiring any personal cost or contribution 3 things that mediate the social dilemma: 1) Privatization: People own a particular resource are motivated to preserve it. They use it efficiently and distribute it through economic system. Goodluck with the test. 2) Central control: The government take control of everything and distribute resources through relegations 3) Communication: The connection between privatization and central control to achieve the balance between the two opposite factors. Goodluck with the test.
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