1. Where the sources of power come from?
• Anyone in a managerial position—team leader, department head, supervisor—has power, but how well it is used varies from person to person. Leaders gain power both from the position they hold and from their personal qualities.
• You can remember this as an equation:
Managerial Power = Position Power + Personal Power
• The three bases of position power are reward power, coercive power, and legitimate power; three important bases of personal power are expertise, information and networking, and referent power. We also discuss several other topics like How do you know if a function is composite?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the icons?
We also discuss several other topics like What is thanatology?
2. What power enables you to do?
• Power is the ability to get others to do something you want done, or to make things happen the way you want.
3. The emphasis of human relations leadership?
• A leader with a human relations style does just the opposite and emphasizes people over task. • Human relation leader: Country Club Manager – Focuses on people’s needs, building relationships.
4. What transformational leaders do?
• Transformational leadership is inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance. • Leadership scholars James MacGregor Burns and Bernard Bass link charismatic qualities like enthusiasm and inspiration with something called transformational leadership. They describe transformational leaders as using their personalities, character, and insight to inspire followers. These leaders get others so excited about their jobs and organizational goals that these followers strive for extraordinary performance accomplishments.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the ultimate source of carbohydrates?
5. What the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model suggests?
• The Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles. (See the First Picture) Don't forget about the age old question of What is exchange?
o Delegating—allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions; a low-task, low relationship style.
o Participating—emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions; a low-task, high-relationship style.
o Selling—explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way; a high-task, high relationship style.
o Telling—giving specific task directions and closely supervising work; a high-task, low relationship style.
6. What emotional intelligence enables leaders to do?
• The role of personality in transformational leadership relates to another area of inquiry in leadership development—emotional intelligence.
• Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage our emotions in social relationships. • The emotionally intelligent leader: 1). Motivated and persistent; 2). High self-awareness; 3). High social awareness; 4). Good self-management or self-regulation; 5). Good relationship management We also discuss several other topics like What is dysphagia?
7. What moral leadership is?
• Moral leadership is always “good” and “right” by ethical standards.
• Strength in moral leadership begins with personal integrity, a concept fundamental to the notion of transformational leadership.
1. The needs in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?
• Abraham Maslow’s theory of human needs is an important foundation in the history of management thought. The lower-order needs in his hierarchy include physiological, safety, and social concerns, while higher-order needs include esteem and self-actualization concerns. Lower-order needs focus on desires for physical and social well-being; higher-order needs focus on desires for psychological
development and growth.
2. What Maslow’s lower and higher order needs are?
• Lower-order needs are physiological, safety, and social needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. • Higher-order needs are esteem and self- actualization needs in Maslow’s hierarchy.
3. About EGR theory?
• One of the most promising efforts to build on Maslow’s work is the ERG theory proposed by Clayton Alderfer. This theory collapses Maslow’s five needs categories into three. Existence needs are desires for physiological and material well-being. Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. Growth needs are desires for continued psycho- logical growth and development o Existence needs are desires for physical well-being.
o Relatedness needs are desires for good interpersonal relationships.
o Growth needs are desires for personal growth and development.
4. What a performance expectancy is?
• Expectancy is a person’s belief that working hard will result in high task performance. Expectancy— a person’s belief that working hard will result in achieving a desired level of task performance (this is sometimes called effort-performance expectancy).
• Instrumentality is a person’s belief that various outcomes will occur as a result of task performance. Instrumentality—a person’s belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards and other work-related outcomes (this is sometimes called performance- outcome expectancy).
• Valence is the value a person assigns to work-related outcomes. Valence—the value a person assigns to the possible rewards and other work-related outcomes.
5. When goals are motivating?
• The basic premise of Edwin Locke’s goal-setting theory is that task goals can be highly motivating if they are properly set and well managed. Goals give people direction in their work. They clarify the performance expectations in supervisory relationships, between co-workers, and across organizational subunits. They establish a frame of reference for task feedback. Goals also set a foundation for behavioral self-management.
• The motivational benefits of goal setting occur when managers and team leaders work with others to set the right goals in the right ways. The nearby box points out that goal specificity, goal difficulty, goal acceptance, and goal commitment are all important. Managers can use goal setting in these and related ways to enhance employees’ work performance and job satisfaction.
• Participation goes a long way toward unlocking the motivational power of task goals. When managers and team members join in a participative process of goal setting and performance review, members are likely to experience greater motivation.
6. When managers can create positive instrumentalities?
• To maximize instrumentality, people must see the link between high performance and work outcomes. This is an issue of rewards for accomplishments. Managers can create positive instrumentalities by clarifying the possible rewards for high performance and then allocating these rewards fairly and on a performance- contingent basis.
7. Which reinforcement schedules produce the most desirable results?
• Positive reinforcement:
o Shaping is positive reinforcement of successive approximations to the desired behavior. o Continuous reinforcement rewards each time a desired behavior occurs.
o Intermittent reinforcement rewards behavior only periodically.
1. What a team is?
• A team is a relatively small set of people with complementary skills who regularly interact with one another, working together interdependently to achieve shared goals.
• A team is a collection of people who regularly interact to pursue common goals.
2. About different kinds of teams?
• A committee is designated to work on a special task on a continuing basis.
• A project team or task force is convened for a specific purpose and disbands when its task is completed.
• A cross-functional team operates with members who come from different functional units of an organization.
• Members of a self-managing work team have the authority to make decisions about how they share and complete their work.
• Members of a virtual team or distributed team work together and solve problems through computer-based interactions.
3. How different kinds of teams operate?
• An effective team achieves high levels of task performance, membership satisfaction, and future viability.
• An effective team does three things well—perform its tasks, satisfy its members, and remain viable for the future. On the task performance side, a work team is expected to transform resource inputs (such as ideas, materials, and information) into product outputs (such as a report, decision, service, or commodity). With respect to member satisfaction, members should take pleasure from both the team’s performance accomplishments and their contributions toward making these happen. As to future viability, the team should have a social fabric and work climate that makes its members willing and able to work well together in the future, again and again as needed.
• A committee brings employees together outside of their daily job duties to work together for a specific purpose. A committee’s agenda is typically narrow, focused, and ongoing.
• Project teams or task forces bring people together to work on common problems, but on a temporary rather than permanent basis. The goals and task assignments are specific and completion deadlines are clear. Creativity and innovation may be part of the agenda.
• Many organizations make use of cross-functional teams that pull together members from across different functional units to work on common goals. These teams help reduce the functional chimneys problem by eliminating “walls” that can otherwise limit communication and cooperation among employees from different departments and functions. The functional chimneys problem is a lack of communication across functions.
• Traditional work teams consisting of first-level supervisors and their immediate sub- ordinates are increasingly being replaced in a growing number of organizations with self-managing work teams. These teams operate with a high degree of task interdependence, authority to make many decisions about how they work, and collective responsibility for results.20 The expected advantages from self managed teams are better performance, reduced costs, and high levels of morale.
• Members of virtual teams, also called distributed teams, work together through computer mediation rather than face to face. They operate like other teams with respect to what gets done. In virtual teams, it’s the way that things get done that is different. This difference has both potential advantages and
4. The stages of team development?
• Teams experience different process challenges as they pass through the stages of team development— forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
1) The forming stage of team development involves the first entry of individual members into a team. This is a time of initial task orientation and interpersonal testing. In the forming stage individuals begin to identify with other members and with the team itself.
2) The storming stage is a period of high emotionality and can be the most difficult stage to pass through successfully.
3) It is in the norming stage that team members begin to cooperate with one another. The norming stage also is part of the critical zone of team development.
4) Teams in the performing stage are more mature, organized, and well-functioning. 5) The final stage of team development is adjourning, when team members prepare to achieve closure and disband.
5. Characteristics of cohesive teams?
• Team members vary in their adherence to established group norms. Conformity to norms is largely determined by the strength of team cohesiveness, the degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain part of a team. Members of teams that are highly cohesive value their membership and strive to maintain positive relationships with other team members. Because of this, they tend to conform to team norms. In the extreme, violation of a norm on a highly cohesive
team can result in a member being expelled or socially ostracized.
6. Patterns of decision-making in teams?
• Decision making, the process of making choices among alternative possible courses of action, is one of the most important processes that occur in groups and teams.
o Decision by lack of response: one idea after another is suggested without any discussion taking place.
o Decision by authority rule: the leader, manager, committee head, or other authority figure makes a decision for the team.
o Decision by minority rule: two or three people are able to dominate or “railroad” the team into making a decision that they prefer.
o Decision by majority rule: one of the most common things teams do, particularly when signs of disagreement emerge, is to take a vote and arrive at a decision by majority rule.
o Decision by consensus: teams often are encouraged to achieve decision by consensus. This is where full discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most members, and the other members agree to support it.
o Decision by unanimity: may be the ideal state of affairs. “Unanimity” means that all team members agree on the course of action to be taken.
1. What a function of leadership?
• Leadership is the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. • Leading as one of the four functions of management process– to inspire effort: communicate the vision; build enthusiasm; motivate commitment, hard work.
2. What the bases of personal power are?
• Three important bases of personal power are expertise, information and networking, and referent power.
o Expert power is the capacity to influence others because of specialized knowledge. o Information and networking power is the ability to influence others through access to information and contacts with other people.
o Referent power is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you.
3. What legitimate power is?
• Legitimate power is the capacity to influence others by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office.
• Legitimate power is the ability to influence through authority. It is the right to exercise control by virtue of organizational position or status. In mobilizing legitimate power, a manager says, in effect: “I am the boss; therefore, you need to do what I ask.”
4. What referent power enables leaders to do?
• Referent power is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you.
• Referent power is the ability to achieve influence through identification. It is the capacity to influence others’ behavior because of their admiration and their desire for positive identification with you. Referent power derives from charisma or interpersonal attractiveness. When a manager uses referent power, the implied message is: “You should do what I want in order to maintain a positive, self-defined relationship with me.” It’s helpful to view referent power as something that can be developed and maintained through good interpersonal relationships that encourage others’ admiration and respect. It is a lot easier to get others to do what you want when they like you than when they don’t.
5. What cognitive ability indicates?
• Cognitive ability: Successful leaders have the intelligence to integrate and interpret information.
6. What an employee-centered leader does?
• Employee-centered: A leader high in concern for people—acts with warmth and supportiveness toward followers, maintains good social relations with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their needs, and shows trust in them.
7. The least preferred coworker scale is?
• The least-preferred co-worker scale, LPC, is used in Fiedler’s contingency model to measure leadership style.
• Leadership style in Fiedler’s model is measured using the least-preferred co-worker scale, known as the LPC scale, which can be found as the end-of-chapter self-assessment. It describes tendencies to behave either as a task-motivated leader (low LPC score) or relationship-motivated leader (high LPC score).
8. What is encompassed by the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model?
• Delegating—allowing the group to take responsibility for task decisions; a low-task, low-relationship style.
• Participating—emphasizing shared ideas and participative decisions on task directions; a low-task, high-relationship style.
• Selling—explaining task directions in a supportive and persuasive way; a high-task, high-relationship style.
• Telling—giving specific task directions and closely supervising work; a high-task, low-relationship style.
The First Picture The Second Picture Chapter 16
1. How Maslow’s lower and higher order needs differ?
• See T/F Chapter 16 - (1) and (2)
2. What the progress and deficit principles are?
• The deficit principle states that a satisfied need does not motivate behavior.
• The progression principle states that a need isn’t activated until the next lower-level need is satisfied.
• Maslow used two principles to describe how these needs affect human behavior. The deficit principle provides that a satisfied need no longer motivates behavior. People are expected to act in ways that satisfy deprived needs—that is, needs for which there is a “deficit.” The progression principle states that the need at one level does not become activated until the next-lower-level need in the hierarchy is already satisfied. People are expected to advance step by step up the hierarchy in their quest for need satisfaction.
3. What acquired needs theory is?
• David McClelland and his colleagues developed yet another approach to the study of human needs. They began by asking people to view pictures and write stories about what they saw. These stories were then content-analyzed for themes that display the strengths of three needs—achievement, power, and affiliation. According to McClelland, people acquire or develop these needs over time as a result of individual life experiences.
o Need for achievement is the desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks.
o Need for power is the desire to control other people, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for them.
o Need for affiliation is the desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other people.
4. What expectancy theory is?
• Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation asks the question: What determines people’s willingness to work hard at organizational-critical tasks? The answer is that motivation depends on the relationships between three expectancy factors.
o Expectancy—a person’s belief that working hard will result in achieving a desired level of task performance (this is sometimes called effort-performance expectancy).
o Instrumentality—a person’s belief that successful performance will be followed by rewards
and other work-related outcomes (this is sometimes called performance- outcome
o Valence—the value a person assigns to the possible rewards and other work-related outcomes.
• In expectancy theory, motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related to one another in a multiplicative fashion: M = E * I * V. In other words, motivation is determined by expectancy times instrumentality times valence.
5. What equity theory is?
• For many people, facts like these bring the words “equity” and “fairness” to mind. In fact, one of the best known motivation theories is the equity theory of motivation, brought to us through the work of J. Stacy Adams. It is based on the idea that we all want to be treated fairly in comparison to others. The theory suggests that being unfairly treated (whether we receive too little or too much when compared to someone else) makes people uncomfortable. When this happens, we’re motivated to eliminate the discomfort and restore a sense of perceived equity to the situation.
6. What punishment and reinforcement do, and how they do it?
• Positive reinforcement strengthens behavior by making a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence. Positive reinforcement strengthens or increases the frequency of desirable behavior. It does so by making a pleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. Example: A man- ager compliments an employee on his or her creativity in making a helpful comment during a staff meeting.
• Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior by making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence contingent on its occurrence. Negative reinforcement also strengthens or increases the frequency of desirable behavior, but it does so by making the avoidance of an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. Example: A manager who has been nagging a worker every day about tardiness stops nagging when the individual shows up on time for work.
• Punishment discourages behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. Punishment decreases the frequency of an undesirable behavior—or eliminates it entirely. It does so by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. Example: A manager issues a written reprimand to an employee whose careless work is creating quality problems.
• Extinction discourages behavior by making the removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its occurrence. Extinction also decreases the frequency of or eliminates an undesirable behavior, but does so by making the removal of a pleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence. Example: A manager observes that a disruptive employee is receiving social approval from co-workers who laugh at his jokes during staff meetings; the manager counsel co-workers to ignore the jokes and stop providing approval of this behavior.
7. The drivers of motivation in the job characteristics model?
• It focuses attention on the presence or absence of five core job characteristics: o Skill variety—the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities to carry out the work and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents.
o Task identity—the degree to which the job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. o Task significance—the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people elsewhere in the organization, or in the external environment.
o Autonomy—the degree to which the job gives the individual freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and in choosing procedures for carrying it out.
o Feed back from the job itself—the degree to which work activities required by the job result in the individual obtaining direct and clear information on his or her job performance.
1. What synergy is?
• The real benefit of teams is their capacity to accomplish goals and performance expectations far greater than what’s possible for individuals alone. This collective performance potential is called synergy, which is the creation of a whole that is greater than the sum of its individual parts. • Synergy is the creation of a whole greater than the sum of its individual parts.
2. What social loading is?
• Anyone who’s had any extensive experience working in teams has encountered social loafing. This is the presence of “free-riders” who slack off because responsibility for various tasks is diffused in teams and others are present to do the work, picking up the slack.
• Social loafing is the tendency of some members to avoid responsibility by “free-riding” during group tasks.
3. How cross-functional teams improve organizational performance?
• See T/F Chapter 17 - (3)
4. About different kinds of teams?
• See T/F Chapter 17 - (2) and (3)
5. About various characteristics of teams?
• See the Second Picture
6. The stages of team development?
• See T/F Chapter 17 - (4)
7. What team norms are?
• A norm is a behavioral expectation of team members. It is a “rule” or “standard” that guides behavior. Typical team norms relate to such things as helpfulness, participation, timeliness, work quality, creativity and innovation. A team’s performance norm is critical, as it defines the level of work effort and performance that members are expected to contribute. Work groups and teams with positive performance norms are more successful accomplishing task objectives than are teams with negative performance norms.
8. What kinds of activities team members engage in?
• Research on the social psychology of collectives such as groups and teams identifies two types of roles or activities that are essential if members are to work well together. Task activities contribute directly to the team’s performance purpose, while maintenance activities support the emotional life of the team as an ongoing social system.
• A task activity is an action taken by a team member that directly contributes to the team’s performance purpose.
• A maintenance activity is an action taken by a team member that supports the emotional life of the team.
• (Both team task and maintenance activities stand in distinct contrast to the disruptive activities. Activities such as showing incivility toward other members, withdrawing from discussions, and fooling around are self-serving and detract from, rather than enhance, team effectiveness. Unfortunately, very few teams are immune to dysfunctional behavior. Every team member shares in the responsibility for minimizing its occurrence.)
• (Disruptive activities are self-serving behaviors that interfere with team effectiveness.)