BIOL 1031 Lab Midterm Study Guide
BIOL 1031 Lab Midterm Study Guide BIOL 1037
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Date Created: 03/01/16
BIOL 1031 Lab One Study Guide Lab One: Protista Movement: ciliates tend to have fast, smooth motion ﬂagellates are often slower with an almost spiraling motion pseudopodia are slow and have an oozing, liquid movement Kingdom Protista — Protozoans Phylum Euglenozoa: euglenid ﬂagellates Trypanosomes : parasitic ﬂagellates; African Sleeping Disease Euglena: green; cigar-shaped; single ﬂagellum Phylum Gymnamoeba: amoebas; pseudopodia Amoeba: grayish; pseudopodia Phylum Ciliophora: ciliates Paramecium: green; foot print shaped; cilia Dileptus: long body Phylum Apicomplexa: spore-forming parasites Plasmodium: malaria parasite Phylum Foraminifera: marine; secrete calcareous shell (test) Foraminiferans: Phylum Radiolaria: marine; secrete siliceous tests Kingdom Protista — Algae Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae; largest phylum of algae Chlamydomonas: unicellular, motile, two anterior ﬂagella Gonium: motile, colonial Volvox: motile, colonial Hydrodictyon: non-motile, colonial Oedogonium: non-motile Ulva: multicellular Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae; marine seaweed and kelps Phylum Rodophyta: red algae; multicellular and marine Phylum Bacillariophyta: diatoms Kingdom Protista — Slime Mold Phylum Myxogastrida: plasmodial slime mold Zygotic Meiosis Life Cycle : zygote directly undergoes meiosis Gametic Meiosis : gametes formed directly by meiosis Sporic Meiosis (Alternation of Generation) Review Questions: 1. Name the kingdom that includes protozoans, algae, and slime molds. 2. One colonial form of green algae that you should see in lab is: 3. Sporangia, spores, plasmodium, and plasmodial growth are all terms associated with members of which phylum? 4. The red algae are grouped into the phylum: Lab Two: Non-Vascular and Seedless Vascular Plants Non-Vascular Plants Phylum Bryophyta: true mosses sporic meiosis: meiosis—>mitosis—>fertilization—>mitosis—>back to meiosis heterospory: produces two types of spores Phylum Hepatophyta: liverworts gemma cups —> antheridiophores = males archegoniophores = females Phylum Anthocerophyta: hornworts simplest gametophytes anthoceros Seedless Vascular Plants have vascular tissue xylem: for water and minerals; ﬂow is from roots to the rest of the plant (only up) phloem: for carbohydrates and other nutrients; ﬂows up or down Phylum Lycophyta: club mosses Lycopodium —> Phylum Psilophyta: whisk ferns most “primitive” vascular plants — no true leaves Psilotum —> Phylum Arthrophyta: horsetails distinct nodes Phylum Pterophyta: ferns largest group of seedless vascular plants Review Questions: 1. Land plants exhibit the sexual lifecycle of: 2. Hollow, ribbed stems with distinct nodes and internodes are characteristic of members of which phylum? 3. In both mosses and liver worts, after germinating, a haploid meiospore forms a multicellular ﬁlament called a/an: 4. The maidenhair tree is a deciduous and dioecious plant that is the only living member of the phylum: 5. In pines, the pollen grain is the: 6. In pines, the female gametophyte develops in the: Lab Three: The Evolution of Seed Plants Homospory: sporophytes produce only one form of spore elaters: aid in dispersal of spores Equisetum (Phylum Arthrophyta) Heterospory: production of two different spores microphylls: small and simple leaves terminal strobilus: cluster of sporophylls megaspores: female gametophyte microspores: male gametophyte Selaginella (Phylum Lycophyta) Seeds seed coat plays a role in length of dormancy seeds remain dormant before germination occurs Gymnosperms: naked seed plants absence of swimming sperm in seed & ﬂowering plants is derived for terrestrial adaption Phylum Cycadophyta dioecious: separate male and female sporophytes pollen cones Zamia Cycas Phylum Ginkgophyta deciduous: sheds leaves easily dioecious: separate male and female sporophytes Ginkgo biloba —> Phylum Gnetophyta ephedra: medicine used for migraine (excedrine) —> dry looking plant, very small group Phylum Coniferophyta: cone bearing plants cones = strobili micropyle: opening for sperm to reach the egg separate male and female branches (male cones much smaller) Pinus —> Review Questions: 1. In Selaginella, the embryo develops within the: 2. Name a structure on a liverwort. Lab Four: Angiosperms Angiosperms: seed in a vessel at time of pollination, ovule is enclosed in sporophyte tissue (ovary) ovary later develops into fruit that encloses the seed accessory structures: other structures that may also contribute to the fruit ﬂowers and fruits are unique to angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta: ﬂowering plants eudicots (dicots): two cotyledons, ﬂowers in multiples of four or ﬁve, leaves with netlike venation of vascular tissue monocots: one cotyledon (seed leaf), ﬂowers in multiples of three, leaves with parallel venation of vascular tissue Flowers ﬂower parts attached to receptacle in four whorls; from outside in: calyx=sepals gynoecium=carpels corolla=petals androecium=stamens complete: calyx + corolla + androecium + gynoecium incomplete: one or more whorls absent perfect: has both androecium and gynoecium imperfect: missing either androecium or gynoecium loss of whorls is a derived characteristic separate ﬂoral parts is the ancestral condition; fused parts is a derived characteristic connation: fusing within a whorl adnation: fusing between whorls actinomorphic (symmetry): ancestral form is ‘regular’ or radial symmetry zygomorphic: derived form is ‘irregular’ or bilaterally symmetry Fruits typically formed from ovary wall (pericarp); may be divided into exocarp (outer wall), mesocarp, endocarp (inner wall, next to seed) simple: derived from one pistol aggregate: from separate carpels on one ﬂower multiple: from multiple ﬂowers in a cluster non-accessory: fruit develops from ovary wall accessory: fruit develops from accessory tissue ﬂeshy: pericarp is soft and juicy dry: pericarp is dry, woody, or papery dehiscent: splits open at maturity indehiscent: doesn't split Angiosperm Life Cycle alternation of generation (sporic meiosis) embryo sac: mature female gametophyte double fertilization: one sperm fertilizes egg to make zygote; other fertilizes polar bodies to make 3N endosperm (used for food) Review Questions: 1. Flowering plants are all in the phylum: 2. In pollen development in ﬂowering plants, a haploid microspore produced via meiosis: 3. In a typical haploid plant, the endosperm is: 4. For ﬂowering plants, the primary role of fruits is to: Lab Five: Seed Development Seedling Development apical meristems: growing tips nodes: sites where leaves and axillary buds or branches are attached cotyledons: seed leaves that have withered and become yellowed primary leaves: leaves consist of petiole (stalk-like) part attached to a ﬂattened lamina or blade & are referred to as simple leaves because each has one blade per petiole compound leaves: leaves after ﬁrst node axillary bud: present above point of leaf attachment at each node Review Questions: 1. The growing tips of stems and roots are called: 2. The “seed leaves” that are leaves that are part of a dormant embryo in a seed are called: 3. The primary water conducting tissue that you would see in a stem cross-section is called: Lab Six: Plant Form and Function gibberellins: plant hormones known to control a variety of plant processes etiolation: describes the plants that have been growing in the dark phototropism: stems have the tendency to grow towards the light Review Questions: 1. _____ refers to conditions such as longer stem length for plants that have been growing in the dark. Lab Seven: Fungi (and Lichens) Kingdom Fungi cell walls made of chitin, multi- or uni- cellular, store food as glycogen heterotrophic: cannot make their own food secrete digestive enzymes (external digestion), important decomposers if multicellular: hyphae: long, slender cellular ﬁlament mycelium: mass of hyphae Phylum Chytridiomycota, Phylum Zygomycota, Phylum Glomeromycota Phylum Ascomycota: sac fungi Phylum Basidiomycota: club fungi Imperfect Fungi: asexual reproduction only Reproduction of Kingdom Fungi reproduction by spores, both sexual and asexual asexual spores=conidia, formed on conidiophores asexual (imperfect stage): spores formed by mitosis sexual (perfect stage): gametes are produced in gametangia, zygotic meiosis plasmogamy: cells fuse their plasma membrane —> results in dikaryotic cells if nuclei do not fuse karyogamy: nuclei fuse, making a true diploid (2N) Phylum Ascomycota: sac fungi deﬁned by ascus (sac-like sporangium) karyogamy occurs to form zygote, meiosis forms ascospores in a sac, sac breaks open to release spores Peziza Phylum Basidiomycota: club fungi includes mushrooms, toadstools, shelf fungi, stinkhorns, and puffballs basidium: club-like sporangium —> Lichens: symbiotic relationship between two different organisms between heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and an autotrophic algae or bacterium (photobiont) usually mutualistic (both beneﬁt) - fungi offer shelter and photobiont produces food crustose: crust like foliose: leave like fruticose: shrub like Review Questions: 1. The sexual life cycle for all fungi known to have sexual reproduction is: 2. The sac fungi are characterized by having the products of meiosis formed in a sac-like structure called the:
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