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BIOL 1031 Lab Midterm Study Guide

by: Hannah B.

BIOL 1031 Lab Midterm Study Guide BIOL 1037

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1037 > BIOL 1031 Lab Midterm Study Guide
Hannah B.
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Study guide for Auburn University's Organismal Biology lab midterm. Photo is of Honors Organismal Biology Professor Zanzot.
Honors Organismal Biology
Study Guide
Auburn University, BIOL 1030, biol 1037, Biol 1031, Organismal Biology, zanzot, Folkerts, Bowling, auburn
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah B. on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1037 at Auburn University taught by Zanzot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Honors Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
BIOL 1031 Lab One Study Guide Lab One: Protista Movement: ciliates tend to have fast, smooth motion flagellates are often slower with an almost spiraling motion pseudopodia are slow and have an oozing, liquid movement Kingdom Protista — Protozoans Phylum Euglenozoa: euglenid flagellates Trypanosomes : parasitic flagellates; African Sleeping Disease Euglena: green; cigar-shaped; single flagellum Phylum Gymnamoeba: amoebas; pseudopodia Amoeba: grayish; pseudopodia Phylum Ciliophora: ciliates Paramecium: green; foot print shaped; cilia Dileptus: long body Phylum Apicomplexa: spore-forming parasites Plasmodium: malaria parasite Phylum Foraminifera: marine; secrete calcareous shell (test) Foraminiferans: Phylum Radiolaria: marine; secrete siliceous tests Kingdom Protista — Algae Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae; largest phylum of algae Chlamydomonas: unicellular, motile, two anterior flagella Gonium: motile, colonial Volvox: motile, colonial Hydrodictyon: non-motile, colonial Oedogonium: non-motile Ulva: multicellular Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae; marine seaweed and kelps Phylum Rodophyta: red algae; multicellular and marine Phylum Bacillariophyta: diatoms Kingdom Protista — Slime Mold Phylum Myxogastrida: plasmodial slime mold Zygotic Meiosis Life Cycle : zygote directly undergoes meiosis Gametic Meiosis : gametes formed directly by meiosis Sporic Meiosis (Alternation of Generation) Review Questions: 1. Name the kingdom that includes protozoans, algae, and slime molds. 2. One colonial form of green algae that you should see in lab is: 3. Sporangia, spores, plasmodium, and plasmodial growth are all terms associated with members of which phylum? 4. The red algae are grouped into the phylum: Lab Two: Non-Vascular and Seedless Vascular Plants Non-Vascular Plants Phylum Bryophyta: true mosses sporic meiosis: meiosis—>mitosis—>fertilization—>mitosis—>back to meiosis heterospory: produces two types of spores Phylum Hepatophyta: liverworts gemma cups —> antheridiophores = males archegoniophores = females Phylum Anthocerophyta: hornworts simplest gametophytes anthoceros Seedless Vascular Plants have vascular tissue xylem: for water and minerals; flow is from roots to the rest of the plant (only up) phloem: for carbohydrates and other nutrients; flows up or down Phylum Lycophyta: club mosses Lycopodium —> Phylum Psilophyta: whisk ferns most “primitive” vascular plants — no true leaves Psilotum —> Phylum Arthrophyta: horsetails distinct nodes Phylum Pterophyta: ferns largest group of seedless vascular plants Review Questions: 1. Land plants exhibit the sexual lifecycle of: 2. Hollow, ribbed stems with distinct nodes and internodes are characteristic of members of which phylum? 3. In both mosses and liver worts, after germinating, a haploid meiospore forms a multicellular filament called a/an: 4. The maidenhair tree is a deciduous and dioecious plant that is the only living member of the phylum: 5. In pines, the pollen grain is the: 6. In pines, the female gametophyte develops in the: Lab Three: The Evolution of Seed Plants Homospory: sporophytes produce only one form of spore elaters: aid in dispersal of spores Equisetum (Phylum Arthrophyta) Heterospory: production of two different spores microphylls: small and simple leaves terminal strobilus: cluster of sporophylls megaspores: female gametophyte microspores: male gametophyte Selaginella (Phylum Lycophyta) Seeds seed coat plays a role in length of dormancy seeds remain dormant before germination occurs Gymnosperms: naked seed plants absence of swimming sperm in seed & flowering plants is derived for terrestrial adaption Phylum Cycadophyta dioecious: separate male and female sporophytes pollen cones Zamia Cycas Phylum Ginkgophyta deciduous: sheds leaves easily dioecious: separate male and female sporophytes Ginkgo biloba —> Phylum Gnetophyta ephedra: medicine used for migraine (excedrine) —> dry looking plant, very small group Phylum Coniferophyta: cone bearing plants cones = strobili micropyle: opening for sperm to reach the egg separate male and female branches (male cones much smaller) Pinus —> Review Questions: 1. In Selaginella, the embryo develops within the: 2. Name a structure on a liverwort. Lab Four: Angiosperms Angiosperms: seed in a vessel at time of pollination, ovule is enclosed in sporophyte tissue (ovary) ovary later develops into fruit that encloses the seed accessory structures: other structures that may also contribute to the fruit flowers and fruits are unique to angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta: flowering plants eudicots (dicots): two cotyledons, flowers in multiples of four or five, leaves with netlike venation of vascular tissue monocots: one cotyledon (seed leaf), flowers in multiples of three, leaves with parallel venation of vascular tissue Flowers flower parts attached to receptacle in four whorls; from outside in: calyx=sepals gynoecium=carpels corolla=petals androecium=stamens complete: calyx + corolla + androecium + gynoecium incomplete: one or more whorls absent perfect: has both androecium and gynoecium imperfect: missing either androecium or gynoecium loss of whorls is a derived characteristic separate floral parts is the ancestral condition; fused parts is a derived characteristic connation: fusing within a whorl adnation: fusing between whorls actinomorphic (symmetry): ancestral form is ‘regular’ or radial symmetry zygomorphic: derived form is ‘irregular’ or bilaterally symmetry Fruits typically formed from ovary wall (pericarp); may be divided into exocarp (outer wall), mesocarp, endocarp (inner wall, next to seed) simple: derived from one pistol aggregate: from separate carpels on one flower multiple: from multiple flowers in a cluster non-accessory: fruit develops from ovary wall accessory: fruit develops from accessory tissue fleshy: pericarp is soft and juicy dry: pericarp is dry, woody, or papery dehiscent: splits open at maturity indehiscent: doesn't split Angiosperm Life Cycle alternation of generation (sporic meiosis) embryo sac: mature female gametophyte double fertilization: one sperm fertilizes egg to make zygote; other fertilizes polar bodies to make 3N endosperm (used for food) Review Questions: 1. Flowering plants are all in the phylum: 2. In pollen development in flowering plants, a haploid microspore produced via meiosis: 3. In a typical haploid plant, the endosperm is: 4. For flowering plants, the primary role of fruits is to: Lab Five: Seed Development Seedling Development apical meristems: growing tips nodes: sites where leaves and axillary buds or branches are attached cotyledons: seed leaves that have withered and become yellowed primary leaves: leaves consist of petiole (stalk-like) part attached to a flattened lamina or blade & are referred to as simple leaves because each has one blade per petiole compound leaves: leaves after first node axillary bud: present above point of leaf attachment at each node Review Questions: 1. The growing tips of stems and roots are called: 2. The “seed leaves” that are leaves that are part of a dormant embryo in a seed are called: 3. The primary water conducting tissue that you would see in a stem cross-section is called: Lab Six: Plant Form and Function gibberellins: plant hormones known to control a variety of plant processes etiolation: describes the plants that have been growing in the dark phototropism: stems have the tendency to grow towards the light Review Questions: 1. _____ refers to conditions such as longer stem length for plants that have been growing in the dark. Lab Seven: Fungi (and Lichens) Kingdom Fungi cell walls made of chitin, multi- or uni- cellular, store food as glycogen heterotrophic: cannot make their own food secrete digestive enzymes (external digestion), important decomposers if multicellular: hyphae: long, slender cellular filament mycelium: mass of hyphae Phylum Chytridiomycota, Phylum Zygomycota, Phylum Glomeromycota Phylum Ascomycota: sac fungi Phylum Basidiomycota: club fungi Imperfect Fungi: asexual reproduction only Reproduction of Kingdom Fungi reproduction by spores, both sexual and asexual asexual spores=conidia, formed on conidiophores asexual (imperfect stage): spores formed by mitosis sexual (perfect stage): gametes are produced in gametangia, zygotic meiosis plasmogamy: cells fuse their plasma membrane —> results in dikaryotic cells if nuclei do not fuse karyogamy: nuclei fuse, making a true diploid (2N) Phylum Ascomycota: sac fungi defined by ascus (sac-like sporangium) karyogamy occurs to form zygote, meiosis forms ascospores in a sac, sac breaks open to release spores Peziza Phylum Basidiomycota: club fungi includes mushrooms, toadstools, shelf fungi, stinkhorns, and puffballs basidium: club-like sporangium —> Lichens: symbiotic relationship between two different organisms between heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and an autotrophic algae or bacterium (photobiont) usually mutualistic (both benefit) - fungi offer shelter and photobiont produces food crustose: crust like foliose: leave like fruticose: shrub like Review Questions: 1. The sexual life cycle for all fungi known to have sexual reproduction is: 2. The sac fungi are characterized by having the products of meiosis formed in a sac-like structure called the:


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