Exam 2 BIOL 190
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noelle Murillo on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by Stella Evans in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology Health Profession in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Unit 2 Exam BIOL 190 Organic Compound & Functional Groups • Carbon based molecule (carbon b/c able to bond w/ 4 atoms to complete valence shell) • Hydrocarbons – compounds made of C and H molecules • inorganic compounds do NOT have hydrocarbons • Functional Groups – configuration of atoms attached to carbon skeleton of organic compounds • Participate in chemical reaction (where bonds determined) • Polar b/c O-N electron pull → Hydrophilic (water soluble) • Methyl Group – chemical group w/ different characteristics • Not reactive • Nonpolar → hydrophobic (water insoluble) • Water solubility important to determine shape then function Function Groups (see figure and table 3.2) Functional Group Identity Examples Location/Function Hydroxyl -OH Alcohol Carbohydrates Carbonyl =C=O Aldehyde, Ketone Carbohydrates Carboxyl -COOH Carboxylic acid, Ionized Protein Amino -NH 2 Amine, Ionized Protein Phosphate PO 32- Organic phosphate Energy transfer Methyl -CH3 Methylated compound DNA (testosterone or estrogen) + Ionized – charged group from giving/receiving H Biomolecules • Biomolecules: nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids • All macromolecules (made from monomers) EXCEPT lipids • How polymers are made/broken Dehydration Reaction Hydrolysis Polymers MADE Polymers BROKEN Releases 2 O from unlinked monomers (OH Adds H2O to bonded polymer (Both H → H2O) monomers: OH + H) Release water = bonded monomers Add water = separated monomers Protein Monomer Hydrogen • Monomer: amino acids – 20 types • Structure for ALL amino acids Carboxyl Amino gr. Alpha gr. (NH2) Carbon (COOH) Similarities Differences Amino group R group – varied chemical groups w/ 1+ carbon atoms (composition determines structure determines function); varied water solubilityR group and polarity Carboxyl group Alpha Carbon Hydrogen atom Protein Dehydration Reaction and Hydrolysis • Protein linked by enzymes • Carboxyl gr. (-COOH) + (-2H ) Amino gr. • Peptide bond between C-N Protein 4 Levels of Structure Level Appearance How Level Bonds Involved Disruptions Determined Primary Linear string of Inherited genetic Covalent Enzymes at amino acids info hydrolysis Secondary Coil = α helix Fold = Primary level’s Hydrogen (between Denaturation β pleated sheets amino acid O-H) sequence Tertiary 3D model of Interactions Ionic (of charged R Denaturation Globular (most) or between R groups gr.) Fibrous (structural) Hydrogen (between polar side chains) Disulfide bridges (reinforce covalent bonds) Quaternary 2+ polypeptide Ionic Denaturation chains intertwined Hydrogen Protein 4 Levels of Structure • Overall structure/shape determined by • Primary Structure (linear sequence of amino acid – sequence determined by nucleotide sequence in DNA) • Overall structure of most proteins that determine function • Tertiary Structure – 3D shape of globular or fibrous • R group interaction maintain structure by: • Clustering hydrophobic groups • Hydrogen bonding between polar side chains • Ionic bonding of charge R groups Protein Denaturation • Disruption by polypeptide chains unraveling “mis-folding” → lose specific shape and function • Cause: changes in pH, salt concentration, or high temp • Disruption to Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary Structure b/c weak bonds involved (ionic, H-bond, disulfide bridges) • Reversible – to certain extent that is NOT EXTREME for permanent change Protein 8 Functional Categories Protein Function Examples Enzyme Chemical catalyst the speeds and regulates chemical reaction in body DNA polymerase, DNA ligase Structural Found in hair and fibers of connective tissue Collagen, Keratin Contractile Packed in muscle cells and aid in contraction Myosin, Actin Defensive Aids immune system Antibodies Signal Hormones and chemical messengers that coordinate body activities Insulin, Growth hormone through cell communication Receptor At cell surface and transmit signal into cell Insulin receptor Transport Move cell organelles and act as cell door by letting molecules in/out of Hemoglobin, Uniporter Storage Storage of amino acid for developing embryo Ovalbumin Carbohydrate Monomer • Monomer/Single-unit Sugar: monosaccharides • Structure (5-6 carbon skeleton ring called pentose or hexose) Monosaccharides Monomer; single-unit sugar Glucose and/or Fructose (6 12O6) Isomers; carb is 2+ CH2O Carbonyl Gr. Hydroxyl Gr. Hydrophilic property Carbohydrate Dehydration Reaction & Hydrolysis • Dehydration Reaction → 2 monosaccharides linked = disaccharides • Hydroxyl gr. (-OH) + (-OH) Hydroxyl gr. • Glucose-glucose | glucose-fructose | fructose-fructose • Notice partial take from carbonyl gr. (H only) • Oxygen linking covalent bond • Glucose1-O-Glucose2 Carbohydrate Polymer • Polymer: polysaccharides • 2 Functional Categories: storage and structural Storage Structural Molecules Molecules Starch Glycogen Cellulose Chitin Glucose and Glucose Glucose Glucose Coil = helix ONLY high arrange, H-bondn (IIgen (un/branched) branched micro-fibils) Carbohydrate Functions • Monosaccharides – raw material to make other organic molecules • Glucose – immediate energy storage to injured tissue • Hydroxyl gr. – give hydrophilic property • Unused – incorporated to di/polysaccharides • Polysaccharides – storage and structure • Storage – short term energy storage as granules • material plant storage; granules from plants w/draw glucose for energy and building • when glucose neededtorage; granules in liver and muscle cells then hydrolyzed; released Carbohydrate Functions Cont. • Polysaccharides – storage and structure • Structure • Cellulose – component of plant cell walls • Humans receive cellulose through food source and bacteria receive through digestive tracts or decomposing fungi • Chitin – build exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans; found in fungi cell walls • Humans use as surgical thread Lipids Types • Not macromolecule = no monomers • Instead have types: fats, phospholipids, steroids Fats Phospholipids Steroids Glycerol 3 Fatty Acids Glycerol 2 Fatty Acids Phosphate 4 Fused Group Carbon Rings 3 carbon w/ hydroxyl gr.6-8 hycarboxyl gr.ain w/ Attachedcarbonycerol’s 3 Unsaturated Saturated Has -1 H on double bond of carbon Lipids Dehydration Reaction and Hydrolysis • Fatty acid Carboxyl gr. (-COOH) + (-OH) Glycerol Hydroxyl gr. • Notice partial take from glycerol hydroxyl gr. (ONLY H) • Nonpolar (many methyl gr.) and hydrophobic → covalent bond fatty acid C-O glycerol Lipids Functions • Fats- long term energy storage → tissue cushion and organ insulation • Fatty acid – hydrocarbon chain gives hydrophilic property • room temped – double bond/kink prevents tight packing which prevents solidifying at • Hydrogenated vegetable oil – unsaturated converted to saturated fat by adding hydrogen – creates trans fat • Phospholipids – contain bilayer of hydrophilic molecules (outer layer touching surrounding water) and hydrophobic molecules (inner layer) to form cell membrane border • Steroids - • Ex: cholesterol – component in animal cell membranes and allow fluidity; used as starting material to make other steroids (ex: sex hormones) Structure/Function Relationship • Shape determines function • Disrupted shape = disrupted function • Protein • Shape changed by enzymes at hydrolysis or denaturation • Mutation from DNA → amino acid sequence altered → protein structure developmental issues → functional issues • Disease causing (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, prions) • Carbohydrate and Lipids • Mutation from DNA → enzyme production issues → dehydration reaction and hydrolysis disrupted = shape and function improper Biomolecules in Cell and How Acquired Class Structural/Function Monomers Location in Cell Dietary Source al Categories Nucleic Acids DNA, RNA Nucleotides Nucleus ALL foods Protein 8 functional Amino acids Cytoplasm, Meats, nuts, beans, categories Chromosomes eggs Carbohydrates Storage and Monosaccharides Cytoplasm, cell Potatoes, corn, structure membrane grains Lipids Fats, phospholipids, “Fatty acids and Cytoplasm, cell Oil, butter steroids Glycerol” membrane
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