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Exam 1 Preparation

by: Louise Alessandra Laguit

Exam 1 Preparation 65915

Louise Alessandra Laguit
GPA 4.0

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Unit 5: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Fiber, Unit 6: Lipids - Focusing on Fats and Cholesterol, and Unit 7: Protein - Life's Building Blocks.
Nutrition, Food and You
Jennifer Ricketts
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Louise Alessandra Laguit on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 65915 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Nutrition, Food and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Monday, February 29, 2016 NSC 170C Exam 2 Preparation Unit 5: Carbohydrates - Fuel and Fiber 1. Explain the origin of dietary carbohydrates. Carbohydrates manifest as sugars, starches, and most kinds of fiber. Plants can also synthesize carbohydrates with energy from the sun; carbon oxygen, and hydrogen (carbo—) and water (—hydrate), making them rich sources of carbohydrates. 2. Categorize the different carbohydrates as either mono—, di—, or polysaccharides. glucose (monosaccharide; “blood sugar”; often utilized for energy; fruits and vegetables—especially grapes, berries, corn, and carrots—contain plenty of glucose) galactose (monosaccharide; not commonly found by itself; component of lactose) fructose (monosaccharide; “fruit sugar” or levulose; found naturally in fruit, honey, and a few vegetables—particularly cabbage, green beans, and asparagus; most gets converted to glucose by the body; its chemical structure results in a sweeter taste than other natural sugars) lactose (disaccharide; gluctose + galactose; “milk sugar”; milk and some products that contain milk—such as ice cream—contain lactose) maltose (disaccharide; galactose + galactose; “malt sugar”; found in few foods; can be broken down from certain, more complex carbohydrates; high- maltose syrup utilized as a flavoring ingredient in sweets by food manufacturers and to brew beer) sucrose (disaccharide; glucose + fructose; “table sugar”; found naturally in honey, male syrup, carrots, and pineapples; most sucrose is refined from sugar cane and sugar beets (refining process removes the small amounts of vitamins and minerals in sugar cane and beets); digested into glucose and fructose molecules) starch (polysaccharide; storage form of glucose in plants) 1 Monday, February 29, 2016 glycogen (polysaccharide; storage form of glucose in humans and other animals) dietary fiber (mostly polysaccharides comprised of monosaccharides—like glucose; indigestible; cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, and mucilages) 3. Identify carbohydrate storage both in plants and animals. Plants store carbohydrates (specifically, glucose) as starch. Humans and other animals store carbohydrates (specifically, glucose) as glycogen. Explain the dietary differences between whole and enriched grains. 4. Whole grains (the entire, ground, cracked or flaked seeds of cereal grains— such as wheat, buckwheat, oats, corn, rice, wild rice, rye and barley) contain more protein, fat, and fiber than enriched grains, and satisfy hunger better than enriched grains. Enriched grains contain added iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folic acid and do not satisfy hunger as well as whole grains. 5. Describe lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance results from insufficient quantities of lactase in the body. Consequently, the disaccharide lactose cannot be completely digested and absorbed by the time it enters the large intestine. Bacteria within the large intestine break down lactose and produce irritating gases and acids as metabolic by-products. Those with lactose intolerance often experience intestinal cramps, bloating, gas, and diarrhea after the consumption of milk or other lactose-containing foods. 6. Describe carbohydrate digestion, where chemical digestion begins, and where it is completed. Salivary amylase (an enzyme secreted by the salivary glands) breaks down some starch into maltose in the mouth. The chemical digestion through salivary amylase stops in the acidic environment of the stomach. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase (released by the pancreas) continues the breakdown of starches into maltose. The microvilli also release enzymes that digest maltose and other disaccharides. Maltase 2 Monday, February 29, 2016 (another enzyme) digests maltose into glucose. Lactase (an intestinal enzyme) breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are then absorbed by small intestine cells. Glucose, fructose, and galactose then get transported to the liver, where fructose and galactose get converted to glucose. In the large intestine, bacteria ferments some soluble fiber, resulting in the production of intestinal gases. Very little dietary carbohydrate ends up in feces. 7. Identify the two hormones that control blood glucose and describe their function and origin. Beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin, which helps lower blood glucose levels. Alpha cells in the pancreas produce glucagon, which helps raise blood glucose levels. 8. Explain the consequences of not getting enough carbohydrates in the diet. When a diet lacks carbohydrates, the body metabolizes fat for energy instead. However, the lack of glucose in the body prevents the body from metabolizing fat efficiently, resulting in the formation of excessive amounts of ketone bodies (chemicals that result from the incomplete metabolism of fat). These ketone bodies can be utilized as energy by muscle and brain cells. However, when ketone bodies accumulate in the blood, ketosis occurs and disrupts the body’s ability to maintain normal blood chemistry, leading to loss of consciousness or death. Amino acids can also be sacrificed to be converted to glucose. However, utilizing muscle proteins’ amino acids results in muscle wasting, weakness, and death. 9. Explain the difference between natural and added sugars. Mono— and polysaccharides that occur naturally in foods can be considered natural sugars. Added sugars include high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose (“table sugar”), which food manufacturers often add to sweetened “regular” soft drinks, candies, and baked goods. They also contain less protein and 3 Monday, February 29, 2016 micronutrients than natural sugars and do not contain phytochemicals, as some natural sugars can. 10. Identify the “aliases” of sugar on food labels. lactose: “milk sugar” maltose: “malt sugar” sucrose: “table sugar” fructose: “levulose” 11. Explain where most of the sugar in the diets of Americans comes from. Most sugar (specifically, sucrose) comes from sugar cane and sugar beets that go through a refining process. 12. Differentiate between the sugar substitutes. nutritive sweeteners: sugars and syrups (high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose, also known as “table sugar”); contribute energy to foods (4 kcal/g) alternative sweeteners: provide fewer calories/serving than sucrose or no calories; includes sugar alcohols (sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, and mannitol)— found in sugar-free chewing gums, breath mints, and “diabetic" candies because they do not promote dental decay, but not fully absorbed by the intestinal tract and provide an average of 2 kcal/g - nonnutritive (“artificial” sweeteners): manufactured alternative sweeteners; include saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, neotame, Monk fruit extract,a and stevia leaf extracts; extremely sweet and provide no energy/serving; may help people control their energy energy intake and manage their body weight without increasing their appetite, but may promote excess calorie consumption as they may interfere with someone’s ability to regulate his or her intake of sugary foods and beverages 13. Name the types of fiber and explain the benefits of each. soluble fiber: dissolves or swells in water; binds cholesterol and slows glucose absorption; can reduce blood cholesterol and glucose levels insoluble fiber: does not dissolve in water; increases stool “bulk” and eases bowel movements 4 Monday, February 29, 2016 14. Identify foods that are likely to be good sources of fiber. peas beans foods containing bran (cereals) fruits and vegetables (raspberries, blackberries, bananas, apples, strawberries, carrots, oranges, lettuce) barley and whole-grain foods 15. Compare and contrast type I and type II diabetes. type 1 diabetes: autoimmune disease (immune system cells do not recognize the pancreas’s beta cells, which produce insulin, and attack them); those with the condition must obtain insulin from injections or “insulin pumps”; genetic susceptibility and environmental factors (specifically exposure to certain viral intestinal infections) are thought to result in the condition type 2 diabetes: beta cells produce insulin, but those with the condition possess insulin-resistant cells; characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels; risk factors include physical inactivity, overweight or obesity, genetic relation to someone with type 2 diabetes, and Hispanic, Native American, African, or Pacific Islander ancestry 16. Define “gestational diabetes”, “hypoglycemia”, and “pre-diabetes”. gestational diabetes: diabetes developed during pregnancy; fetus receives too much glucose from its mother, resulting in rapid weight gain and an abnormally heavy birth weight hypoglycemia: occurs when blood glucose levels fall below 70 mg/dl, causing the body to secrete epinephrine (a hormone, also known as “adrenaline”), which increases glucose and fatty acid levels in the bloodstream, but also causes irritability, restlessness, shakiness, and profuse sweating pre-diabetes: A1c level = 5.7 to 6.4% 17. List the consequences of diabetes. excessive thirst frequent urination 5 Monday, February 29, 2016 blurry vision vaginal yeast infections (in adult women) foot and abdominal pain impotence (in adult males) sores that do not heal increased appetite, weight loss, “fruity” breath, fatigue, and confusion (in people with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes) 18. List and explain the risk factors of diabetes. type 1 diabetes: genetic susceptibility (autoimmune disease) and environmental factors—specifically, exposure to certain viral infections (the immune system becomes weakened and impaired) type 2 diabetes: physical inactivity (glucose levels remain high, as the body does not metabolize glucose as much), overweight or obesity (as overweight or obese people consume too much glucose, which the body then converts to fat), genetic relation to someone with type 1 diabetes; Hispanic, Native American, Asian, African, or Pacific Islander ancestry 19. Explain what is meant by “insulin resistance”. Insulin resistance occurs when the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin. Explain what dietary and lifestyle changes may help to prevent and treat diabetes. 20. prevention: loss excess weight and exercise regularly; consume less red meat and processed meats and more poultry, fish, fiber-rich whole grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables treatment: lose excess weight and exercise regularly; follow a special diet; take medications that stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin ——————————————————————————————————————— Unit 6: Lipids - Focusing on Fats and Cholesterol 1. Define and describe the different types of lipids. triglycerides: comprised of three fatty acids attached to glycerol (three-carbon compound) make up 95% of dietary lipids 6 Monday, February 29, 2016 - saturated fats: fatty acids with only single bonds holding each carbon in the carbon chain together (animal fats and coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils) - monounsaturated fats: fatty acids with one double bond within the carbon chain (avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils) - polyunsaturated fats: fatty acids with two or more double bonds within the carbon chain (safflower, grapeseed, sunflower, and soybean oils) - essential fatty acids: lipids that must be provided by the diet—such as alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid), like eicosapentaeonic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid), like arachidonic acid (AA) - trans fats: unsaturated fatty acids; possess an unusual chemical structure; result in decreased rancidity in processed foods; impact of partial hydrogenation, which converts an oil’s naturally occurring unsaturated fats into trans fats and saturated fats (whole milk, whole milk products, butter, meat, and processed foods) phospholipids: required to make cell membranes and for proper functioning of brain cells, as well as for emulsification (plant and animal foods, lecithin, egg yolks, liver, wheat germ, peanut butter, and soybeans) cholesterol: sterol in animal foods synthesized by the body; a component of cell membranes and brain cells; utilized to synthesize vitamin D, estrogen and testosterone (steroid hormones), and bile salts (egg yolk, liver, meat, poultry, whole milk, cheese, and ice cream) 2. List the three types of fatty acids. saturated fats: fatty acids with only single bonds holding each carbon in the carbon chain together monounsaturated fats: fatty acids with one double bond within the carbon chain polyunsaturated fats: fatty acids with two or more double bonds within the carbon chain 7 Monday, February 29, 2016 3. Describe lipid digestion, including where chemical digestion occurs. In the small intestine, the gallbladder secretes bile synthesized in the liver to emulsify fat (with its bile salts). The pancreas also secretes pancreatic lipase, which removes two fatty acids from each triglyceride molecule (consequently, converting most fat into monoglycerides and “free” fatty acids). Then, bile salts surround the fatty acids and monoglycerides, constituting micelles (water-soluble particles). Micelles then transport lipids to the edge of absorptive cells. The absorptive cells go on to remove the monoglycerides and fatty acids from the micelles and reassemble them into triglycerides. Afterwards, they synthesize chylomicrons (lipoproteins comprised of triglycerides and cholesterol, coated in protein and phospholipids), which enters the lacteal and, eventually, the bloodstream. 4. List the functions of fat in the body and in food. energy maintenance of cell membranes hormones insulation blood pressure and inflammation protection absorption of vitamins and phytochemicals 5. List food sources of the essential fatty acids. Seafood (especially fatty-cold water fish), vegetable oils, liquid margarines, soft (“tub”) margarines, walnuts, and other nuts provide high amounts of essential fatty acids. 6. Calculate fat and saturated fat needs based on total caloric intake. If total caloric intake = 2000 calories, a person should consume 400 to 700 calories of fat (44.4 to 77.8 grams of fat) and less than 200 calories of saturated fat (22.2 grams of saturated fat) daily. 8 Monday, February 29, 2016 7. Compare and contrast the typical American diet with the Mediterranean diet. The American diet contains about 33% of calories from fat, which much of the fat consumed being saturated. Some of the food that contributes to the saturated fat in the American diet include luncheon meats, sausage, hot dogs, and “full-fat” dairy products (hard cheeses and whole milk). The Mediterranean diet can be considered a “heart-healthy” diet, as it emphasizes seafood, olive oil, whole grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables. 8. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of trans fats. advantages: foods with trans fats can be stored for longer periods of time (less likely to become rancid) disadvantages: higher risk of cardiovascular disease 9. Describe the trans fat labeling requirement. If a product contains “0 g” trans fat, it may still contain less than 0.5 g of trans fat. Explain how fat substitutes and fat-free products differ from their “regular” 10. counterparts. “Lite” spreads contain more water and can alter taste, texture, and appearance of food. Reduced-fat spreads may vary in their suitability for use in recipes. 11. Define “heart disease” and “athersclerosis”. heart disease: a common form of cardiovascular disease; among the top four leading causes of death in the United States atherosclerosis: a long-term process that negatively affects the functioning of blood vessels (especially arteries) 12. List risk factors for heart disease. unhealthy blood cholesterol levels (high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol) hypertension smoking (damages and hardens blood vessels, contributes to hypertension, and raises oxidized LDL cholesterol levels) 9 Monday, February 29, 2016 insulin resistance (causes an increase in blood glucose levels) diabetes (results from insulin resistance) excess body fat (contributes to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension) physical inactivity (contributes to excess body fat, hypertension, high LDL cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes) poor diet (high amounts of trans fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sugar, alcohol and salt; may lead to raised LDL cholesterol levels, lower HDL cholesterol levels, increased insulin resistance, and raised blood pressure levels) increasing age (higher risk for men over 45 and women over 55) family history of heart disease genetics high blood levels of C-reactive protein (a sign of inflammation within the body) high levels of triglycerides (especially for women) sleep apnea (when untreated, may contribute to hypertension, heart attack, and stroke) emotional stress (especially anger) alcohol (can cause heart damage) 13. Explain the relationship between diet, hypertension, and heart disease. Less saturated fat and trans fat in a diet can lower someone’s risk of heart disease. Consuming more monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats than can also result in a decreased risk of heart disease. (Saturated fats increase levels of LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Monounsaturated fats decrease levels of LDL cholesterol. Trans fats increase levels of LDL cholesterol and decrease levels of HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats decrease levels of LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.) Excess fat can contribute to hypertension. 10 Monday, February 29, 2016 Similarly, hypertension can contribute to heart disease, as the abnormally high blood pressure levels of those with hypertension damages organs (especially, the heart, kidneys, brain and eyes) because circulation of blood requires more effort, as a result of their hardened arteries. 14. List the different lipoproteins and describe their origin and functions. very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs): carry most lipids in the bloodstream; synthesize after excessive alcohol and refined carbohydrate consumption low-density lipoproteins (LDLs): “bad” cholesterol; carry lipids to cells in the arterial walls that make plaques; can increase as a result of cigarette-smoking high-density lipoproteins (HDLs): carry more protein and less lipids than other lipoproteins; decrease when levels of blood triglycerides increase 15. List and describe dietary methods of improving your cholesterol profile. physical activity (increases HDL cholesterol levels and lowers LDL cholesterol levels) replace saturated fats and trans fats with monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats quit smoking and avoid exposure to tobacco smoke consume less salt, more fiber-rich foods, more antioxidant-containing foods, less sugar, and less alcohol achieve and maintain a healthy weight ——————————————————————————————————————— Unit 7: Proteins - Life’s Building Blocks 1. Define “protein” , “amino acid”, and “essential amino acids . protein: organic nutrient; chemically similar to a lipid and a carbohydrate (contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen), but contains nitrogen (the element utilized to synthesize many important biological compounds) amino acid: chemical unit that contains nitrogen; comprises proteins essential amino acid: amino acids that the body cannot make or cannot make enough to meet its needs; must be provided by foods 11 Monday, February 29, 2016 2. Know the number of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. There are 9 essential amino acids. There are 11 nonessential amino acids. 3. Explain the process of protein synthesis. DNA contains the information or code to synthesize proteins. A copy of the code messenger RNA (mRNA) also contains the information/code, as DNA cannot leave the nucleus of a cell. The mRNA exits the nucleus and brings the information/code to the cell’s protein-assembly site, where it can be translated. Another RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA) collects the designated amino acids to make a specific protein; 20 of these exist, for the 20 different amino acids. A chain of amino acids can be constructed this way, as the information/code in the mRNA dictates, until it completes a protein. 4. Describe protein digestion, including where chemical digestion occurs. In the stomach, HCl (hydrochloric acid) causes proteins to unfold. Then, pepsin (an enzyme) can more easily break apart the peptide bonds that connect the amino acids. Polypeptide chains get shorter and contain fewer amino acids as a result. These polypeptide chains enter the small intestine. The pancreas and absorptive cells release proteases (enzymes) that digest the polypeptide chains into amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides. Enzymes at the border of absorptive cells digest the dipeptides and tripeptides into amino acids. Then, amino acids enter the portal vein and get transported to the liver. Some amino acids remain in the liver and the rest gets released into general circulation. 5. Explain what is meant by “denaturation” and explain the consequences. Denaturation results in the alteration of a protein’s shape after exposure to heat, acids, or salt. While it does not alter the sequence of amino acids of a protein, it can alter its function, sometimes permanently. 12 Monday, February 29, 2016 6. List and describe the various functions of protein in the body. make, maintain, and repair cells (present in membranes and other cell structures) build structures (collagen, a structural protein, can be found in cartilage, ligaments, and bone tissue; keratin allows hair, skin, and nails to be water- resistant; contractile proteins allow for movement) enzyme, lubricant, and clotting compound production (enzymes, like sucrase, catalyze chemical reactions; mucin, a lubricant, can be found in mucus and saliva; fibrin synthesis when blood needs to clot) substance transportation (hemoglobin transports oxygen and carbon dioxide within red blood cells; retinol binding protein transports vitamin A in the blood stream) synthesizing antibodies (help prevent and fight infections) synthesizing hormones (insulin and glucagon) fluid balance and acid-base balance (albumin helps properly distribute fluids in blood and body tissues; proteins can act as buffers and help reduce the concentration of hydrogen ions in body fluids) energy source 7. Define “complete protein” and “complemented protein”. complete (high-quality) protein: provides all 9 essential amino acids (as well as some of the 11 nonessential amino acids); supports muscle and tissue health, as well as the growth of a young child complemented protein: incomplete (low-quality) proteins combined with animal proteins, soy, or other plant proteins rich in the limiting amino acids 8. Explain what is meant by a “high-quality protein”. A high-quality protein contains all essential amino acids in quantities necessary to support the health of muscles and other tissues, as well as the growth of a young child. 9. List food sources of protein. meat (poultry, pork, beef) 13 Monday, February 29, 2016 fish legumes tree nuts eggs some dairy (cheese, milk) 10. Explain the consequences of eating too little or too much protein. Eating too little protein (for children) can cause stunted growth, weakness, irritability, and vulnerability to dehydration and deadly infections (such as measles). Eating too much protein can lead to higher urinary losses of calcium and dehydration, as excess intake of amino acids or protein requires more water for the kindest to dilute and eliminate extra urea in urine. Some people that continually took dietary supplements that contained protein and creatine (a substance derived from amino acids) for prolonged periods of time developed liver and kidney damage. 11. List the types of vegetarian diets. semivegetarian (flexitarian): animal protein obtained from eggs, fish and dairy foods; general avoidance of meat lactovegetarian: animal protein obtained from milk and milk products (yogurt, cheese, ice cream) ovovegetarian: animal protein obtained from eggs lactoovovegetarian: animal protein obtained from milk, milk products, and eggs vegan: consumes only plant foods and no animal protein List reasons one may choose a vegetarian diet. 12. decreased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers provides more fiber, phytochemicals, folic acid (a B vitamin), vitamins E and C, potassium, and magnesium provides less saturated fat and cholesterol 14 Monday, February 29, 2016 13. List the benefits of a vegetarian diet. See the answer to Question No. 12. 14. List and describe the concerns of a vegetarian diet. A vegetarian diet can result in low quantities of vitamin B-12, vitamin D, riboflavin, zinc, iron, calcium, omega-3 fatty acids, certain essential amino acids, and energy. 15. Describe the benefits of soy in a vegetarian diet. Soy can provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids to vegans. They can also obtain vitamin B-12, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and other micronutrients from fortified soy goods. 15


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