Intro to Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Intro to Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Sensation and Perception: Chapter 5 Bottom‐Up Processing o Perception based on the physical features of the stimulus Top‐Down Processing o How knowledge, expectations, or past experiences shape the interpretation of sensory information Sensation o The detection of external stimuli and the transmission of this information to the brain Perception o The processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals Absolute Threshold o The minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation Just Noticeable Difference (also difference threshold) o The minimum amount of change required for a person to detect a difference between two stimuli Weber’s law o The change in a stimulus that will be just noticeable is a constant ratio of the original stimulus Sensory Adaptation o A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation Light o the natural agent that stimulates sight and makes things visible. Electromagnetic Energy o a form of energy that is reflected or emitted from objects in the form of electrical and magnetic waves that can travel through space Wavelength o The distance between one peak or crest of a wave and the next peak or crest Amplitude o refers to the length and width of waves, such as sound waves, as they move or vibrate Hue o Consists of the distinctive characteristics that place a particular color in the spectrum Brightness o The color’s perceived intensity Saturation o The purity of the color Eye o The organ of site Retina o The thin inner surface of the back of the eyeball; it contains the sensory receptors that transduce light into neural signals Cornea o The eye’s thick, transparent outer layer Lens o helps to refract light to be focused on the retina Accommodation o Behind the iris muscles change the shape of the lens; they flatten it to focus on distant objects and thicken it to focus on closer objects Fovea o The center of the retina, where cones are densely packed Optic nerve o each of the second pair of cranial nerves, transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye Blind Spot o the point of entry of the optic nerve on the retina, insensitive to light Rods o Retinal cells that respond to low levels of light and result in black- and-white perception Cones o Retinal cells that respond to higher levels of light and result in color perception Dark Adaptation o Gradual increase in sensitivity to light when in the dark Light Adaptation o Rapid decrease in sensitivity when enter into a lighted area Optic Chiasm o Half of the axons in the optic nerve cross; this arrangement causes all information from the left side of visual space to be projected to the right hemisphere of the brain, and vice versa Feature Detectors o The ability to detect certain types of stimuli, like movements, shape, and angles, requires these specialized cells in the brain Dorsal pathway o Upper stream that seems to be specialized for spatial perception – determining where an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene Ventral pathway o Lower stream that appears to be specialized for the perception and recognition of objects, such as determining their shapes and colors Agnosia o Inability to recognize objects Prosopagnosia o Inability to recognize faces Subtractive vs. Additive Color mixing o Mixing paints is subtractive—subtracts wavelengths from the reflected light o Mixing lights is additive—adds wavelengths to reflected light Young & Helmholtz o Come up with trichromatic theory of color vision Trichromatic Theory of color Vision o There are three receptors in the retina that are responsible for the perception of color. One receptor is sensitive to the color green, another to the color blue and a third to the color red Opponent Process Theory of Color vision o Our ability to perceive color is controlled by three receptor complexes with opposing actions. These three receptors complexes are the red-green complex, the blue-yellow complex and the black- white complex Afterimage o An impression of a vivid sensation (especially a visual image) retained after the stimulus has ceased. Perceptual Set o A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way Gestalt Principles o The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Figure and Ground o type of perceptual grouping which is a vital necessity for recognizing objects through vision Proximity o The closer 2 figures are to each other, the more likely we are to group them and see them as part of the same object Closure o We tend to complete figures that have gaps Similarity o We tend to group figures according to how closely they resemble each other, whether in shape, color, or orientation Simplicity o Try to find the simplest interpretation of all Continuity o We tend to group together edges or contours that have the same orientation Perceptual Constancy (Color constancy) o the tendency to perceive an object you are familiar with as having a constant shape, size, and brightness despite the stimuli changes that occur Visual Illusion o visually perceived images that differ from objective reality Muller‐Lyer Illusion o an optical illusion consisting of a stylized arrow. When viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the midpoint, they invariably place it more towards the "tail" end Auditory System o Sensory system for the sense of hearing Sound waves o Pattern of changes in air pressure during a period of time; it produces the percept of a sound Loudness o Wave Measured by amplitude Pitch o Wave Measured by frequency Timbre o the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity Inner Ear o the semicircular canals and cochlea, which form the organs of balance and hearing and are embedded in the temporal bone Middle Ear o the air-filled central cavity of the ear, behind the eardrum External Ear o the parts of the ear outside the eardrum, especially the pinna Cochlea o the spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations Basilar Membrane o a membrane in the cochlea that bears the organ of Corti Place Theory o theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane Frequency Theory o can only account for sounds up to 5,000 hertz Auditory localization o Sensory receptors cannot code where events occur so the brain integrates the different sensory information coming from each ear Gustatory System o uses a form of chemoreception that allows the human body to interpret chemical compounds in ingested substances as specific tastes Taste Buds o Sensory organs in the mouth that contain the receptors for taste Every Taste experience is composed of a mixture of 5 basic qualities o Sweet o Sour o Bitter o Salty o Umami (Japanese for “savory” or “yummy”) Olfactory System o Sensory system used o for the sense of smell Learning: Chapter 6 Learning o A relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience Pavlov o Studied salivary response in dogs Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian Conditioning) o A type of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response UCS- Unconditioned stimulus o any stimulus that can evoke a response without the organism going through any previous learning UCR- Unconditioned response o Automatic reaction to something CS – Conditioned stimulus o A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place CR- conditioned response o A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned Neutral Stimulus o Something that doesn’t elicit a response Conditioning Fear o Animals can be classically conditioned to fear neutral objects Drug Tolerance o It’s a process in which addicts need more and more of a drug to experience the same effects; research has shown that it is greatest when the drug is taken in the same physical location as previous drug use occurred in Acquisition o The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Extinction o A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous Recovery o A process in which a previously extinguished conditioned response reemerges after the presentation of the conditioned response Generalization o Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response Discrimination o A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus Higher‐Order Conditioning o refers to a situation in which a stimulus that was previously neutral is paired with a conditioned stimulus to produce the same conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus Operant Conditioning (also Instrumental conditioning) o A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future Thorndike o Alter the consequence of behavior to shape the behavior Law of Effect o Thorndike’s general theory of learning: Any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again Skinner o A behaviorist who developed the theory of operant conditioning Reinforcement o Consequence increases the likelihood the animal will produce the same response Puzzle Box o Used by Thorndike to shape behavior Operant Chamber (Skinner Box) o A device that consists of a small chamber or cage; inside one lever or response key is connected to food supply and the second is connected to water; usually a rat or pigeon is placed inside Acquisition/Shaping o Process to bring about desired operant response Extinction o disappearance of a previously learned behavior when the behavior is not reinforced Resistance to Extinction Generalization o the act or process of responding to a stimulus similar to but distinct from the conditioned stimulus Discrimination o the ability to perceive and respond to differences among stimuli Primary Reinforcer o Those that are immediately rewarding Secondary Reinforcer o Stimulus that acquires its reinforcing value Schedule of Reinforcement o A rule stating which instances of a behavior will be reinforced. In some case, a behavior might be reinforced every time it occurs. Sometimes, a behavior might not be reinforced at all Continuous Reinforcement o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs Partial Reinforcement o A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently Fixed‐Ratio Schedule o Occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain number of responses have been made Variable‐Ratio Schedule o Occurs when reinforcement is provided after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed‐Interval Schedule o Occurs when reinforcement is provided after a certain amount of time has passed Variable‐Interval Schedule o Occurs when reinforcement is provided after the passage of time, but the time is not regular Positive Reinforcement o The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being replaced Negative Reinforcement o The removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior’s being repeated Avoidance Learning o the process by which an individual learns a behavior or response to avoid a stressful or unpleasant situation Punishment o Decreases the likelihood of the response Making Punishment Effective o There is an alternative response available to replace those being punished o Paired with reinforcement to foster desired alternative behavior o Person understands the reason for the punishment o Punishment is implemented immediately after the undesirable behavior Tolman o Studied rats exploring mazes Latent Learning o Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement Cognitive Map o A visual/spatial mental representation of an environment Observational Learning o Learning which takes place by watching the actions of others Bandura o Man that studied children and their aggressive acts from watching others Bobo Doll o Children observed their parents be aggressive and they imitated those behaviors also and also some general aggression Mirror Neurons o Neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action Implicit Learning o The learning of complex information in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has been learned Cognitive Components of Conditioning o Means-End Relationship o Contrast Effects o Negative and Positive Contrasts o Overjustification effect Memory: Chapter 7 Storage o The retention of encoded representations over time Encoding o The processing of information so that it can be stored Retrieval o The act of recalling or remembering stored information when it is needed SensoryMemory o A memory system that very briefly stores sensory information in close to its original sensory form ShortTerm Memory o A memory storage system that briefly holds a limited amount of information in awareness WorkingMemory o An active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use LongTermMemory o The relatively permanent storage of information Attention o Turn attention to important stuff SelectiveAttention o People have a limited capacity for sensory information and they screen incoming information to let in only the most important material Maintenance Rehearsal o Repeating the item over and over Elaborative Encoding o Encodes the information in more meaningful ways, such as thinking an item conceptually or deciding whether it refers to oneself Chunking o Organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember Organization o Based on network associations which shows how similar concepts can be connected through their associations Imagery o Formation of any mental pictures Dual Coding Theory o Paivio used the idea that the formation of mental images aids in learning Paivio o Came up the idea behind the dual coding theory Levels of Processing o The more deeply an item is encoded, the more meaning it has and the better it is remembered Baddeley’sModelofWorkingMemory o the central executive which acts as supervisory system and controls the flow of information from and to its slave systems: the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad Phonological Loop o It represents a brief store of mainly verbal information together with a rehearsal mechanism Visuospatial Sketchpad o responsible for the manipulation and temporary storage of visual and spatial information ImplicitMemory o The system underlying unconscious memories ExplicitMemory o The system underlying conscious memories ProceduralMemory o A type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits Priming o The implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences response to a later stimulus SemanticMemory o Memory for knowledge about the world EpisodicMemory o Memory for one’s personal past experiences Loftus o Research on biased memories which are formed when provided with misleading information and the error is known as suggestibility EchoicMemory o Auditory sensory memory IconicMemory o Visual sensory memory Encoding Specificity o Match the cues of encoding and retrieval Suggestibility o The development of biased memories from misleading information Eyewitness Testimony o Tend to be unreliable because people tend to remember evidence that confirms their beliefs and can also just produce false recollections of what happened Bias o The changing of memories over time so that they become consistent with current beliefs or attitudes Persistence o The continual recurrence of unwanted memories FlashbulbMemory o Vivid episodic memories for the circumstances in which people first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event Context Dependent Memory o Kind of memory enhancement when the recall situation is similar to the encoding situation TransferAppropriateProcessing o The type of encoding used needs to be the same type used for retrieval Ex: rhymingwords to study; userhymesto retrievethat information Amnesia o A deficit in long term memory- resulting from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma – in which the individual loses the ability to retrieve vast quantities of information RetrogradeAmnesia o A condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information AnterogradeAmnesia o A condition in which people lose the ability to form new memories ProspectiveMemory o Memoryto do things in thefuture Time Based P.M. o Type of prospective memory based on the time of day Event Based P.M. o Type of prospective memory based on the event or person around Miller’s 7 + or – 2 o the number of objects an average human can hold in working memory is 7 ± 2 Long Term Potentiation o Strengthening of a synaptic connection, making the postsynaptic neurons more easily activated by presynaptic neurons Transience o Forgetting over time Absentmindedness o The inattentive or shallow encoding events ProactiveInterference o Interference that occurs when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information RetroactiveInterference o Interference that occurs when new information inhibits the ability to remember old information Blocking o The temporarily inability to remember something MemoryMisattribution o Assigning a memory to the wrong source FalseMemory o Feeling of familiarity about something that hasn’t been encountered before
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