Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 2420-001
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Trokel on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2420-001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by S. Nelson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health Performance in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Water H2O made of two hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom ● needs no digestion and is easily absorbed ● makes up to 50% to 75% of body weight ● major solvent ● very essential without water, death can occur within 1 to 2 weeks Functions of water in the body a solvent major component of blood , saliva, sweat, tears, music, joint fluid removes wastes helps transports substances lubricates tissues regulates body temperatures helps digests foods participates in many chemical reactions helps maintain proper blood pH Sources of Water Total of water intake: includes water in beverages and foods water weights of fruits and vegetables typically ranges from 60 to 95% Metabolic Water: Water formed by cells as a metabolic byproduct Diuretic ● Diuretics ○ substances that increase urine output ● Two common dietary diuretics ○ caffeine ○ alcohol ● Diuretics inhibit ADH, resulting in urinary water losses that are less than amount of fluid consumption Dehydration ● 1 to 2% fatigue and thirst ● 4% loss of muscular strength and endurance ● 7 to 10% severe weakness ● 20% death Can too much water be toxic? ● Water intoxication ○ too much water consumed at a time, or conditions in which kidneys have difficulty filtering water from blood ■ excess water dilutes sodium concentration of blood, disrupting water balance ○ Signs and symptoms: ■ Dizziness, headache, confusion, poor coordination, bizarre behavior, and seizures ■ Can be deadly What is BPA ● Although bottled water is safe to drink, the plastic used to contain it may have toxic effects on health ● Bisphenol A, which is also called BPA is a chemical used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins ● Scientists are studying BPA to determine the extent to which the chemical can affect human health Major and Trace Minerals ● Major minerals ○ are essential mineral elements required in amounts of 100 mg or more per day ■ calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulfur ● Trace Minerals ○ are essential mineral elements required in amounts that are less than 100 mg per day ■ Chromium, fluoride, copper, iodine, iron , manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc Why are minerals necessary? Diverse roles, including: structural components of tissues ions blood clotting fluid bal Sodium and Hypertension Hypertension condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure Hypertension increases risk of: heart disease Stroke Kidney failure Blood Pressure ● Systolic pressure maximum blood pressure within arteries when ventricles of the heart contract ● Diastolic pressure pressure when ventricles relax between contractions Major Risk Factors For Hypertension Not a single cause, but several factors increase risk family history advanced age african american ancestry obesity physical inactivity consuming excess sodium excess alcohol type 2 diabetes cigarette smoking Potassium ● Why is potassium necessary? ○ Major positively charged ion in intracellular fluid ○ Needed for nerve impulses, contracting muscles, and kidney function ○ potassiumrich diets may reduce blood pressure ● Diet adequacy: ○ Al:4700mg/d ■ most americans consume ~2700mg/d Magnesium ● Participates in >300 chemical reactions ● Roles in the body include ○ regulation of muscle and nerve function ○ Maintenance of strong bones ○ Strengthening the immune system ● Dietary adequacy ○ Adult RDA = 310 to 420 mg/d Magnesium Deficiency and Toxicity ● Deficiency ○ Rare among healthy americans ○ most likely in girls between 1418 of age ● Toxicity ○ Results from ingesting excessive laxatives, antacids, or dietary supplements. Iron (Fe) ● Why is Iron necessary? ○ Iron is a component of hemoglobin and myoglobin ■ Hemoglobin iron containing protein in RBC that transports oxygen to tissues and some CO2 away from tissues ■ Myoglobin iron containing protein in muscle cells that controls the oxygen uptake from RBC ● Iron is involved in energy generation and immune function Regulating Iron Digestive tract absorbs 515% of iron. only ~5%of iron from enriched grains is absorbed Most Iron is stored as ferritin in the liver Iron from broken down hemoglobin is “recycled” and incorporated into new hemoglobin Dietary Adequacy ● RDA ○ Women = 18 mg/d iron ■ most females from ages 19 to 50 years have low intakes ● men = 8 mg/d ○ average intake for american men is 17.5 mg/d Signs and Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia ● Pale skin ● fatigue and weakness ● irritability ● difficulty concentrating and thinking ● brittle nails ● headaches Zinc ● Why is zinc necessary? ○ a component of about 100 enzymes ○ needed for ■ wound healing ■ normal sense of taste and smell ■ DNA synthesis ■ immune function Zinc Deficiency ● Zinc deficiency often occurs in people with chronic digestive tract problems and exclusively breastfed infants ● Associated with delayed sexual maturation and growth retardation ● no maturing ● so many of our foods have a lot of zinc that is why zinc deficiency is so rare or uncommon Iodide ● Why is Iodide necessary? ○ Required for normal thyroid function and production thyroid hormone ○ Thyroid hormone controls metabolic rate ○ In the US some table salt is fortified with iodide to prevent deficiency Dietary Deficiency of Iodide ● Goiter: ○ Characterized by enlarged thyroid gland ○ Common before advent of iodized salt in areas where iodine content of soil was poor ● Cretinism: ○ Irreversible condition affecting infants born to women who were iodide deficient during pregnancy Fluoride ● Fluoride is not an essential nutrient ● Fluoride strengthens bones and teeth when ingested in small amounts ● Long term consumption of too much fluoride can cause fluorosis ○ white specks on teeth → teeth becoming brown or black ● putting fluoride in water decrease chances of cavities by 67% for children Selenium (Se) ● Why is Selenium Necessary? ○ Part of several proteins called selenoproteins ■ many selenoproteins are antioxidants ● antioxidants are keeping you safe from disease ○ May reduce risk of certain cancers ○ kehsan disease heart gets enlarged Osteoporosis Bone health two types of bone tissue cortical bone (compact bone ) very dense tissue making up 80% of the skeleton trabecular bone (spongy bone ) “scaffolding” on the inside of bones, supports cortical bone and makes up 20%of the skeleton helps us weigh less but prone to osteoporosis ● Bones develop through three processes: ○ bone growth increase in bone size; completed by age 14 in girls and age 17 in boys ○ bone modeling shaping of bone completed by early adulthood ○ bone remodeling reshaping of bone ● Bone remodeling involves: ○ Resorption surface of bones is broken down ■ osteoclasts cells that erode the surface of bones ○ Formation of new bone by cells called osteoblasts ■ Osteoblasts produce the collagen containing component of bone Osteoporosis ● Factors influencing the risk of osteoporosis include: ○ age ○ gender ○ genetics ○ nutrition ○ physical activity weight bearing exercise and toning ● There is no cure ● The progression of osteoporosis may be slowed by ○ adequate calcium and vitamin D intake ■ regular exercise ■ antiresorptive medications Peak bone mass occurs at approx. 30 years of age. Afterwards, bone loss starts to outpace bone deposition; at menopause there is a surge of calcium out of the bones the hump on the back of older people dowager's hump loss of calcium bone loss and most common type of bone fractures in women spinal vertebrae, hip, and wrist or forearm fractures Risk factors for developing Osteoporosis ● alcoholism ● advanced age ● female gender ● chronic steroid use ● Rheumatoid arthritis ● surgically removal of ovaries ● thinness or weight loss ● white race Cause of Osteoporosis ● Calcium and vitamin D ○ bone strength later in life ■ bone building during childhood and adolescence ● Gender and hormone ○ menopause for women ○ body weight ● physical activity ● tobacco smoke and alcohol ● protein ○ too little ○ too much ○ sources ● sodium, caffeine ● other nutrients Calcium Recommendations ● Recommendations vary: ○ set according to lifestyle ● Sources: ○ foods and beverages first ■ dietary calcium ■ sunshine for vitamin D ○ Supplements ■ types of supplements 1000 mg of calcium per day for 1950 years Diagnosis and Medical Treatment ● DEXA scan ● Drug therapies ● Estrogen replacement therapy Chapter 8 Vitamins Vitamins: Basic Concepts ● What is a vitamin? ○ A complex organic compound that: ■ Is not made by the body or made in amounts that are enough to maintain a good health ■ Occurs naturally in common foods ■ Causes a deficiency disorder when it is missing from the diet ■ Restores good health, if the deficiency disorder is treated early by supplying the missing substance Sources of Vitamins ● Natural Sources: ○ Plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria ● Synthetic: ○ Made in laboratories by chemists synthesized by microbes in laboratories ● Most natural and synthetic forms have equal activity in the body except: ○ Natural vitamin E: greater activity than synthetic ○ Synthetic folic acid: greater activity than natural Classifying Vitamins ● Fat soluble A, D,E, & K ○ associated with lipids in foods and the body ■ do not dissolve in water or urine ● Stored in the body and may be toxic ● Water soluble B vitamins and C ○ Dissolve in watery components of foods and the body ■ excreted in urine ■ most are not stored to a major extent ● generally non toxic Roles Of Vitamins Vitamins may: have hormonal action (e.g. vitamin D) participate in certain chemical reactions regulate a variety of body processes cell division growth and maintenance of tissues Vitamin Absorption ● Most absorption occurs in small intestine ○ absorption is not 100% efficient ● Absorption generally increases when more of the vitamin is needed: ○ Growth (during infancy and adolescence) ○ Pregnancy ○ Lactation (milk production) Populations at Risk for Vitamin Deficiency ● Alcoholics ● Older adults ● hospitalized people (long term) ● People with: ○ Anorexia nervosa ○ Certain gastrointestinal disorders ○ Rare metabolic conditions Vitamin A ● Retinol (preformed A): ○ most active form; in animal foods ● Betacarotene (provitamin A) ○ Carotenoid that the body can convert to some retinol ● Major Functions: ○ Normal vision and reproduction ○ cellular growth ○ Immune system activity ○ Epithelial cell production and maintenance What is Night Blindness? ● The inability to see in dim light ● Early sign of vitamin A deficiency ○ the retina, the lightsensitive area inside each eye, contains rods and cones that are specialized nerve cells essential for vision ■ rods and cones need vitamin A to function properly Vitamin A Adequacy and Deficiency ● Dietary Adequacy: ○ RDA: 700 900 mcg RAE ● Vitamin A Deficiency: ○ certain epithelial cells produce too much keratin ■ Keratin tough protein found in hair, nails, and outermost layers of skin ○ Excess Keratin: ■ Skin becomes rough and bumpy ■ Inner eyelid cells that normally secrete mucus to protect cornea become keratinized ● can result in xerophthalmia Vitamin A Toxicity ● Excess vitamin A (retinol) may lead to liver damage ● Excess betacarotene (carotenemia): ○ yellowing of skin due to excessive betacarotene intake ■ generally harmless ■ Accutane Vitamin D ● Rickets: vitamin D deficiency in children ○ results in soft bones that do not grow properly and become deformed Why is Vitamin D Necessary? ● Vitamin D is needed for: ○ Metabolism of calcium and phosphorus ○ Production and maintenance of healthy bones ● Parathyroid hormone (PTH): ○ Released when blood calcium levels drop ○ Stimulates kidneys to increase active vitamin D produces and decreases urinary calcium excretion Vitamin D Adequacy and Deficiency ● Dietary Adequacy: ○ RDA: 15 mcg/day for adults < 70 years of age ● Vitamin D deficiency: ○ Rickets ■ Uncommon ■ May develop in breastfed infants ○ Osteomalacia “adult rickets” Vitamin D Toxicity ● Upper limit (UL): ○ 100 mcg/day (4000 IU) ● Vitamin D toxicity: ○ Too much calcium is absorbed ■ The excess calcium is deposited in soft tissues including kidneys, heart, and blood vessels Vitamin E ● Alphatocopherol ● Functions: ○ fatsoluble antioxidant found in cells ■ protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (good) ● maintains immune system function Vitamin E Adequacy, Deficiency, and Toxicity ● Dietary Adequacy ○ RDA: 15 mg/day ● Vitamin E Deficiency ○ Impaired immune system function ○ Nerve damage ● Vitamin E Toxicity ○ Upper limit (UL) 1000 mg/day ○ Excess may interfere with vitamin K’s role in blood clotting How do Antioxidants work? ● By giving up an electron to a free radical, an antioxidant protects other molecules. ○ Action stabilizes the free radical ● Betacarotene and vitamins E & C function as antioxidants antioxidants protect phospholipids, DNA, unsaturated fatty acid, proteins from free radicals Vitamin K ● Liver needs vitamin K to make certain clotting factors Vitamin K Adequacy, Deficiency, and Toxicity ● Dietary Adequacy: ○ Al: 120 mcg/d for men; 90 mcg/d for women ● Vitamin K Deficiency: ○ May occur in newborns or ○ on long term antibiotic therapy ● Vitamin K Toxicity: ○ None known for natural forms ○ synthetic forms are toxic ● produces vitamin K in the bacteria in our intestines Thiamin ● Functions: ○ Part of coenzyme involved in release of energy from carbohydrates ○ Metabolism of certain amino acids ○ Synthesis of neurotransmitters Vitamins do not have calories / give energy Thiamin Deficiencies ● Beriberi: ○ People are weak, have poor muscular coordination, and may develop cardiovascular problems and edema. Note severe pitting edema (fancy way of saying swelling) in woman’s left leg. ● WernickeKorsakoff syndrome: ○ Typically seen in alcoholics, because alcohol decreases absorption and increases excretion. Riboflavin ● Functions: ○ Coenzyme for metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids, and amino acids ● Deficiency: ○ May occur in people who do not drink milk or eat enriched grains ★ Because B vitamins are water soluble they are often added in grains Niacin ● Functions: ○ Part of two coenzymes that participate in at least 200 reactions ● Deficiency: ○ Pellagra: the “4 D’s” of pellagra Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death Folate ● Folic acid (synthetic) and Folacin ● Functions: ○ Good Food Sources of Folate: ■ Leafy green vegetables, liver, legumes, asparagus, broccoli, and oranges ● A B vitamin Neural Tube Defects ● During the first few weeks after conception, the neural tube forms ○ Neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord ● Folatedeficient pregnant women are at risk if giving birth to infants with neural tube defects ● Anencephaly ○ Brain does not form properly ● Spina bifida ○ Spine does not form properly before birth and fails to enclose the spinal cord Vitamin C ● Functions not part of coenzyme: ○ Collagen synthesis ■ protein that gives strength to connective tissues ■ collagen makes up your tendons ○ Antioxidant activity ○ Other roles: ■ Immune system functioning ■ Synthesis of bile, and certain neurotransmitters and hormones ● Dietary Adequacy: ■ RDA = 75 to 90 mg/day (smokers have higher RDA’s) Chapter 10 Energy Balance What are Overweight and Obesity? ● Overweight having extra weight from bone, muscle, body fat, and/or body water ● Obesity condition characterized by excessive and unhealthy amounts of body fat ○ Widespread nutritional disorders in the U.S. ● In 20092010 ○ 69% of American adults were either overweight or obese Body Composition ● Two major components: ○ Fatfree mass: ■ body water, mineralrich tissues, and proteinrich tissues ○ Total body fat: ■ Adipose tissue ■ Essential fat in cell membranes, certain bones, and nervous tissue Energy Output ● Energy output or expenditure: ○ What energy cells use to carry out activities ● Output includes energy for: ○ Basal and resting metabolism the amount of calories you need to stay alive (Basal) what you burn while sitting and breathing ○ Physical Activity ○ Thermic effect of food (TEF) ○ Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) Basal and Resting Metabolism ● Metabolism: ○ Sum of all chemical changes or reactions that constantly occur in living ■ Anabolic (building) reactions require energy ■ Catabolic (breaking down) reactions release energy ● Basal metabolism: ○ Minimal number of calories used for vital physiological activities after fasting and resting for 12 hours Factors that Influence Metabolic Rate ● thyroid hormone (if not producing enough then metabolic rate slows it down) ● body composition ( ● sex (taller people burn more calories than shorter aka male) ● body surface area ^ ● age (goes down as get older) ● calorie intake ● fever (goes up) ● stimulant drugs (speed metabolism) ● pregnancy and lactation (raises metabolic rate, body requires up to 500 more calories a day) ● recovery after exercise (increase) Other uses of Energy ● Thermic Effect of Food (TEF): ○ Energy used to digest foods and beverages, and absorb and process the nutrients ○ Typically 5 to 10% of total caloric intake ● Nonexercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) ○ Energy spent on involuntary skeletal muscle activity such as fidgeting, shivering, and maintaining muscle tone or body posture ○ Some people may expend as much as 700 kcal/day from NEAT Adipose Tissue ● All cells contain some lipids, but adipose cells store a droplet of fat ○ Overeating can cause an increase in fat cell size and number ● Scientists think that once fat cells are formed, the remain, unless they die or are surgically removed Subcutaneous Fat and Visceral Fat ● Subcutaneous fat: ○ sub = under cutaneous = skin ○ Helps insulate ○ Protect muscles and bones from injury ● Visceral fat: ○ Forms protective structure under abdominal muscles and over stomach and intestines Lower Body Fat: ● “Pear Shape” adds stress to hip and knee joints, but carries lower risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes Central Body Fat: ● “Apple Shape” poses higher risk or serious health problems Measuring Waist Circumference ● Waist circumference is a quick and easy way to determine obesity related risk ● Desirable circumferences: ○ men < 40 inches ○ Women < 35 inches Body Fat Distribution: Effects on Health ● Distribution of excess body fat is more closely associated with obesityrelated diseases than the percentage of total body fat ● Centralbody obesity is characterized by excessive abdominal (visceral fat) ● Central obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes How Can I Calculate My BMI? ● What is BMI? ○ Numerical value of relationship between body weight and risk of certain chronic health problems ● Simple Formula: ○ weight (lbs) divided by height (in)^2 x 703 Adult Weight Status Categories (BMI) ● Below 18.5 underweight ● 18.524.9 healthy ● 25.029.9 Overweight ● 30.039.9 Obese Measuring Body Fat ● Underwater Weighing ○ Compares weight on land to weight when completely submerged in a tank of water ● Problems: ○ inconvenient, expensive, and impractical Dualenergy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) ● Uses multiple lowenergy xrays to scan body: ○ Provides detailed “picture” of internal structures ○ Problems: very expensive and not widely available outside of clinical settings Air Displacement ● Assesses body volume ● Subject sits in BOD POD chamber ● Volume of air in chamber with a person in it is compared to a volume without the person in it Bioelectrical Impedance ● Measures conduction of a weak electrical current through the body ● Problems: ○ Method can be reliable if body hydration status is normal ○ Scientific data about accuracy of devices designed for home use are lacking Skinfold Thickness ● Skinfold Thickness is measured at multiple body sites by a trained person ● Benefits: relatively easy and inexpensive to perform ● Problems: may underestimate total body fat on overfat people What Causes Overweight and Obesity? ● Physiological aspects ● Environmental influences ● Behavioral factors ● Psychological forces Physiological Factors ● Hunger vs. Satiety: ○ Hunger: uncomfortable feeling leading to a desire to eat ○ Satiety: sense that enough food was eaten ● Proteins that regulate hunger: ○ Ghrelin hormone, secreted mainly by stomach, that stimulates eating behavior ○ Leptin hormone, secreted by adipose cells , that reduces hunger and inhibits fat storage in the body ○ CCK hormone secreted by small intestine that reduces hunger ○ PYY peptide secreted by intestines that reduces hunger Genetic Factors ● Inherited characteristics that influence weight include: ○ Metabolic rate ■ “thrifty metabolism” ○ Hormone production ○ Body frame size ○ Pattern of fat distribution ● What is the setpoint theory? ○ Scientific notion that body fat content is genetically predetermined Environmental Influences ● Appetite: ○ the desire to eat appealing foods ● Hunger: physiological signals ● Environmental influences include: ○ food advertising ○ increased portion sizes ○ conditions that reduce a person’s physical activity Genes and Environment ● Children’s body weights are similar to the weights of their parents ● Which has a greater influence: genes or the environment? ● Environment and other factors can modify gene expression (epigenetics) Other Factors that Influence Weight ● Mood ● Selfesteem ● Emotions ● Societal Pressure Key Factors of Successful Weight Management ● Motivation ● Calorie intake reduction ● Regular physical activity ● Behavior modification Motivation ● Motivating factors include: ○ Recognition of need to change ○ Weight loss “triggers” ○ Medical recommendation to lose weight Calorie Intake Reduction ● Loss of 1 lb body fat requires a negative energy state of 3500 kcal ● To lose 1 lb in 7 days: ○ Reduce caloric intake by 500 kcal per day ○ Expend 500 more kcal per day ○ OR combine eating fewer calories and exercising more to result in a deficit of 3500 kcal ● Regular Physical activity ○ by increasing activity, dieters do not need to limit kcal intake as much Behavior Modification ● Analyze behaviors to identify cues and “problem” behaviors ○ cues are environmental factors that stimulate eating behavior, such as viewing food commercials ● Develop ways to change negative foodrelated and/or physical activityrelated behaviors Tips for Modifying Food and Exercise Related Behaviors ● Planning menus ● Grocery shopping ● Food preparation ● Eating Behaviors ● Holidays and parties ● Restaurants ● Physical Activity ● Self monitoring ● Rewards for new behaviors ● Changing negative thought pattern Chapter 11 Physical Activity Components of a Workout Regimen ● Warm up ● Aerobic Workout ○ type ○ duration ○ frequency ○ intensity ○ progression ● Cool down Physical Activity Recommendations ● U.S. DHHS recommendations for healthy adults under 65 years of age: ○ moderateintensity physical activity for 150 minutes a week ○ vigorousintensity physical activity for 75 minutes a week ○ eight to 10 strengthening exercises (812 repetitions of each exercise) that focus on major muscle groups twice a week Determining the Intensity of Physical Activity ● Intensity ○ Level of exertion used to perform an activity ● Factors that influence intensity ○ duration ○ type of activity ○ body weight ● Methods of determining intensity ○ assess breathing rate ○ assess heart rate Calculating AgeRelated Maximum Heart Rate ● To calculate your agerelated maximum heart rate, subtract your age from 220 ○ target heart rate zone range of heart rate that reflects the intensity of exertion during physical activity ● Moderate intensity target zone is 50 to 70% of agerelated maximum ● Vigorous intensity target zone is 70 to 85% of agerelated maximum Aerobic and Resistance Exercises ● Aerobic Exercise ○ sustained, rhythmic contractions of large muscle groups ○ raises heart rate, giving the heart and effective workout ● Resistance exercise ○ activities that increase muscle mass and strength ○ resistance exercises also increase bone mass Energy for Muscular Work ● Energy Metabolism ○ cells obtain energy through a series of chemical reactions ■ first, catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, or alcohol ■ energy stored in carbonhydrogen bonds is captured in high energy compound ATP ● ATP forms when an inorganic phosphate group bonds with ADP Energy from Glucose ● Glucose can be catabolized anaerobically or aerobically ○ Catabolism involves oxidation, removal of electrons from one compound to create another ● Anaerobic catabolism: The 1st stage of glucose oxidation is glycolysis splitting of a glucose molecule to form 2 pyruvate molecules ● A small amount of ATP is formed by glycolysis Further Oxidation of Glucose ● Aerobic catabolism: if oxygen is available pyruvate can enter aerobic respiration pathways Three Major Energy Systems ● Phosphocreatine (PCr) ○ anaerobic ● Lactic Acid ○ anaerobic ● Oxygen ○ aerobic Lactic Acid Energy System ● In anaerobic conditions, glucose is converted to pyruvate, and then lactic acid ○ enough ATP is formed to last 30 to 40 seconds ● Lactic Acid releases hydrogen ions and becomes lactate ○ certain muscles can use some lactate for energy ○ most lactate enters the bloodstream ■ liver removes lactate and converts it into glucose Oxygen Energy System ● During low to moderate intensity exercise (aerobic conditions), muscle cells can completely metabolize glucose ○ Produces ~ 18 times more ATP than during anaerobic conditions Aerobic Capacity ● What is aerobic capacity? ○ The maximal oxygen intake during vigorous physical exertion (VO2 max) ● Simple way to know your VO2 max: ○ when you exercise to the point that you cannot carry on normal conversation because of increased breathing rate Fat or Carbohydrate for Fueling Exercise? ● Intensity of activity influences type of fuel use ○ fat predominates when at rest and during low to moderateintensity activities ○ carbohydrate is the main fuel for high intensity activities ○ protein contributes a small amount of energy, with slightly more used during endurance exercise
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