PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide
PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 223
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Liang on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at University of Kentucky taught by Jessica Van Neste in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
PSY 223 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8 Growth Patterns Each year of early childhood, well-nourished children gain about 4.5 pounds or 2 kg and grow about 3 inches or 7 cm. However, there are environmental and cultural factors for height and weight in kids. By age 6, the average child in a developed nation: - Weights 40-50 pounds (18-22 kg) - At least 3.5 feet tall (over 100 cm) - Looks lean, not chubby (ages 5-6 are lowest in body fat) - Has adult-like body proportions (legs constitute about half the total height) Nutrition Preschool children sometimes suffer from poor nutrition for insufficient appetite with unhealthy food. Pediatricians have discovered that parents of young kids believe that relatively thin kids are less healthy than relatively heavy ones. This false belief eventually led to overfeeding. Overfed children eventually become overweight adults. Though most kids in developed nations have sufficient calories, they don’t always obtain sufficient iron, zinc, or calcium. Too much sugar and too little fiber causes tooth decay, which is the most common disease for young kids. Though their “baby teeth” are replaceable, tooth decay can cause jaw malformation, chewing difficulties, and speech problems. Brain Structure and Development prefrontal cortex: performs brain’s “executive functions” such as planning, selecting, and coordinating thoughts Auditory cortex (on temporal lobe): conscious processing of sounds Amygdala: neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion Hippocampus: structure in the limbic system linked to memory Corpus callosum: axon fibers connecting 2 cerebral hemispheres Thalamus: relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex Hypothalamus: controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and rewards Pituitary: master endocrine gland Visual cortex (on occipital lobe): conscious processing of sights Spinal cord: pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary movement and balance Cerebral cortex (outer layers): ultimate control and information- processing center Speed of Thought Myelination: process by which axons become coated with myelin (white matter of the brain), a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from one neuron to another. - Though myelination continues for decades, the effects are especially apparent in early childhood. The brain areas that show greatest early myelination are the motor and sensory areas. Brain’s Connected Hemispheres Corpus callosum: long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication in between them. - Part of brain that grows and myelinates rapidly during early childhood - Failure of the cc to develop results in serious disorders such as autism Lateralization: sidedness referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain with one side dominant for each activity. One side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body. Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex One interesting thing I just learned is that the game of “Simon says” tests the maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Impulse control: ability to postpone or deny the immediate response to an idea or behavior. For adults, poor impulse control signifies a personality disorder. Perseveration: tendency to stick in one thought or action. Impulsiveness and perseveration are opposite manifestations that signify the immaturity of the prefrontal cortex An imbalance between left and right sides of the prefrontal cortex and abnormal growth of the corpus callosum potentially causes ADHD. Limbic System Amygdala: tiny structure deep in the brain about the same shape and size as an almond. It registers positive and negative emotions especially fear. Increased amygdala activity is one reason some young kids have terrifying nightmares or sudden terrors overwhelming the prefrontal cortex. When a child refuses to enter an elevator or hide from a nightmare, the amygdala responds to comfort rather than logic Hippocampus: central processor of memory especially for locations. Being next to the amygdala, the hippocampus responds to anxieties of the amygdala by summoning memory. Early memories of location are fragile because the hippocampus is still developing. Hypothalamus: responds to signals from the amygdala (arousing) and to signals from the hippocampus (usually dampening) by producing cortisol, oxytocin, and other hormones that activate parts of the brain and body Stress Hormones Cortisol: primary stress hormone that may flood the brain and destroy part of the hippocampus. Too much cortisol early in life may lead to permanent deficits in learning and health, with major depression, PTSD, and ADHD in childhood and adolescence. Improving Motor Skills Mastery of gross and fine motor skills results not only from maturation of the prefrontal cortex but also from extensive, active play. Gross motor skills chart Age Skills 2 draw spirals feed self with spoon walk up stairs climb out of crib run without falling 3 Kick and throw a ball Jump with both feet Pedal a tricycle Copy simple shapes Walk down stairs Climb ladders 4 Catch a beach ball Use scissors Hop on either foot Feed self with fork Dress self Copy most letters Pour juice without spilling Brush teeth 5 Skip and gallop in rhythm Clap, bang, sing in rhythm Copy difficult shapes and letters Climb trees, jump over things Use knife to cut Wash face, comb hair 6 Draw and paint recognizable images Write simple words Read a page of print Tie shoes Catch a small ball Fine motor skills - Harder to achieve than gross motor skills. - Majority of the time, it involves both hands, which of course, activates both sides of the brain such as using a fork and knife for food, tying shoes, buttoning, zipping zippers, cutting paper, etc. For these tasks, one hand is used for one action and the other hand is used for the other. - Limited myelination of the corpus callosum may be the underlying reason shoelaces get knotted, paper gets ripped, and zippers get stuck. Environmental Hazards Children who breathe heavily polluted air tend to be impaired in brain development. Environmental substances cause problems in young kids at each socioeconomic status level especially those in lower income families. In the US, asthma is far more prevalent among kids living in poverty. Causes of Deaths in Children Malnutrition Malaria Car accidents Drowning in pools Prevention Levels In primary prevention, the overall situation is structured to reduce the likelihood of harm. Besides, it fosters conditions that reduce everyone’s chance of injury. Secondary prevention is more specific averting harm in higher risk situations or for more vulnerable individuals Tertiary prevention starts after an injury has already happened which limits the damage Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment: All intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 Child neglect: failure to meet essential physical or emotional needs Substantiated maltreatment: harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified Reported maltreatment: harm or endangerment about which someone has notified authorities Signs of maltreatment include but aren’t limited to - Injuries that are unlikely to be accidents such as bilateral bruises, burns with a clear line between burned and unburned skin - Repeated injuries, especially broken bones not property tended - Fantasy play, with dominant themes of violence or sex - Slow physical growth - Unusual appetite or maybe even lack of appetite - Ongoing physical complaints such as stomachaches, headaches, etc. - Reluctance to talk, play or move especially if development is slow - No close friendships; hostility toward others; bullying of smaller children - Hypervigilance, with quick, impulsive reactions such as cringing, startling, or hitting - Frequent absence from school - Frequent change of address - Frequent change in caregivers - Child seems fearful rather than joyful on seeing caregiver Post-traumatic stress disorder: anxiety disorder that develops as a delayed reaction to having experienced or witnessed a profoundly shocking or frightening event such as rape, war, etc. Symptoms may include flashbacks to event, hyperactivity and hypervigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, nightmares, sudden terror and anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality. Solutions - Permanency planning: effort by child welfare authorities to find a long term living situation that’ll provide stability and support for maltreated child. Goal is to avoid repeated changes of caregiver or school, which can be particularly harmful to child - Foster care: a legal, publicly supported system in which a maltreated child is removed from the parents’ custody and entrusted to another adult of family which is reimbursed for expenses incurred in meeting the child’s needs - Kinship care: form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes approved caregiver - Adoption: legal proceeding in which an adult or couple is granted the joys and obligations of being that child’s parent(s) Chapter 9 Piaget: Preoperational Thought Preoperational intelligence: 2 ndof 4 periods of cognitive development for ages 2-6; it includes language and imagination - Symbolic thought: major accomplishment of preoperational intelligence that allows a child to think symbolically including understanding that words can refer to things not seen and that an item such as a flag can symbolize something else i. Animism: belief of many young kids that natural objects (such as a tree or cloud) are alive and that nonhuman animals have the same characteristics as they do. This is an example of being confused between biotic and abiotic things. Obstacles to logic - Centration: tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of all to all others - Egocentrism: children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own perspective - Focus on appearance: characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child ignores all attributes that aren’t apparent - Static reasoning: characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child thinks that nothing changes - Irreversibility: young child thinks that nothing can be undone Conservation and logic - Conservation: nothing that amount of something remains the same (conserved) despite changes in its appearance Young kids fail to understand conservation because they focus (center) on what they see (appearance) noticing only the immediate (static) condition. It doesn’t occur to them that they could reverse the process and re-create the level of a moment earlier (irreversibility). Vygotsky: Social Learning Children learn because their mentors: - Present challenges - Offer assistance w/o taking over - Add crucial info - Encourage motivation Zone of proximal development (ZPD): cognitive and physical skills that one can exercise only with assistance Scaffolding: temporary support that’s tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process Overimitation: when one imitates an action that’s not relevant part of the behavior to be learned Children’s theories - Theory-theory: kids attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories - Theory of mind: person’s theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have this theory, kids must realize that others aren’t necessarily thinking the same thoughts Language Learning Fast-mapping: speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which kids learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning Listening, Talking, and Reading 1) Code focused teaching: In order for kids to read, they must “break the code” from spoken to written words and is usually helpful by learning sounds of alphabet 2) Book reading: vocabulary as well as familiarity with pages and print will increase when adults read to kids allowing questions and conversation 3) Parent education: when teachers and other professionals teach parents how to stimulate cognition, kids become better readers. Adults need to use words to expand vocabulary much more often than to control behavior 4) Language enhancement: within each child’s ZPD, mentors can expand vocabulary and grammar based on the kid’s knowledge and experience 5) Preschool programs: children learn from teachers, songs, excursions, and other kids. Balanced bilingual: equally fluent in two languages w/o preferring one over the other Overregularization: application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur making the language seem more “regular” than it actually is Pragmatics: the practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context Early Childhood Education Montessori schools: based on philosophy of Maria Montessori which emphasizes careful work and tasks that each young kid can do Reggio Emilia: originated in the town of Reggio Emilia, Italy Chapter 10 Emotional Development Emotional regulation: ability to control when and how emotions are expressed Effortful control: the ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination Initiative vs guilt: Erikson’s 3 developmental stage where kids acquire many skills and competencies in addition to emotional regulation and would feel guilty if not succeeded Self-concept: person’s understanding of who they are in relation to self- esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits Motivation - Intrinsic: when one does something for the joy of it - Extrinsic: doing something to please others Imaginary friends: make-believe friends who exist only in the child’s imagination and is increasingly common for ages 3-7; they combat loneliness and aid in emotional regulation Culture and Emotional Control - Fear (US) - Anger (PR) - Pride (China) - Selfishness (Japan) - Impatience (many Native American communities) - Defiance (Mexico) - Moodiness (Netherlands) Psychopathology: an illness of the mind or psyche. Various cultures and groups within cultures have different concepts of a specific psychopathology. A recent compendium of symptoms and disorders in the US is in the DSM-5. Many other nations use an international set of categories ICD-10. Externalizing problems: difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts such as lashing out at others or breaking things Internalizing problems: difficulty with emotional regulation involving turning one’s emotional distress inward as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless Play Types of social play 1) Solitary: child plays alone w/o knowing of other kids playing nearby 2) Onlooker play: child watches other kids play 3) Parallel play: kids play w/similar objects in similar ways but not together 4) Associative play: kids interact, sharing material, but their play isn’t reciprocal 5) Cooperative play: kids play together creating dramas or taking turns Rough-and-tumble play: play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, w/o intent to harm Sociodramatic play: in which kids act out various roles and plots. Through such acting, they - Explore and rehearse social roles - Learn to explain their ideas and persuade playmates - Practice emotional regulation by pretending to be afraid, angry, brave, etc. - Develop self-concept in a nonthreatening context. Parenting Diana Baumrind found that parents differed on 4 important dimensions 1) Expressions of warmth: some parents are warm and affectionate while others are cold and critical 2) Strategies for discipline: parents vary in how they explain, criticize, persuade, and punish 3) Communication: some parents listen patiently; others demand silence 4) Expectations for maturity: parents vary in expectations for responsibility and self-control Baumrind has also identified 3 parenting styles 1) Authoritarian: approach to child rearing that’s characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment for misconduct, and little communication from child to parent 2) Permissive parenting: approach to child rearing that’s characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control 3) Authoritative parenting: approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible 4) Neglectful/uninvolved parenting: raise kids who are immature, sad, lonely, and at risk of injury and abuse not only in early childhood but also lifelong Problems with Baumrind’s Styles - Her participants weren’t diverse in SES, ethnicity, or culture - Focused more on adult attitudes than on adult actions - Overlooked children’s temperamental differences - Didn’t recognize that some “authoritarian” parents are also affectionate - Didn’t realize that some “permissive” parents provide extensive verbal guidance Style Warmth Discipline Maturity Parent to Child Child to Parent Expectatio Communicatio Communicatio ns n n Authoritari Low Strict, often High high low an physical Permissive High rare low low high Authoritati High Moderate with moderate high high ve much discussion Sex and Gender Sex differences: biological differences between males and females in organs, hormones, and body type Gender differences: differences in roles and behaviors of males and females that are prescribed by culture Psychoanalytic theory - Phallic stage: Freud’s 3 stage of development when the penis is the focus of concern and pleasure - Oedipus complex: unconscious desire of young boys to replace their rather and win their mom’s romantic love - Superego: the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of parents - Electra complex: unconscious desire of girls to replace their mom winning their dad’s romantic love - Identification: attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else Other theories of gender development - Behaviorism: behaviorists believe that gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment as well as social learning - Cognitive theory: alternative explanation for the strong gender identity that becomes apparent around age 5 - Sociocultural theory: men prefer a younger attractive woman while women prefer an older attractive man - Evolutionary theory: holds that sexual attraction is crucial for humankind’s most basic urge to reproduce Moral Development Empathy: understanding of others’ feelings and concerns Antipathy: feeling of dislike or even hatred Prosocial behavior: actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself Antisocial behavior: actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person Aggression table Type Definition Comments Instrument Hurtful behavior that’s Often increases from ages 2- al aimed at gaining 6; involves objects more than something that someone people; quite normal; more else has egocentric than antisocial Reactive An impulsive retaliation Indicates a lack of emotional for a hurt (intentional or regulation, characteristic of 2- accidental) that can be y-o. A 5-y-o can stop and verbal or physical think before reacting Relationshi Nonphysical acts such as Involves a personal attack p insults or social rejection and thus is directly antisocial; aimed at harming the can be very hurtful; more social connections common as children become between victim and socially aware others Bullying Unprovoked, repeated In both bullies and victims, a physical or verbal attack, sign of poor emotional especially on victims who regulation; adults should are unlikely to defend intervene before the school themselves years Corporal (physical) punishment: spanking, slapping, etc. Psychological control: disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents Time-out: disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other activities for a specified time Chapter 11 Health Problems Childhood overweight: having a BMI above the 85 percentile Childhood obesity: having a BMI above 95 percentile Asthma: chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that makes breathing difficult Brain Development Reaction time: time it takes to respond to a stimulus physically or cognitively Selective attention: ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others Automatization: process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routing so that it no longer requires conscious thought Measuring Mind Aptitude: potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge IQ test: a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude or ability to learn in school. Mental age divided by chronological age times 100 is your IQ. Achievement test: measure of mastery or proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, or some other subject. Flynn effect: rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the decades in many nations Multiple intelligences: idea that human intelligence is composed of a varied set of abilities rather than a single, all-encompassing one Special Education Developmental psychopathology: links the study of usual development with study of disorders 1) Abnormality is normal. Most kids sometimes act oddly. Simultaneously, kids with serious disorders are like everyone else. 2) Disability changes year by year. Most disorders are comorbid meaning that more than one problem is evident in the same person. Which particular disorder is most disabling at a particular time changes as does the degree of impairment 3) Life may be better or worse in adulthood. Prognosis is difficult. Many kids with severe disabilities (blindness) become productive adults. Conversely, some conditions may become more disabling. 4) Diagnosis and treatment reflect the social context. In dynamic systems, each individual interacts with the surrounding setting. - Causes and consequences i. Multifinality: basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one cause can have multiple final manifestations. ii. Equifinality: basic principle of developmental psychopathology that holds that one symptom can have many causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): condition characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or by hyperactive or impulsive behaviors; interferes with a person’s functioning or development Specific learning disorder: marked deficit in a particular area of learning that’s not caused by an apparent physical disability, by an intellectual disability, or by an unusually stressful home environment Dyslexia: unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be resulted from some neurological development Dyscalculia: unusual difficulty with math probably originating from a distinct part of brain Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a developmental disorder marked by difficulty with social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities Least restrictive environment (LRE): legal requirement that kids with special needs be assigned to the most general educational context in which they can be expected to learn Response to intervention (RTI): an educational strategy intended to help kids who demonstrate below average achievement in early grades using special intervention Individual education plan (IEP): document that specifies educational goals and plans for a child with special needs Acceleration: education gifted kids alongside others of the same mental but different chronological age Chapter 12 Piaget and School-Age Children Concrete operational thought: ability to reason logically about direct experiences and perceptions Classification: organization of things into groups Seriation: knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical series Vygotsky and School-Age Children Stressed centrality of instruction Believed school is crucial for cognitive growth Believed culture affects learning style Information Processing Information-processing perspective benefits from technology that allows much more detailed data and analysis that was possible over 50 years ago Sensory memory: first component of the human information-processing system storing incoming stimuli for a split second Working memory: component of information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs; formerly called short- term memory Long-term memory: component of information-processing system in which virtually limitless amounts of information can be stored indefinitely Knowledge base: body of knowledge in a particular area that makes it easier to master new information in that area Control processes: mechanisms that combine memory, processing speed, and knowledge to regulate the analysis flow of information within the information-processing system Metacognition: “thinking about thinking” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task Age Memory Capabilities Under 2 Infants remember actions and routines that involve them. Memory is implicit, triggered by sights and sounds 2-5 Words are now used to encode and retrieve memories. Explicit memory begins, though kids don’t yet use memory strategies. Kids remember things by rote (their phone number, nursery rhymes) 5-7 Kids realize they need to remember some things and they try to do so usually via rehearsal. This isn’t the most efficient strategy but repetition can lead to automatization. 7-9 Kids can learn new strategies including visual clues and auditory hints. Evidence of brain functions is called the visual-spatial sketchpad and phonological loop. Kids benefit from organizing things to be remembered 9-11 Memory becomes more adaptive and strategic as kids become able to learn various memory techniques from teachers and other kids. They can organize material themselves developing their own memory aids. Education Hidden curriculum: unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every other aspect of learning in a school No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB): a US law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievement National Assessment of Educational Progress: an ongoing and nationally representative measure of US children’s achievement in reading, math, and other subjects over time; nicknamed “the Nation’s Report Card.” Immersion: a strategy in which instruction in all school subjects occurs nd in the 2 language the child is learning Bilingual schooling: strategy in which school subjects are taught in both the learner’s original language and the 2 ndlanguage ESL: US approach to teaching English that gathers all the non-English speakers together and provides intense instruction in English. Their 1 st language is never used; the goal is to prepare them for regular classes in English Charter school: public school with its own set of standards that’s funded and licensed by state or local district in which it’s located Private school: school funded by tuition charges, endowments, and often religious or other nonprofit sponsors Home schooling: education in which kids are taught at home, usually by parents Chapter 13 Nature of Child th Industry vs inferiority: Erikson’s 4 of 8 psychosocial stages during which kids try to master many skills developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent Latency: Freud’s term for middle childhood during which kid’s emotional drives and psychosexual needs are quiet (latent). Freud thought that sexual conflicts from earlier stages are only temporarily submerged, bursting forth again at puberty Social comparison: tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against others especially peers Resilience: a dynamic process encompassing positive adaptation within the contest of significant adversity Families and Children Family structure: refers to the legal and genetic connections among related people living in the same household Family function: refers to how a family cares for its members Needs of kids in middle childhood 1) Physical necessities 2) Learning 3) Self-respect 4) Peer relationships 5) Harmony and stability Nuclear family: composed only of children and their biological parents (married or not) Single parent family: only one parent and his/her biological children under 18 Extended family: family of 3 or more generations living in a household Polygamous family: a family with one man, several wives, and their kids The Peer Group Children culture: includes the customs, rules, and rituals that are passed down to younger kids from slightly older ones Aggressive-rejected: disliked because they’re antagonistic and confrontational Withdrawn-rejected: disliked because they’re timid and anxious Bullies and Victims Bullying: repeated, systematic attacks intended to harm those who are unable to unlikely to defend themselves. There are 4 types 1) Physical 2) Verbal 3) Rational 4) Cyberbullying Bully-victim: someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well aka provocative victims Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning 1) Preconventional: emphasizes rewards and punishments 2) Conventional: emphasizes social rules 3) Postconventional: emphasizes moral principles
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