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PSY 1010 Exam 2 Materials

by: Rachel Belson

PSY 1010 Exam 2 Materials PSY 1010

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Rachel Belson

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These are all of my notes that cover all of the material that will be covered on the second exam.
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Amy Kohl
Study Guide
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Prenatal development Thursday, February 11, 2016 6:01 PM Nature vs Nurture A. Big debate in psychology B. Nature refers to a given trait/behavioras being genetic or biological C. Nurture refers to a given trait/behavioras being due to environmentalinfluences, such as how an individual is raised D. Most things are a mix of nature and nurture Chromosomes: Thread like structures in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic material *human egg and sperm cells contain 23 chromosomes Autosomes: first 22 pair of chromosomes Sex chromosomes: the 23rd pair of chromosomesthat determine sex of child XX-girl XY-boy Each chromosomecontains one strand of DNA Men determine sex of child. Mothersonly have X chromosomes Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): Molecule composedof 4 nucleotide bases that is the biochemicalbasis of heredity A. Blueprint of development B. Different combinations of bases make different genes Genes: unit of heredity comprised of DNA Genotype: The set of genes someonecarries in their DNA (Recipe) Phenotype: observable features..physical, psychological, and behavior (what happens, end result) Twins A. Monozygotic twins: identical, come from a single fertilized egg that splits into two B. Dizygotictwins: fraternal twins, come from two separate eggs fertilized by two separate sperm Allele: one of a number of alternative forms of a gene A. Homozygous: the alleles in the pair of chromosomesare the same (AA) B. Heterozygous:the alleles in the pair of chromosomesare different (Aa) C. Dominant: trait that is followed D. Recessive:trait that is ignored Incomplete dominance: something in between happens. Not either dominant or recessive A. Sickle cell disease: blood disorder in which red blood cells take on a rigid sickle shape a. Cannot carry enough oxygen b. Many health complication c. Results from carrying two copies of mutated, recessivehemoglobin gene B. Sickle cell trait: condition where an individual has 1 copy mutated, recessivehemoglobin gene, and does not exhibit sever symptomsof disease a. Have minor complications b. Confers an evolutionaryadvantage in places where malaria is common Other Genetic Disorders A. Inherited a. Usually by 2 recessives b. Phenylketonuria (PKU) i. Babies born lacking an enzyme that breaks down the protein phenylalanine. The result i. Babies born lacking an enzyme that breaks down the protein phenylalanine. The result is the build of phenylalanine in the body that leads to mental retardation Behavioral genetics: branch that deals with inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits A. Polygenic inheritance: a pattern in which the combined activityof separate genes creates the phenotype Genes and Behavior A. Reaction Range: The same genotype can produce a range of phenotypes, in reaction to the context of development B. Heredity and environmenthave a dynamic interaction through development C. Niche-picking:deliberately seeking environmentsthat fits one's genetic D. Epigenetics:the environmentcan alter gene expression E. Contextual influences make children from the same family different. Weeks 1-2, zygote The period of the zygote beings with fertilization, and ends when the zygote implants into the uterine wall. LOOK AT SLIDES FOR PICTURE Embryo: term given to zygote once it is implanted into the uterine wall Weeks 3-8 Body structures and internal organs begin to develop Three layers begin to from in the embryo: Ectoderm (outer layer)-becomeshair, outer layer of skin, nervous system Mesoderm-forms muscles, bones, and circulatorysystem. Endoderm (inner layer)- forms digestive system and lungs Weeks 9-38 Begins when cartilage turns into bone, and ends at birth Characterized by rapid growth Bodily systemsbegin to work Age of Viability (between 22-28weeks)- most systemsfunction well enough so that a fetus born at this age should survive During first 3 months, hormonescauses penis growth in males, absence of the hormonecauses female genitalia to form 5-6 months:eyebrows,eyelashes, scalp, hair, skin thickens Lots of brain growth, especially cerebral cortex Pretermrisks Nutrition: A. Need to consume 10-20%more calories B. Balanced diet is important a. Spina bifida: embryo's neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy, resulting in damage to the spinal cord and nervous system i. Caused by folic acid b. Poor maternal nutrition i. The baby is more likely to be born prematurely and to be underweight ii. Baby is more likely to be vulnerable to illness ii. Baby is more likely to be vulnerable to illness Stress: a person physical and psychologicalresponses to threatening or challenging situations A. Studies of maternal stress in human must rely solely on correlation studies a. Mothers with higher anxiety more often give birth to premature or underweight babies b. Indirect effect of stress, mothers are more likely to smokeor drink c. Mothers immune system is also decreased Mothers age A. Teenage women are more likely to have problems during pregnancy, labor, and delivery a. Could be due to lack of prenatal care B. Older women have moredifficulty getting pregnant and are less likely to have successful pregnancies Teratogens: agents that causes abnormal prenatal development A. Drugs, disease, environment B. Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, caffeine, aspirin, C. AIDS and other diseases D. Lead, mercury, PCBs, X-rays Bisphenol A (BPA) A. Chemical found in plastics, food and beverage cans, thermal paper, cds, dvds B. Endocrine disrupter, estrogen agonist. C. Prenatal exposure leads to urogenital malformations,problems with reproductivefunction, increased cancer risk in females Influences of teratogens depend on the genotype of the organism A. Might harm some but not others Changes over the course of development A. Have different effects on the fetus at different stages of development Each teratogen affects a specific aspect or aspects of prenatal development The impact depends on dosage Damage is not always evident at birth but may appear later in life Dads? Alcohol consumption, smoking, drug use have all been shown to damage sperm and lead to increases in miscarriages and birth defects Genetic counseling A. Counselor asks about family medical history and constructs a family tree to see the odds of passing a disorder Prenatal diagnosis A. Ultrasound B. Amniocentesis:a needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen to obtain a sample of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus C. Chorionic villus sampling: a sample of tissue is obtained from part of the placenta D. Genetic testing E. Fetal medicine: concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth a. Administering drugs or hormonesto the fetus b. Fetal surgery c. Genetic engineering, in which defective genes are replaced by synthetic normal genes Labor and Delivery Stage 1 A. 12-24 hours B. Uterus contracts C. Cervix enlarges to approximately10 cm C. Cervix enlarges to approximately10 cm Stage 2 A. Baby passes through cervix, and vagina B. Crowning C. Baby is delivered within an hour Stage 3 A. Push a few more time to get rid of placenta Birth complications Cephalovpelvic disproportion- head is larger than pelvis, impossible for the baby to pass Irregularposition- not head first Preeclampsia-high blood pressure, protein in urine, and swelling in her extremities(due to fluid retention) Prolapsed umbilical cord- cord comesout first, and is squeezed shut, meaning no oxygen to baby Hypoxia: flow of blood in umbilical cord is disrupted Premature: baby born before 36th week Low birth weight, very low BW, and extremelylow BW Fetal heart rate is monitoredduring labor Cesarean section:incision is made in the mothersabdomen to removebaby from uterus Infant mortality is high in US Development through the Lifespan Tuesday, February 16, 2016 5:51 PM Focuses on how humans develop and change over time Developmental Psychology: study of how humans develop and change over time, including aspects of humans that do not change over time. Issues of Development A. Nature vs Nurture: is the trait genetic, or is it how we were raised? B. Continuity vs Discontinuity a. Do developmentalphenomena represent a smooth progression throughout, or are there a series of abrupt shifts in development b. Continuity i. Infant growth ii. Vocab growth in toddlers c. Discontinuity i. Growth spurts ii. Achieving developmentalmilestones C. Universal vs Context Specific a. Is there on path to developmentor are there several paths that depend on culture? b. Infant language development i. Universal 1) Up until 8 months, infants can distinguish between phonemes in any language ii. Context specific 1) Shortly there after, infants becomebetter at distinguishing phonemes in their native language, and worse at distinguishing phonemes not used in their language Importance of Early Experiences A. CriticalPeriods a. Brain is set to acquire a function during a limited period of time b. If key experiences do not occur, function may not develop i. Eg: abuse and neglect may impact learning at these critical periods ii. Genie iii. Hubel and Wiesel and some kittens. 1) Bock visual field during first six months of life, brain rewires 2) Block visual field later in life, no change Methods for studying development Methodology: A. Cross sectional a. Compares groups of different ages at same time b. Used to determine age related differences B. Longitudinal Method a. Compares same group at multiple times b. Used to determine age related changes C. Sequential Studies a. Examine different age groups at multiple time points b. Used to determine both age related changes and age related differences PhysicalDevelopment-motor Infants A. Infant Reflexes: innate motor response elicited by critical stimuli a. Rooting: touch on cheek induces infant to moveits mouth toward the source of touch b. Sucking: tactile stimulation of mouth produces rhythmic sucking c. Orienting reflex: pay greater attention to novel stimuli than to familiar stimuli i. Works with habituation to allow us to pay attention ii. Habituation- the diminishing of a behavioral or emotionalresponse to repeated stimuli CognitiveDevelopment Infants Neurogenesis: the creation of neurons A. Occurs primarily in the fetal period, and at birth we have over 100 billion neurons Synaptogenesis: the creation of synapses (including growth of new dendrites, growth of new axon terminals, and synaptic connections) A. Explosion of synaptogenesis during the first year of life a. Number peaks around 12 months age B. Still occurs through the lifespan, but not nearly extensively Synaptic Pruning: the removalof unused synapsis and nerve cells A. Begins in early infancy and continues through early adolescence B. Helps make brain moreefficient Piaget's Theory: Basic principles of CognitiveDevelopment A. Children are naïve scientists trying to make sense of world B. Four stages a. Sensorimotor period (0-2 years) i. Senses and actions, looking, touching, grasping b. Preoperational Period (2-7) i. Representing things with words and images, intuitive rather than logic c. Concrete Operational Period (7-11) i. Abstract problem solving develops ii. Gain Mental Operations: actions that can be performedon objects and ideas that yield a consistent result iii. Have to be concrete concepts for these operations iv. Categorize physical operations into logical cognitive structures d. Formal Operational Period (11+) i. Cognitive features are that of an adult ii. Abstract reasoning and logic are developed iii. Not everyonereaches this stage1 C. Schemes: mental categories of related events, objects and knowledge which organize experience a. Infancy: schemes based on actions i. Spoons can be thrown repeatedly b. Early Childhood: schemes based on functional or conceptual relationships i. Forks, spoons, and knives are what I use to eat c. Middle childhood and adolescence: schemes based on abstract properties i. Fascism, racism, sexism are ideologies I hate D. Intellectual adaptation involves two processes a. Assimilation:new experiences are incorporated into existing schema i. Young child sees lion and calls it kitty b. Accommodation:schema are modified based on experience i. Modifying the scheme for cat to incorporate kinds of cats i. Modifying the scheme for cat to incorporate kinds of cats E. Assimilation and accommodationare usually in balance a. Equilibrium:balance between assimilation and accommodation b. Disequilibrium:more accommodationthan assimilation i. Periodically,children reach states in which current theories are usually wrong ii. The drop old theories and use one with advances ways of thinking iii. Occurs 3 times during development F. All infants progress through 6 stages in order, but at different rates a. ExercisingReflexes (0-1 month) i. Reflexes such as sucking are practiced and improved b. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months) i. Reflexes becomemodified by experienced ii. Primary Circular Reaction: infants accidentally produce a pleasing event involving their own body and then try to recreate the event. Ex- thumb sucking c. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) i. Objects are morethe focus of circular reactions ii. Infant's first efforts to learn about objects in the environment d. Coordinated Reactions/BehavingIntentionally (8-12 months) i. Infant will moveparents' hand (movehand schema) to grasp a toy (grasp toy schema) e. TertiaryCircular Reactions (12-18months) i. Infant repeats old schemes with new objects as if trying to understand why different objects yield different outcomes f. Using Symbols (18-24months) i. Infants begin to talk and gesture ii. Bye bye means leaving iii. Because they can now use symbols,can predict consequences G. Object Permanence: realization that an object continues to exist even if it cannot be seen a. According to Piaget, this is not completelydeveloped until age 2 H. Preoperational- 2 to 7 years of age a. Abstract thought is not yet possible b. Fighting crime c. Pre-operations i. We have concretesymbols, but we cannot do logical operations with them yet d. Developing child needs concretephysical interactions I. Other Limitations a. Centration: focusing on just one aspect of a problem b. Egocentrism:Inability to see the world from the perspective of another person c. Irreversibility:inability to mentally reverse an action d. Appearance as reality i. Thinking apple juice is purple because it is in a purple glass and appears purple ii. Thinking someoneis happy because they are smiling, even though the person is being mean J. Concrete operations(7-11) a. Abstract problem solving develops i. We acquire mental operations: actions that can be performed on objects and ideas that consistently yield a result K. Formal Operations (11+) a. Cognitive structures are similar to that of an adult by this point b. Abstract reasoning and logic are possible i. Hypothetical and deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from abstract concepts and logic, opposed to inductive reasoning; drawing conclusions from personal experiences and specific facts) c. Not everyonereaches this stage of development i. 30-50% i. 30-50% L. Piaget a. Proposednovel explanations of cognitive developmentand methods to experiment b. Underestimatedcapacities of infants and preschoolers c. Rarely considered role of culture Vygotsky's Theory: Children develop through social interaction A. Developmentis like an apprenticeship a. More Knowledgeable Other: a person that, when compared to the child, has more knowledge or skills on a particular task i. Could be parent, sibling, peer, teacher, etc B. Children advance when they collaborate with others who are more skilled C. Zone of Proximal Development: the difference between what a child can do without help and what a child can do with help D. Scaffolding: teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs E. Private Speech: commentsnot intended for others, but designed to help children regulate their own behavior a. Intermediatestep toward self-regulation of cognitive skills F. Children's behavior is regulated by speech from others that is directed toward them a. Private speech: children direct themselvesout loud b. Inner speech- thought Social Development: Attachment A. Enduring emotionaltie between child and caretaker B. Involves a. Desire to be close to caretaker b. Sense of security around caretaker c. Distress when caretaker is absent C. Contact Comfort: Harry Harlow a. Infant monkeysraised in isolation b. Housed with artificial mothers i. One with food, but was made of wire ii. One covered in terry cloth that didn’t proved food c. Monkeysclung to the terry cloth mom d. Attachment not based on feeding D. Origins and Functions a. Imprinting i. Tendency of young animals to follow an animal to which they were exposed during sensitive period ii. Attachment keeps immature animals close to caretakers E. Measurement a. Strange Situation: a caretaker leaves child (12-18months of age) alone in a room of toys b. Stranger enters room for awhile c. Mother rejoins child d. Measure the reaction of child to mother upon leaving and returning F. Attachment Patterns:child responses to the Strange Situation paradigm a. Secure i. Children feel free to explore, but use mother as a secure base ii. Upset when mother leaves but easily soothed when mother returns iii. Developswhen parents are warm and sensitive/responsiveto child's needs b. Avoidant i. Children explore somewhat,but do not use mother as secure base i. Children explore somewhat,but do not use mother as secure base ii. Don’t care when mother leaves, don’t care when mom returns iii. Developswhen parents are unresponsive,rejecting, insensitive c. Ambivalent i. Cling to mother,and do not explore ii. Upset when mother leaves, Difficult to soothe when she returns 1) Wanna be close, but also mad at mom iii. Developswhen parents try to be warm and responsive but are really inconsistent d. Disorganized i. Do not develop an attachment strategy ii. Seem confused/disoriented iii. Approach mother without looking at a mother(sometimeseven walking backward) iv. Some freeze, or rock when mother returns v. Developsdue to abuse/neglect/trauma G. Implicationsin Adulthood a. Childhood attachment patterns continue into adulthood attachmentstyles i. Roughly 60% of people are securely attached b. Parent attachment style predicts attachment style of children c. Modifiable i. Social skills improve in presence of normal relationships with peers or adults ii. Attachment based therapy d. New research is also showing that we can have different attachment in different relationships H. Styles of Parenting a. Authoritarian: place a high value on obedience and respect for authority i. Children tend to develop low self esteem,low independence, often resentful b. Permissive:impose minimal control on children, more like a friend i. Children often impulsive with low self control c. Authoritative:enforce standards, but encourage verbal give and take i. Children are self reliant/independent, higher grades, friendlier d. Uninvolved: Minimum controlson children i. Children do poorly in school and tend to be aggressive Adolescents A. Neurons increase their connectionsuntil puberty B. Frontal cortex lags behind limbic system's development a. Frontal lobe development,and particularly connections to the frontal lobe, do not complete until 20s b. Hormonal surges and the limbic system may explain occasional teen impulsiveness Puberty: changes that occur in the body as sexual developmentreaches its peak A. Growth spurt a. A rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolescence b. The growth spurt for girls typically occurs around age 10.5 c. The growth spurt for boys typically occurs around 12.5 B. ImaginaryAudience: the deluded belief of adolescentsthat they are constantlyobserved by others C. Personal Fable: the deluded belief that adolescents that they are unique, very important, and invulnerable D. Identity formation: the developmentof a stable sense of self necessary to make the transition from dependence on others to dependence on oneself. E. Identity Crisis:a period of intense self-examinationand decision making; part of the process of identity formation a. Possible outcomesof identity crisis a. Possible outcomesof identity crisis i. Identity achievement:successful resolution of identity crisis ii. Identity foreclosure:choosing an identity that pleases others iii. Moratorium:still exploring various roles, but have not chosen one yet iv. Identity diffusion: avoid considering role options in any conscious manner EmergingAdulthood (18-30ish) A. Characterized by a. Instability b. Self focus c. Exploration d. Feeling in-between B. The new marker of adulthood for many emerging adults is being financially independent Adulthood A. Midlife Crisis:a time when adults go through a somewhattraumatic re-evaluation and redefinition of their personal life and career and decide to make a decisive shift. a. Most people do not experience this b. No research evidence to support this idea B. Midlife Transition: a process where adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future C. Menopause: the time in a woman's life when menstruation ceases D. Andropause: somewhatgradual drop in testosterone E. Personality is relativelystable in adulthood F. Studies have shown that the attachment style we have with our parents/caregiverswill shape the types of attachmentswe have with adult relationships a. Attachment style formed in infancy remains stable throughout much of the lifespan b. We do see that this may not hold true for all relationships, but overall it does Theories of Aging A. Cellular Clock Theory: cells in the body have a limited number of times that they can reproduce to repair damage. a. Telomeresin chromosomesshorten every time a cell reproduces B. Wear and Tear Theory: Our cells and tissues get worn out due to stress and physical exertion a. Collagen wears out and becomes less stretchy C. Free Radical Theory: similar to wear and tear, but the cause of the tissue damage is the build up of free radicals in the body a. Free Radical: moleculeor atom with an unpaired electron in its outer shell i. It comesacross other atoms or moleculesin your body, and steals their electrons, and in doing so creates another free radical. Late Adulthood A. Differences in life expectancy a. Women tend to live an average of seven years longer than men b. Possible reasons for this difference are differences in hormones,exposure to stress, health related behaviors, and genetic makeup B. Factors that Affect PhysicalWell-Being a. Diet b. Amount of exercise c. Quality of health care d. Smoking or drug use e. Overexposureto the sun f. Attitude and interest g. Amount of sleep g. Amount of sleep C. Cognitive a. Intelligence remains relatively stable as we age b. Changes in memoryassociated with age differ by task i. Problemswith complex working memorytasks 1) Retrieving info from LTM is moredifficult D. Dementia a. Group of disorders in which deteriorationin brain causes memoryimpairmentsand altered personality and behavior b. 5% of elderly persons i. Majority(80%) retain mental function c. 50% of dementia cases related to Alzheimers E. Kubler-Ross's Stages of Dying a. It is argued that we all go through these stages when confronted with our mortality i. Denial ii. Anger iii. Bargaining iv. Depression v. Acceptance Chapter 7 Tuesday, February 23, 2016 6:20 PM Learning: Process that results in a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Process: Some mechanism or procedure RelativelyPermanent Change: must persist for someperiod of time. **not all changes are learning Conditioning: Processof learning/behavior modificationoften thought to occur without conscience awareness A. Through associations a. Thunder and lighting b. Classical conditioning B. Through outcomes a. Crime and punishment b. Operant conditioning C. Both types are rooted in Behaviorism:a type of psychology primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking) ClassicalConditioning: a learning process by which a subject comes to respond in a specific way to a previously neutral stimulus after it has been paired with another stimulus that already elicits that response. A. Break it down: a. A neutral stimulus (evokesno response) b. A stimulus that automatically,naturally evokesa specific response (reflexes,as an example) c. After being paired, the neutral stimulus evokes a response d. Lighting reliably predicts thunder! B. Key terms of Classical Conditioning a. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that consistentlytriggers a particular naturally occurring response (thunder) b. Unconditioned Response (UCR):unlearned, naturally occurring response to UCS (startle) c. Conditioned stimulus (CS) : originally a neutral stimulus. After repeated pairing with UCS, this previously neutral stimulus becomes the CS (lighting) d. Conditioned response (CR):learned response to previouslyneutral conditioned stimulus. Anticipation of loud noise C. Pavlov:Russian physiologist that did the dog salivating experiment D. Little Albert: conditioned emotionalresponse a. John B Watson b. Little albert i. No initial response to white rat ii. White rat paired with loud noise 7 times. iii. Becomesafraid of white rat E. Acquisition:initial stage in classical conditioning when one links the neutral stimulus and UCS to begin triggering the CS a. The neutral stimulus almost always precedes the unconditioned stimulus F. Conditioned Taste Aversion: occurs when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptomscaused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance, and avoids the food. a. So when eating a food is followed by throwing up, animals associate the food with the illness and avoid it in the future. G. Extinction: CR begins to decrease when UCS does not follow CS a. Spontaneous Recovery: after rest period, extinguished CR spontaneously recovers b. This suggests that extinction does not eliminate the CR; it suppresses the CR H. Generalization:the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for the stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses. CS to elicit similar responses. a. A dog conditioned to salivate to one tone, might also salivated a little to a different tone b. Adaptive: once we have learned that something is dangerous (wolf) we can extend that to similar dangers (coyotes,cougars) i. Stimuli similar to naturally disgusting objects will also evokedisgust 1) Fudge is delicious, but if it is shaped like poop, its disgusting. I. Discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other irrelevant stimuli. a. Also adaptive as slightly different stimuli could signal very different consequences. b. Bit by a rottweiler,might be afraid of all of them (generalizations) but not dachshunds (discriminations) Operant Conditioning: learned association between a behavior and its consequences A. Behavior operates on environmentto receive rewards B. Skinner Box: box with lever that animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer, lever records animals response C. Reinforcement: any consequences that makes a behavior more likely to occur in the future a. Positive reinforcement: the consequence of the behavior is the addition of something pleasant b. Negative reinforcement:the consequence of the behavior is the removalof something unpleasant D. Punishment: any consequence that makes a behavior less likely to occur in the future a. Positive punishment: the consequence of the behavior is the addition of something unpleasant b. Negative punishment: the consequences of the behavior is the removalof something pleasant E. Problemsassociated with operant learning through punishment a. Only indicates what not to do b. Misunderstand which behavior is punished c. Learned fear d. May not undo existing rewards for behavior e. Can encourage aggression F. Reinforcers:an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need a. Food b. Sex G. Conditioned reinforcers (AKA secondary reinforcers): a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its associationwith a primary reinforcer a. Money H. Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired behavior will be reinforced a. Continuous reinforcement:reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs b. Partial (intermittent)reinforcement:reinforcing the response only some of the time i. Slower acquisition ii. High Resistance to extinction c. Fixed ratio schedule: a reinforcementschedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses i. McDonalds gives you a free coffee after you buy ten d. Variable ratio schedule: a reinforcementschedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses i. Slot machines ii. Fishing e. Fixed interval schedule: a reinforcementschedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed i. We check for reward as it gets closer ii. Waiting for cement to dry iii. Checking to see if the mail has been delivered iii. Checking to see if the mail has been delivered f. Variable interval schedule: a reinforcementschedule that reinforcesa response at unpredictable time intervals i. Facebook ii. Email Operant Conditioning and Parenting A. Giving in to occasional temper tantrums produces a partial reinforcementschedule, reinforces the tantrums B. Negative reinforcementtrap a. Mom tells son to clean room b. Son whines and complains c. Mom cleans, doesn’t have to deal with whining d. Reinforces the child to whine and complain to get out of cleaning the room Shaping: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximationsof the desired behavior A. In order to get a rate to press a lever, you reward it for smaller behaviors at first Limits on conditioning A. Cognitivelearning: the acquisitions of mental information,whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language a. Conditioned likes and dislikes are stronger when we know they were conditioned b. If we were to put a drug that produces nausea in an alcoholic drink, with classical conditioning they should automaticallylearn to associate alcohol and sickness. But if they were told that the drink was drugged, they would associate the sickness with the drug not the alcohol. c. Animals on fixed interval schedule produce their response more frequently as it gets closer to the time the reinforcementis set to come d. Rats will make a cognitive map of a maze even if not rewarded e. Latent Learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is a time to demonstrateit i. Child watches parent do something but only engages in it when they need to Social learning theory (Albert Bandura): we learn social behavior by observing and imitating, with rewards and punishments as the consequence. Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: observing and imitating a behavior Bobo Doll experiment 1. Child sits at a table drawing 2. An adult is in the corner playing with the tinker toys 3. The adult starts beating up the bobo doll 4. Child brought to other room with cool toys, but is brought to yet another room (with bobo doll) with the adult telling the child that those toys need to be saved for other kids 5. Child taken out of the room and brought to a room with bobo doll, and child beats up the bobo doll Children showed aggression but what if they thought adult was demonstrating how to play with that toy? Condition 1: child sees adult beat the bobo doll and get rewarded Condition 2: child sees adult beat the bobo doll and get punished Group 1 was aggressive, group 2 was not. However,when group 2 was told they would be rewarded for mimicking the adult's behavior, they were aggressive. mimicking the adult's behavior, they were aggressive. 4 elements of observational learning 1. Attention: we can't learn what we don't notice 2. Memory: we have to be able to retain a memoryof the action/actions 3. Imitation: we have to be capable of imitating the action a. Eg a child with low motorskills couldn't tie a shoe and rememberit but not have the ability to do it 4. Desire: we need to be motivatedto perform the action Mirror Neurons: frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so A. The brain's mirroring behavior may enable imitationor empathy B. Watching someonegrab an object causes the same neurons to fire as actually grabbing it yourself C. Criticism: might be just how the brain works,or maybe they are just regular neurons, not "mirror" neurons Does viewing violencemedia make us violent? A. Experimental studies do support that imitation can occur a. Children who viewed power rangers episodes were more likely to engage in violent play (karate kicks like the power rangers do) B. Experimental studies0 also support that exposure to violence leads to desensitization a. Adults watching sexually violent films expressed less sympathyfor domestic violencevictims and rated injuries less severe Memory Thursday, February 25, 2016 6:11 PM Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information A. Three forms to measure memory a. Recall: a measure of memoryin which the person must retrieve informationlearned earlier i. Fill in the blank test b. Recognition: a measure of memoryin which the person need only identify items previously learned i. Multiple choice c. Relearning: a measure of learning that assesses the amount of time saved when learning the material again i. Studying for final Memoryworks like a computer A. Encoding: processing information into the memorysystem B. Storage: the retention of encoded information over time C. Retrieval: process of getting information out of the memorysystem Three stage model of memory 1. We record information as a fleeting sensory memory a. Sensory memory: the immediatevery brief recording of sensory information in the memory system b. Selective attention: the ability to focus on a particular system 2. We process information into short term memory,where we encode through rehearsal a. Short term memory:activated memorythat holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten 3. Info movesinto long term memoryfor later retrieval a. Long term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouseof the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experience. Working Memory: a newer understanding of short term memorythat focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visuo-spatial information,and information retrieved from long term memory. Sensory memory A. Iconic memory: a fleeting sensory memoryof visual stimuli a. For a few tenths of a second, our eyes register a picture image of a scene and we can recall it in significant detail B. Echoic memory: a fleeting sensory memoryof auditory stimuli a. Can repeat something back to someonequickly, even if you haven't registered it Encoding could be effortful (studying), or automatic (the location of your seat in this class, the order of events of yesterday,space, time frequency) A. Short term capacity: 7 digits B. Working memory capacity:varies by age and other factors, but very limited a. Supposedly reflective of intelligence and appears on intelligence tests C. Memorystrategies can help with this a. Mnemonics,chunking, spacing Spacing effect: retain info better when rehearsed over time Ie- don’t cram Testing effect: enhanced retrieving when tested on material rather than just reading it Deep processing: encoding semantically,basically by the meaning of words Shallow processing: encoding on a basic level, basically by the appearance and structure of the words Long term Potentiation: a. Learning causes changes in neurons b. Receiving neurons increase the number of their receptors c. Sending neurons increase the number of neurotransmitters ExplicitMemory: conscious retrieval of info, also called declarative ImplicitMemory: memoryexpressed in behavior, nondeclaritive Retrieval- Semantic network model: clusters of interconnected info that make retrieval easier, retrieval cues Spreading activation theory: activation in one node in a network triggers activation in other closely related nodes We have enhanced recall effects when the contextis the same during encoding and retrieval Serial position effect: the recall is good for the beginning and end of a list, but poor in the middle due to primacy (first words get more rehearsal) and recency (in short term memory)effects Mood congruency: recall memoriesthat are consistent with our current mood Amnesia A. Retrograde Amnesia: an inability to retrieve information from one's past B. Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories Forgetting A. Inability to retrieve info due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval B. Occurs at any memorystage Encoding failures We are bombarded by lots of sensory information We can only pay attention to so much (selective attention) Retrieval failure Proactive interference A. The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info B. Learning a new password Retroactive interference A. The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information B. Switching from driving to stick to automatic MemoryConstruction:Misinformation Eyewitnesstestimony A. Reconstructmemorieswhen questioned about event B. Minor variation in wording of questions can determine what is rememberedfrom scene C. Memoriesare suggestible D. Children are even more suggestible as eyewitnesses,and should be questioned by professionals D. Children are even more suggestible as eyewitnesses,and should be questioned by professionals trained to interview children Source Amnesia: attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined A. Leads to false memories B. Sometimesleads to plagiarism (music industry) C. Déjà vu Déjà vu experiment A. They invited participants to look at a computer screen and look at symbols B. Participants needed to state whether they had seen them before C. Participants were unaware that earlier they had been subliminally flashed the images on the screen D. About half of the participants reported déjà vu Repression: in psychoanalytictheory, the basic defense mechanismthat banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories Thought to occur commonly,but found to only occur rarely. Repressed memoryepidemic-90sstudy that found that repressed memorystuff brought false memories Flashbulb memory effect: a clear memoryof an emotionallysignificant momentor event Cognition and Language Tuesday, March 1, 2016 5:58 PM Cognition: all of the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Mental Representations: internal cognitive symbols that stand for or represent external reality A. Multiple types a. Mental images b. Concepts c. Working models(attachment is a working model for relationships) Concept: ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities A. Similar to schema B. Can help us think moreefficiently C. Prototype: a mental image or best example of a category a. Helps us quickly sort informationinto categories b. Does not always exist in real world Problem solving: coping with new situation when no well established responses exist Strategies for problem solving: A. Trial and error a. Trying one solution after another until one works B. Algorithms a. A methodical,logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problems i. Time consuming ii. Step by step process iii. Exhaust all possibilities b. Used by computers C. Heuristics a. A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently i. Educated guess based on previous experiences ii. Speedier than algorithms iii. More error prone than algorithms b. Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory;if instances comereadily to mind, we presume such events are common D. Insight a. A sudden realization of a problems solution i. The mind basically reorganizes a problem while you are busy thinking about something else b. Research on insight i. Task: have participants try to come up with a word that will form a compound word or phrase with 3 other words on a list, while monitoring brain activity with MRI ii. Results: initially brain activity occurred in the frontal lobe as they were using various strategies to determine the word. Immediatelybefore the insight there was a burst of activity in the right temporallobe iii. Illustrates why we don’t feel any warming up before the solution is found Problem solving obstacles: Confirmation bias: a tendency to search for informationthat supports our preconceptionsand to ignore or distort contradictoryevidence A. Once we form a belief, we look for things to support our belief and defend against threats to that belief belief Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a new perspective A. Mental set: our tendency to approach a problem with the strategy or mindset that worked for us previously B. A problem if our predisposition is wrong Functional fixedness: the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customaryfunctions Overconfidence: tendency to overestimateaccuracy of beliefs and judgements Belief perseverance: clinging to one's initial conceptionsafter the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Framing: the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions A. Meat is 75% lean, rather than 25% fat B. 90% of people survive, not 10% of people die C. Organ donation- opt out = nearly 100% donate, opt in = only about 25% donate Intuition: effortless,immediate, automaticfeeling, or thought, as contrasted with explicit reasoning A. Gut feeling, has some benefits Language: our spoken, written, or signed words, and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning A. A way to convey our cognitions to others Linguistic Determinism(Linguisticrelativityhypothesis) A. Language shapes or predeterminesthought B. People who speak different languages may actually perceive the world in different ways (Whorf hypothesis) a. Different vocab allows one to describe and think of things in different ways Competing Theory A. Cognitiveuniversalism: concepts that are universal and influence the developmentof language Componentsof Language A. Phonemes: smallest distinctive sound unit a. The sound the letter "T" makes B. Morphemes: a. Smallest unit of speech that carries a meaning b. Ex: I, A, cat, the prefix pre- C. Grammar: the system of rules that enables us to communicatewith and understand others a. Semantics: the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds b. Syntax: set of rules for combining words into grammaticallysensible sentences Two types of language A. Receptive language: our understanding of what others say B. Expressive language / productive language: the ability to be able to express our thoughts and communicatewith others a. Babbling: 3-10 months b. 12 months- uses single words c. Around 2 years, children reach the two words stage and engage in telegraphic speech d. Telegraphic speech: early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs C. Critical period: language is birth to 7 years Aphasia: impairmentof language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or Wernicke's area We have taught sing language to apes and chimps Not language argument: vocabularies are often simple; perhaps they are learning the motionsfor reward but don't understand meaning Language Argument: they teach it to others, and somelearned syntax Intelligence:ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations A. Functional B. Multifaceted C. Culturally defined Spearman's G Factor intelligence is comprised of two different abilities/components A. G Factor (general intelligence):ability to reason and solve problems a. Probably accounted for by current intelligence tests B. S Factor (specific intelligence): task specific abilities in different areas (music, art, math, etc) Spearman thought that having superior intellect in one ability meant that you had superior intelligence overall, but mental abilities appear to be independent Savants: overall, characterized as having low intelligence but savants have one "island" of amazing ability Sternberg: triarchic model A. Analytical intelligence a. Academics B. Creative intelligence a. Ability to react rapidly to novel ideas C. Practical intelligence a. Everydayintelligence, street smarts Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences 9 distinct types with distinct talents and unique aspects, regulated by distinct regions of the brain Intelligencetest: measures designed to assess level of cognitive capabilities of an individual compared to other people in a population IQ: a numerical value given to intelligence A. IQ= mental age/ chronological age X 100 B. Widely used and fairly famous version of Stanford-Binet test of IQ C. Currently mostwidely used is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) D. Standardized tests Intelligence is normal distribution/normalcurve Closer genetic relationship relates to higher intelligence correlation, genetics are a major player Environmentalpredictors of lower intelligence A. Neglect B. Poverty C. Less qualified teachers D. Malnutrition Environmentalconditions lessen genetic abilities Environmentalconditions lessen genetic abilities 15 point average difference in IQ scores between African Americans and European Americans A. Has to do with testing, not due to genes B. Nutritional issues, economicdeprivation, and stereotypethreat in testing are possible explanation Racial priming alters results, don't do demographics first but do them last. Study proved this Valid uses of IQ Tests A. Predict academic success B. Evaluate strengths and weaknesses C. Evaluate functioning over time Invalid uses: A. IQ does not predict job performance, social status, happiness Emotional intelligence:awareness and management of one's emotions Empathy: a sensitivitytoward the needs and feelings of others; empathy appears to be a higher level of developmentthat springs from self-awareness. Creativity:ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable, correlatessomewhatwith intelligence


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