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UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE / Psychology / PSYC 312 / What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous transition

What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous transition

What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous transition

Description

School: University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Department: Psychology
Course: Adolescent Psychology
Professor: Valenne macgyvers
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology, adolescence, and MacGyvers
Cost: 25
Name: Psychology 312 Week Three Notes
Description: These are the notes from our second class meeting, January 28, 2016. They finish off notes from "Social Transitions" and go through to where we stopped in "Biological Transitions"
Uploaded: 03/02/2016
7 Pages 32 Views 1 Unlocks
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WEEK THREE


What is the difference between continuous and discontinuous transitions?



JANUARY 28, 2016

Social Transitions Continued

Continuity and Discontinuity

Continuous Transitions

∙ Gradual transitions, in which the adolescent assumes the roles and status of adulthood bit  by bit

Discontinuous Transitions

∙ Sudden transitions, in which the adolescents entrance into adulthood is more abrupt, with  little or no training

Ruth Benedict­ modern society has discontinuity

∙ Little preparation for roles of worker, parent, citizen

Call to improve “school­to­work transitions”

∙ Youth apprenticeship model

∙ Options for non­college­bound high school students


Who is ruth benedict?



Traditional cultures more continuous

∙ Mead’s coming of age in Samoa

Previous eras more continuous 

The Transition into adulthood in contemporary society We also discuss several other topics like What are the main similarities and differences between classical and social liberalism?

Adolescents are living at home longer than ever before

∙ 55% U.S. 18­24 years old

∙ The numbers remain unchanged for 2012

∙ Maybe a result of increased costs of housing and transportation

Special transitional problems of poor and minority youth

“Americanization”

∙ Associated with worse outcomes (compared to immigrants)

Many factors involved including poverty, discrimination, and segregation

Experiencing poverty during adolescence has an especially negative effect on school  achievement 


What can be done to ease the transition to adult?



1 | P a g e

WEEK THREE

JANUARY 28, 2016

What can be done to ease the transition to adult?

Restructuring of secondary education

Mentoring

Expand work and volunteer opportunities

Improve the quality of community life for adolescents and their parents

Expand opportunities in the workplace to make high school a “bridge” If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of bicameral legislature?

Mike Rowe’s skilled labor training

The influence of neighborhoods

Adolescents growing up in a poor, urban communities are more likely to: ∙ Bear children as teenagers

∙ Become involved in criminal activities

∙ Achieve less in or drop out of high school

∙ Lack role models who are educated or employed

How do neighborhoods affect adolescent development?

If neighborhoods are poor:

∙ Undermine collective efficacy of neighborhood

∙ Stress of poverty undermines the quality of interpersonal relationships

∙ Fewer chances to engage in activities that facilitate positive development; fewer  resources available during difficult times We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of session power?

2 | P a g e

WEEK THREE

JANUARY 28, 2016

Biological Transitions

Puberty

A maturational process

A universal process

A sudden single event?

When does puberty begin?

What are the new bodily systems or new hormones which develop during puberty? What triggers puberty?

Sexual Maturation and Physical Growth

Rapid acceleration in growth

The development of primary sex characteristics

The development of secondary sex characteristics

Changes in body compositions

Changes in the circulatory and respiratory systems

The endocrine and central nervous system

The Endocrine System

∙ Organizational role

∙ Activational role

Hypothalamus 

∙ The motivational and emotional control center of the brain

∙ Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

o LH­RF (luteinizing hormone­releasing factor)

o FSH­RF (follicle stimulating hormone­releasing factor)

∙ GnRH causes pituitary gland to produce gonadotrophic hormones

Pituitary Gland

∙ HGH (Human Growth Hormone)

3 | P a g eDon't forget about the age old question of What are two dominant perspectives on development?

WEEK THREE

JANUARY 28, 2016

o Growth and Shaping of the skeleton

∙ Gonadotrophic Hormones

o FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)

 Growth of eggs and sperm

 Female sex hormones

o FH (Luteinizing Hormones)

 Female and male sex hormones

The Ovaries

∙ Produce the female sex hormones 

o Estrogens

 Development of sex organs 

 Secondary sex characteristics

o Progesterone

 Produced by corpus luteum (“yellow body”)

 Controls the length of the menstrual cycle (ovulation – next menstruation)  Maintains pregnancy Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of style switch in verbal language?

The Testes

∙ Produce the male sex hormones

o The androgens

 Especially testosterone

 Control development of male sex organs

 Control secondary sex characteristics

Did you know? Both estrogen and androgens are found in both boys and girls prior to puberty The Adrenal Glands

∙ Means “on the kidney”

∙ Produce both male and female sex hormones

4 | P a g e

WEEK THREE

JANUARY 28, 2016

o Allows males to have some female hormones and vice versa

∙ Adrenarche – early feelings of sexual attraction 

The Thyroid Gland

∙ Thyroxine (T4) & Triiodothyronine (T3)—stimulated by thyroid­stimulating hormone  (TSH) from the pituitary gland

∙ Physical growth, metabolism, and mental development 

Sex Hormone Regulation: A Feedback Loop We also discuss several other topics like What is dri for sodium?

∙ Feedback loop: HPG Axis

o Hypothalamus

o Pituitary Gland

o Gonads

Somatic Development: Changes in Stature and the Dimensions of the Body Growth in Height

∙ Growth spurt

o Girls’ growth spurt (12 y/o) is 2 years earlier than boys’ (14 y/o)

o Girls reach adult height at 17 y/o

o Boys reach adult height at 19 y/o

∙ Peak Height Velocity

o Boys: 4 inches/year   

o Girls: 3.5 inches

∙ Epiphysis

∙ Determinants of Height

o Heredity

o Nutrition

o Age one enters puberty 

Growth in Weight

5 | P a g e

WEEK THREE

JANUARY 28, 2016

∙ Muscle Development and Body Fat

∙ Body Composition

o Sex differences

o Muscle­to­fat ratio

 Males: 3 to 1

 Females: 5 to 4

Other Physical Sex Differences

∙ Due to testosterone, males have: 

o Larger hearts and lungs (Higher systolic blood pressure, more RBC)

o Thicker, larger bones

o Enlarged larynxes

o More body hair 

o Higher basal metabolic rates

∙ Due to estrogen, females have…

o Breasts

o Subcutaneous fat layer

o Hips widen

o Slower metabolisms

Sexual Maturation

Maturation and Functions of Male Sex Organs

∙ Testes and scrotum

o Start between 9 ½ & 13 ½, end between 13 and 17

o Increase 2 ½ times in length, 8 ½ times in weight

o Spermatogenesis

o The total process: 10 days

∙ Epididymis

6 | P a g e

WEEK THREE

JANUARY 28, 2016

o Store sperm for 6 weeks

o Relatively large before puberty

o Only about 1/9 the size of the testes after maturity

∙ Penis

o Start between 14 & 16 (after the scrotum starts to develop)

o Doubles in length and girth during adolescence

∙ Nocturnal Emissions

o Erection: possible in infancy and childhood

o Ejaculation isn’t possible until puberty

o Semenarche (spermache) – 1st ejaculation

Maturation and Functions of Female Sex Organs

∙ The vagina

o Increases in length 

o mucous lining thickens, becomes more elastic , turns a deeper color

∙ The vulva (external female sex organs)

o The labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris enlarge greatly

∙ Uterus

o Doubles in length from 10 to 18 years of age

∙ Ovaries

o Increases greatly in size and weight

7 | P a g e

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