SOC 3890 Midterm Review Terms
SOC 3890 Midterm Review Terms SOC 3890
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 3890 at Clemson University taught by Dr. White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Criminology in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
SOC 389 Test #1 Review Terms Chapter 1: Crime & Criminology • Criminology: the scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior • Scientific Method: using verifiable principles and procedures for the systematic acquisition of knowledge • Criminologists: researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior • Criminal justice: field of study that focuses on law enforcement, legal system, corrections, and other agencies of justice. • Justice: quality of being fair under the law. Justice is defined by the relationship that exists between the individual and the state • Deviant behavior: behavior that departs from the social norm • Crime typology: conducting research on the links between different types of crime and criminals • Consensus view: crimes are behaviors believed to be repugnant to all elements of society • Social harm: view that behaviors harmful to other people and society in general must be controlled • Conflict view: view that human behavior is shaped by interpersonal conflict and that those who maintain social power will use it to further their own needs • Interactionist view: view that ones perception of reality is significantly influenced by one’s interpretations of the reactions of others to similar events and stimuli • Moral entrepreneurs: interest groups that attempt to control social life and the legal order in such a way as to promote their own personal set of moral values • Common law: standardized law of the land in England and eventually formed the basis of criminal law in the U.S. • Mala in se: acts that are outlawed because they violate basic moral values, such as rape, murder, assault and robbery • Mala prohibitum: acts that are outlawed because they clash with current norms and public opinion, such as tax, traffic, and drug laws • Substantive criminal law: branch of the law that defines crimes and their punishment. Involves such issues as the mental and physical elements of crime, crime categories, and criminal defenses • Procedural criminal laws: laws that set out the basic rules of practice in the criminal justice system • Civil law: set of rules governing relations between private parties, including both individuals and organizations. The civil law is used to resolve, control, and shape such personal interactions as contracts, wills and trusts, property ownership, and commerce • Public (or administrative) law: branch of law that deals with the government and its relationships with individuals or other governments • Felony: a serious offense, such as rape, murder, robbery, or burglary, that is punishable by a prison sentence • Misdemeanor: minor or petty crime, typically punished by a fine, community sentence, or a jail term • Actus reus: guilty actions must be voluntary • Mens rea: guilty mind • Stalking statutes: laws that prohibit “the willful, malicious, and repeated following and harassing of another person Chapter 2: The Nature and Extent of Crime • Uniform Crime Report (UCR): large database, compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, of crimes reported and arrests made each year throughout the US • Index crimes: eight crimes that, because of their seriousness and frequency, the FBI reports the incidence of in the annual UCR. Include murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arson • Part I crimes: another term for index crimes • Part II crimes: all crimes other than index and minor traffic offenses. • Cleared crimes: crimes are cleared in two ways: when someone is arrested, charged, and turned over to court; or by exceptional means like fleeing the country • National Incident-Based Reporting System: a program that requires local police agencies to provide a brief account of each incident and arrest within 22 crime patterns, including incident, victim, and offender information • Sampling: selecting a limited number of people for study as representative of a larger group • Population: all people who share a particular personal characteristic, such as all high school students or all police officers • Cross-sectional survey: survey data derived from all age, race, gender, and income segments of the population measured simultaneously • National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): the ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the U.S. Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violation • Self-Report Surveys: a research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts • Racial profiling: selecting suspects on the basis of their ethnic or racial background • Cohort: a sample of subjects whose behavior is followed over a period of time • Retrospective cohort study: a study that uses an intact cohort of known offenders and looks back into their early life experiences by checking their educational, family, police, and hospital record. • Meta-analysis: a research technique that uses the grouped data from several different studies • Systematic review: a research technique that involves collecting the findings from previously conducted studies, appraising and synthesizing the evidence, and using the collective evidence to address a particular scientific question • Instrumental crimes: offenses designed to improve the financial or social position of the criminal • Expressive crime: crimes that have no purpose except to accomplish the behavior at hand, such as shooting someone • Aging out: most kids who commit crime as teens discontinue their illegal activities as they mature • Masculinity hypothesis: the view that women who commit crimes have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men • Chivalry hypothesis: the idea that low female crime and delinquency rates are a reflection of the leniency with which police treat female offenders • Liberal feminist theory: theory suggesting that the traditionally lower crime rate for women can be explained by their second-class economic and social position • Racial threat hypothesis: the belief that as the percentage of minorities in the population increases, so too does the amount of social control that police direct at minority group members • Career criminals: a person who repeatedly violates the law and organizes his or her lifestyle around criminality • Chronic offenders: a delinquent offender who is arrested five or more times before 18 stands a good chance of becoming an adult criminal • Early onset: the assumption that a criminal career begins early in life and that people who are deviant at a very young age are the ones most likely to persist in crime • Persistence: the idea that those who started their delinquent careers early and who committed serious violent crimes throughout adolescence are the most likely to persist as adults • Continuity of crime: the view that crime begins early in life and continues throughout the life course. • Three strikes: policies whereby people convicted of three felony offenses receive a mandatory life sentence Chapter 3: Victims and Victimization • Victimologists: people who study the victim’s role in criminal transactions • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: psychological reaction to a highly stressful event; symptoms may include depression, anxiety, flashbacks, and recurring nightmares • Obsessive-compulsive disorder: extreme reoccupation with certain thoughts and compulsive performance of certain behaviors • Cycle of violence: the idea that victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves • Elder abuse: a disturbing form of domestic violence by children and other relatives with whom elderly people live • Chronic victimization: those who have been crime victims maintain a significantly higher chance of future victimization • Victim precipitation theory: idea that the victim’s behavior was the spark that ignited the subsequent offense, as when the victim abused the offender verbally or physically • Active precipitation: the view that the source of many criminal incidents is the aggressive or provocative behavior of victims • Passive precipitation: the view that some people become victims because of personal and social characteristics that make them attractive targets for predatory criminals • Lifestyle theory: people may become crime victims because their lifestyle increases their exposure to criminal offenders • Deviant place theory: people become victims because they reside in socially disorganized, high-crime areas where they have the greatest risk of coming into contact with criminal offenders • Routine activities theory: the view that the volume and distribution of predatory crime are closely related to the interaction of suitable targets, motivated offenders, and capable guardians • Suitable targets: according to routine activities theory, a target for crime that is relatively valuable, easily transportable, and not capably guarded • Capable guardians: effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors • Motivated offenders: the potential offenders in a population • Victim-witness assistance programs: government programs that help crime victims and witnesses; may include compensation, court services, and/or crisis intervention • Victim compensation: to help pay for damages associated with crime • Crisis intervention: emergency counseling for crime victims • Restitution agreements: conditions of probation in which the offenders repay society or the victims of crime for the trouble they caused • Target hardening: making one’s home or business crime proof through the use of locks, bars, alarms, and other devices Chapter 7: Social Process Theories • Sociological social psychology: the study of human interactions and relationships, emphasizing such issues as group dynamics and socialization • Socialization: the interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society • Social process or socialization theory: the view that criminality is a function of people’s interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society • Parental efficacy: parenting that is supportive, effective, and noncoercive • Social learning theory: view that human behavior is modeled through ovservation of human social interactions • Social control theory: the view that people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken • Social reaction theory (labeling theory): the view that people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as a personal identity • Differential association theory: according to Sutherland, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person’s exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values • Differential reinforcement theory: explains crime as a learned type of behavior • Direct conditioning: behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others • Differential reinforcement: behavior is reinforced by being either rewarded or punished while interacting with others • Negative reinforcement: negative stimuli or loss of reward to curtail unwanted behavior • Neutralization theory: offenders adhere to conventional values while “drifting” into periods of illegal behavior • Subterranean values: morally tinged influences that have become entrenched in the culture but are publicly condemned. They exist side by side with conventional values and while condemned in public may be admired or practiced in private • Drift: the view that youths move in and out of delinquency and that their lifestyles can embrace both conventional and deviant values. • Commitment to conformity: a strong personal investment in conventional institutions to prevents people from engaging in behavior that might jeopardize their reputation and achievements • Containment theory: the idea that a strong self-image insulates a youth from the pressures and pulls off criminogenic influences in the environment • Social bond: ties a person has to the institutions and processes of society • Symbolic interaction theory: people communicate through symbols • Stigma: an enduring label that taints a person’s identity and changes him or her in the eyes of others • Reflected appraisals: when parents are alienated from their children, their negative labeling reduces their children’s self-image and increases delinquency • Retrospective reading: the reassessment of a person’s past to fit a current generalized label • Dramatization of evil: stigmatized offenders may begin to reevaluate their own identities • Primary deviance: deviant acts that do not help redefine the self-image and public image of the offender • Secondary deviance: accepting deviant labels as a personal identity • Diversion programs: programs of rehabilitation that remove offenders from the normal channels of the criminal justice system, thus avoiding the stigma of a criminal label SOC 389 Test 2 Review Terms
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