study guide for test 2
study guide for test 2 1300-03
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8: Theories nd Sutherland: Differential Association (2 most cited theory) - White collar crime is introduced by Sutherland - argued that in order to engage in criminal misconduct they had to learn/be socialized to behaviors that are favorable to deviant/criminal misconduct - learn strategies for carrying out deviance - looking at delinquent peers and scams - the socialization (learning process) of these attitudes had to be learned in DIRECT interpersonal communication - key: we all interact with different subcultural groups everyday, not necessarily do they share the same attitudes and norms, but the more associations you have with groups whose definitions of behavior/norms were consistent with criminality, the more likely you would get into criminal misconduct - which is first? Did they seek out criminality or did they learn through people then decide they wanted to behave like them - the idea of exposure to “favorable behaviors” that lead to criminal misconduct….can’t be answered because in your every day life you are exposed to attitudes favorable to criminal activity in every part of life Glaser: Differential Identification Theory - How do you know which groups you respond to? - Attracted to some groups more than others - Feel more part of the group - The people in it are more like you - If you identify with a group and want to keep reverence from them Differential Reinforcement Theory - How certain behaviors are reinforced by certain social groups - Groups that support crime make it more likely for you to engage in this behavior - Emotional reward for you - When you are part of a group but you are not recognized then you will end up switching groups - All about rewards Bandura: Social Learning Theory - socialization doesn’t have to be direct (many different modes) - could be through observation - learn through media sources - indirect interaction is also part of the socialization process Drift Theory - when looking at people’s behaviors, people go in and out of deviant behaviors - criminal behavior is sort of “on the side” - Techniques of Neutralization: how do you rationalize or justify getting involved in behavior that is going to victimize someone else? - they argue that part of the learning process teaches you excuses and justifications that allow you to dodge normalcy and get involved in victimizing behavior - learn these things through every part of your life - Techniques: 1. denial of responsibility (ex. I was doing it because everyone else was!) 2. denial of injury (ex. I did it, but nobody was seriously harm so it’s not serious) 3. denial of victim (ex. They did something to cause their victimization) 4. condemnation of condemners (ex. Turning it around on the person questioning you, pointing the finger back, who are you to blame me) 5. appeal to higher loyalties (ex. Engaged in crime for a more important end/goal) Control Theories - focus on individuals behavior is subject to a range of different types of containment (ways in which social groups restrict your engagement in deviance) - Behavior to a certain extent is shaped by outer containments - Like socialization agents (peers, family, educational systems) being overtly taught what is right and wrong - Conventional: according to social mainstream - Inner Containments: regulate yourself, self-control - Both inner and outer influence you - Certain factors involved in trying to keep us bound to conventional society 1. Attachment bond: positive attachment to role models (focus on parents) 2. Commitment: how you feel about the things that “matter” (school, grades, etc.) 3. Involvement: what you do after school or in extra time that is conventional 4. Belief: act in accord with laws because they believe the system is just - Hirschi’s Theory: thought that all the other theories emphasized the wrong things - Look at everyone (normal people included) - Why is it that for the most part people act according to regulations and laws - If we can figure out why people act according to the standards, just reverse that to see why people are criminals - People are selfish (inherent or natural?) - Individuals differ from the group that they are part of - 1970: Deviance/crime as weakened bonds with “conventional” society (family, peers, and schools are the biggest stabilizing influences) - 1990: new emphasis of the theory--deviance/criminality reflects lack of self-control - Control Balance Theory (Tittle): deviance/crime can reflect too much control of too little control - degree you feel you have over others in your life - people who believe that they are in control of a situation when interacting with other individuals, they are going to be manipulators and are more likely to inflict their wills on other people to get immediate self gratification - you either feel too strongly or too minimally about your power Interactional Theory: - you can get into a cycle where you get involved in delinquent activities, you are told that this is wrong and you should be doing/thinking other things - this turns into a cycle and when you’re a teen you don’t want people to tell you what you’re doing is wrong Adolescent Theory: - people who go into chronic criminality came from a bad background (low social class) - caused by ineffective parents Age Grade Theory (?): - look at turning points (life events that are strongly stabilizing) - if you go through one of these events then you are less likely to go into the criminal world (getting married, having kids, having a job) Chapter 9 Conflict Perspectives and Radical Perspectives - Difference between them: - Conflict: focus on the importance of people with power in terms of shaping particular behaviors as being deviant or criminal - Radical: blame capitalism for the problems that you see in crime - Not everyone had the same ideas about what is right and wrong, but some people have greater access to getting their ideas enforced - Power: capacity to be able to get your way despite opposition - Authority: someone who has “legitimate power”—agree that even though you don’t like what someone is saying you still abide by the rules, directs you in terms of your behaviors WITH YOUR CONSENT - Focus on roles of power and authority in these perspectives - Difference between these perspectives and chapter 7&8: 7and 8 focused on explaining why these people engage in criminal behaviors o chapter 9: there isn’t an inherent right and wrong, it depends on the people in the group that has authority, there has to be an established definition o the big thing comes from WHO defines particular activities as being criminal o what are the consequences associated with rules, regulation, and laws o these are enforced by people who have authority o this theory reversed a lot of thought Labeling (Social Reaction Theory) from Lemert and Becker: - emphasis on deviance amplification, self fulfilling prophecy, the relativity of labels, and authority figures - very influential - how the act of defining something as deviant or criminal and being responded to by punitive sanctions, drives people further and further into criminal/deviant behavior - self-fulfilling prophecy: if someone believes something about you, then you start believing it about yourself - When you react really harshly to people that are criminal, you tell them that they are no longer one of us, they incorporate that into their own self image - They self define themselves as being deviant or criminals and live up to your expectations of being involved in criminal/deviant acts - If people are responded to positively early on, you learn that you can improve and develop - If people are pushing you away, your reason for caring about these people goes away because you can’t join their group so you join groups that will accept you (more deviant groups) - Severing ties with mainstream society leads people to go into more subordinate groups - Federal expungement act: if you’re dealing with a first time offender if they apply to have their arrest record erased they can do that -shows up on record that the record has been expunged - Problems with this theory: 1. No emphasis on why people are engaging in deviant/criminal behavior 2. Can’t be too severe with punishments in the beginning because otherwise people are forced into criminality (??) – over responding 3. Victimless crimes ? Vold Devinace/Crime as Culture Conflict - Look at how laws tend to be charged against behaviors that are considered non-cultural or totally countercultural according to people’s immigration status - The dominant cultures decides which rules/regulations are going to observed and carried out in the real world - Deviance/crime came from contradictory view points of right and wrong Terms: Reintegrative shaming: being more understanding and trying to help people get back on the right path, much more lenient Disintegrative shaming: arrested, charged, and convicted and given punitive sanctions, you did us wrong, we do you wrong (more likely to become chronic offenders) Conflict Views Turk: looking at the legal system and how we respond to different people in our society, which is a result of a culture (ethnic) conflict - Looking at different geographic area - Laws on the books reflect laws that the dominant culture (white Anglo-Saxon Protestants) - Laws are differentially enforced on the subordinate groups Marx and Engels: Class conflict, socialism - Bourgeoisie (controlled resources) vs. Proletariat (working class) - Capitalist Society during industrial revolution - Believed that down the line that Capitalism wouldn’t work - Dominant social class that has the power - Differential enforcement based on power - Lumpenproletariat: most likely to get involved in victimizing behaviors - Connections between class and the law * - Laws are passed by the B’s to favor and protect themselves from people who would try to argue/go against them - Instrumental Marxism: laws used to repress dependent class, system is being used to accomplish an end - Structural Marxism: laws used to reinforce Capitalist stratification o Protect the capitalist system Bonger: Capitalism fosters egoism, self-interest - You get yourself up for victimization in Capitalist society - People try to out-do each other, and as a result people victimize other people to obtain status, privilege, material wealth etc. The idea of competition in the US when they present that, it is presented positively, healthy, and good for you Problem with competition: you have winners and losers, but in the game of economics people are dying (?) - there are limits of the benefits of competition Left Realism: conclusions led to policy options that Marxists do not support - well aware that street crime is a result of socioeconomic strata - talking about direct victimization - no matter what your orientation to justice system is the people most likely to be effected are the people on the streets - it needs to be controlled - you need to address this crime factor by increasing support in neighborhoods where crime is more likely - enforcing more in the communities that are more likely to be targeted in the first place Peacemaking Criminology: looks at criminal victimization in general - the justice system takes too much of a role in terms of mediating what is happening between victims and offenders - the two don’t understand each other - need to bring offenders into contact with those who have been victimized and each side states their case and then they TRY to intervene to find a suggested punishment or retaliation against offender that the victim approves/sees fair - try to expose motives and circumstances - doesn’t happen with violent crimes Looking at Women as Offenders - Why are women a lot less likely to be offenders? - Socialization and role modeling - Men are socialized to be more dominant in terms of aggression and control - Why are they more involved in property crime? (or victimless crimes) - Hagan’s Power Control Theory: tries to blame socialization from parentals and involvement with social activities - Family structure: Paternalistic Families—“traditional family”, dad is the primary controller of household, dad is the breadwinner, from this family then your socialization process has different expectations for males and females (enforce control over girls more than the boys), girls are less likely to get involved in risky/delinquent behaviors - Egalitarian Family: mom&dad are relatively equal, females have a more contemporary view=causes more delinquent females Chapter 10: Different Types of Criminal Activity Violent Crime: first 4 offenses in part 1 UCR Homicide: any time that somebody loses their life at the hands of someone else Murder: deliberately decided to kill a person and carried it out Accidental homicide: no culpability related to the offender (accidently hitting someone with your car) Self-defense: killed in a situation where a person was trying to protect himself or herself - Problem for courts: the jury has to buy the fact that you were really in some type of danger - If they didn’t have a weapon on them you can be severely charged - Jury decides what you SHOULD have done Non-Negligent Homicide: you didn’t think about it, you just react (spontaneous), situation where there were precautions you should have but didn’t take Criminal Homicides Murder 1: top charge you can have, talking about a situation where it was premeditated, and whether or not there was the intent to actually kill someone Murder 2: undermine idea that it was deliberated or/and that the intent was to kill - the deliberation was usually to harm, not kill - how much time is necessary to reflect deliberation (jury has to decide this) Negligent Homicide/Manslaughter: Voluntary: killing result of an emotion reaction (pissed off), crimes of passion, tend to emerge from people who are very close to each other (assumed to be a spontaneous reaction, no intent for murder) Involuntary: more common kind of crime; someone acted out of recklessness and as a result of their behavior someone died, usually motor vehicle accidents (drunk driving) Felony Murder: when someone commits a felony and someone else dies in the course of it Data from Text: Attributes of Offenders 1. homicide rates: largely intraracial (white against white, black against black) 2. same with aggravated assaults and forcible rapes ^ 3. 90% of offenders who are charged with murder are males (usually also killing other females) 4. when females murder, they kill males 5. the youth: ages of 15-24 commit a little under 50% of crime (but this is a huge category) 6. region of US that murder is most common in: south - subculture of violence - in the south people are more accepting of using violence to solve interpersonal disputes 7. urban large environments have a high violent crime rate 8. victim/offender relationships, they usually know each other: 1/3 of those people are people who are close to you (family, husband, etc.), 1/3 are friends or acquaintances, 1/3 is unknown (random people) 9. weapon used in most murders: guns (2/3 of the time), second most used: knife (1 in every 5) 10. homicide has been dropping consistently over the past few decades (like all the other offenses) Why does the US have the highest homicide rate? 1. largest income disparity between the wealthy and poor; 2. large availability of more dangerous (?) guns; 3. large consumption of alcohol - Disproportionate amount of blacks involved in homicide (poor=frustration) -Murder is the least likely crime to be committed again from a previous murder offender -Women less involved in homicide, less likely to use guns -Women mostly kill men (abusive relationships, self-defense, gang- related) Mass Murder - Not considered until you kill 4 or more people at one time (FBI) - Most likely to engage: males - People involved in this are in a subordinate position in society (they feel they have been slighted by people) - Primary weapon: firearms - Number based (not motive based) - Higher female causality rate (not by a lot though) - Relatively well educated Serial killing behavior motivations: 1. Hedonistic Lust killers: sexual kick out of killing people, sex with corpses 2. Thrill Killers: excitement, joy from killing 3. Comfort Killers: killing for money or resources (hit-men, heritage, or property), material advancement 4. Mission Killers: people who think they are on a mission, don’t like the “bad guys” (certain groups/categories of people) 5. Visionary Killers: people who kill because they are responding to illusions or hallucinations, think they are hearing from God or just any voice in their head (psychotic, schizophrenic) -Behaviors come before people receive labels* Robbers: when you take or threat to take something from someone else with force -tend to be young (under age of 25) -90% men -tend to be black (56%) -shows up in UCR part 1 offenses -most likely to involves offenders and victims to be strangers 1. Professional: well educated/trained, plan ahead for their stealing, avoid getting caught, typically bigger types of thefts 2. Opportunist (most common): found a circumstance where they could rob someone, didn’t really plan it out before 3. Addict: stealing material resources from people in order to feed their own drug addiction 4. Alcoholic: also addicts, but robbers that are trying to get enough money to keep their alcohol supply going -most people involved in robbery don’t experience injury -if you were involved in a gun robbery you are less likely to sustain an aggravated injury because people are more likely to just give up their stuff Hate Crimes -motivated by hatred for a group of people (race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.) -not always violent (can be property) -these crimes are underreported -not clearly documented -if it determined to be motivated by hate, you get treated more harshly by legal systems -half of hate crimes are white on black crimes -anti-gay offenses are documented more than religious offenses (2 nd rd and 3 most common) Types of Abuse -Child Abuse: taking advantage of the weak, reports vary greatly 1. Physical 2. Sexual 3. Emotional 4. Neglect (most common)
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