Cinema: History and Criticism Study Guide for Test 1 (3/3)
Cinema: History and Criticism Study Guide for Test 1 (3/3) ENGL 212
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by annazeberlein on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 212 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Colleen Glenn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Cinema: History and Criticism in Foreign Language at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Cinema: History and Criticism Study Guide for Test 1 Chapters 1, 10, 2, 3, and 5 Chapter 1 – Encountering Film - Stages of filmmaking o Preproduction § The role of screenwriters • Treatment to • Screenplay or script § Producers and studios • The role of line producers and unit production managers • Expenses o Above the line o Below the line § Financing the production § The role of casting directors and agents § Finding locations, designing sets and costumes • Location scouts • Production designer • Art director • Set decorator • Costume designer o Production § Also know as principal photography § The role of the director • Auteur status § The cast, the cinematographer, and other personnel present on set • The cinematographer’s (also known as the director of photography) use of takes o They oversee the camera operators • The director’s blocking • Sound personnel o Production sound mixer • Lighting personnel o Grips • Special effects coordinators • Production coordinators § The director reviews dailies and makes selects § The production stage ends or the film “wraps” when principal photography is completed and sets are broken down o Postproduction § Editing • When this is finished, the film is “locked” § Sound mix • Soundtracks and scores § Special effects (also known as visual effects) • Green screen tech • Motion capture tech • Computer generated imagery (CGI) § Finished off with titles and credits o Distribution § Can range from movie theaters to streaming and video on demand (VOD) § Distributors • If a film can’t acquire a good distributor, there’s a good chance it won’t get seen • Release strategies o Most common one: block booking o Starts with a premiere o When it first hits the theaters, there’s a first run § Now, wide releases are more common or saturated booking o If a film needs to test the waters first, there is a limited release o A more gradual strategy is platforming o To increase anticipation for a film, the exclusive release strategy is used § Target audiences • Determines if a film will be distributed in certain areas based on the population trends • Also determines if the intended response is received as expected and identifies any unexpected responses § Ancillary markets • Television distribution • Home video, VOD, and streaming o Rise and fall of video stores § Distribution timing • In the US, distribution is aimed for summer and winter holidays § Multiple releases • When a film is released on multiple platforms simultaneously o Ex: in theaters and on demand § Day and date release • Theatrical release window § Repeat viewing • Distribution over multiple releases o Marketing and Promotion § Begins with generating interest • The star system § Advertising • Trailers § Media convergence • Social networking led to the development of viral marketing § High concept, A and B pictures, and other marketing labels • Exploitation films • Blockbusters • Art films § The rating system § Word of mouth and fan engagement o Exhibition § Quickly followed by reception by a group of people, facilitated by exhibitors § Contexts and practices of film exhibition have changed over time • Nickelodeons • Movie palaces • Multiplexes § Technologies and cultures of exhibition § The timing of exhibition • Leisure time vs productive time Chapter 10 – History of Film - Early cinema o Evolution of the Motion Picture § Began with experiments in photography (1830’s and 40’s) • Magic lantern • Zoetrope § Eadweard Muybridge and series photography • 1877 – hired by CA governor Leland Stanford to prove that a horse lifts all four hooves when it runs • Recorded live action continuously with 12 cameras set up so that the horse would trip the shutters as it ran § Jules Marey’s chronophotographic gun • 1882 – used one camera that shot at 12 images per second • Used to study animals, not motion like Muybridge § Celluloid – invented by George Eastman to record film on instead of using expensive and heavy glass plates § Thomas Edison and W.K.L. Dickson • Invented the kinetograph and the kinetoscope in 1892 • They punched holes in the sides of the film strip, allowing for a gear to turn the film in time for the shutter to capture the image more rapidly § Lumiere Brothers • French filmmakers Auguste and Louise invent the cinematographe in 1895 • They were the first groups to show a film to a public audience – birth of cinema § George Melies • While the Lumiere brothers portrayed reality, Melies filmed fiction (early science fiction) § Edwin Porter • Father of the western (American) § Nickelodeon Theatres (1905-1915) • Indoor space dedicated to showing movies • Catered to the working class (loud, noisy) o The purpose of film § Questions about morality, rise of mass culture and fall of high culture § Munsterberg: “Why We Go to the Movies” (1915) • He originally thought he wouldn’t enjoy films but he did • A new form of art o Film takes off § 1910 – film is becoming popular and mainstream § Filmmaking growing as an industry § 1914-20 – first movie theatres are built (ending the Nickelodeon era) § Star system is born § The Birth of a Nation (D.W. Griffith – 1915) • First feature film at 190 minutes • Innovations o “Dream Palace” theatres (1920’s) § New genre of feature films, the theatres must accommodate this § Usually had themes of exotic places o Introduction of sound and color § Influences realism § Vitaphone § Movietone § Theatre conversion o Attempts to control the film industry § 1908 – film companies come together under the direction of Edison and Biograph to create the Motion Picture Patents Company • Declared illegal in 1915 o Studio System (1920s-50s) § Filmmaking moved to the west coast § Large studios popped up after WWI, many of which still exist today § They controlled every aspect of filmmaking, and created many films as a result § German expressionist cinema § The Production Code • Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America, 1922 • Production Code Association, 1934 § End of the studio era • The Paramount Decision of 1948 o Post WWII (1950s) § Competition with the invention of TV • New technologies o Technicolor o Cinemascope o 3D § Rise of the Art House Theatres § Drive-in theatres o 1960s and 70s § New Hollywood § Shift from multiple short films to one feature film § Censorship relaxes § Possibility of indie films o 1970s and 80s § Multiplexes and blockbusters o 1980s § Home viewing with VCRs and Beta platers • Video stores bring rentals into the home, shifting a public form of entertainment to an individual one § Independent theatres struggle § Theatres rely on blockbusters o 1990s to present § Even more indie films § Theatres have to compete with the appeal of the home § Changes the 2000s brought Chapter 2 – Mise-En-Scene - Elements include actors, lighting, sets, settings, costumes, makeup and more - Realism o Scenic realism - Props o Instrumental o Metaphorical o Cultural - Staging o Performance o Blocking - Acting o Stylized o Naturalistic § Historical vs everyday o Theatrical § Expressive vs constructive o Types of actors § Leading § Character § Supporting § Minor - Stars (not just actors) o Shape their characters with their on and offscreen history - Costumes and makeup o Important part of mise-en-scene - Lighting o Natural o Set o Key § High key § Low key o Fill o High o Three point o Directional § Frontal § Side § Under § Top § Back - Genre and mise-en-scene - Louis Giannetti’s 15 ascpects of mise-en-scene o Dominant o Lighting key o Shot and camer proxemics o Angle o Color values o Lens/filter/film stock o Density o Composition o Form o Framing o Depth o Character placement o Staging positions o Character proxemics Chapter 3 – Cinematography - The shot - Point of view o Subjective o Objective o Focus - 4 attributes of the shot o Framing § Usually balanced, if not, canted frame § Aspect ratio determines shape of the frame • Shape determines composition § Masks • Mostly associated with silent movies • Iris shot o Iris in o Iris out § Onscreen space and offscreen space § Camera distance • Close up • Extreme close up • Long shot • Extreme long shot • Medium shot medium long shot • Medium close up § Camera height • High angle shot • Low angle shot • Crane/overhead shot o Depth of field § Deep focus § Shallow focus § Rack/pulled focus o Movement § The mobile frame • Reframing § Pan § Tilt § Tracking/dolly shot § Following shots § Zoom • Zoom in • Zoom out § Handheld shot • Steadicam § Long take o Color § Color vs black and white § Contrast § Tone - Image as presentation or representation o Presence § Phenomenological image § Psychological image o Textuality - Animation o Stop motion photography o Pixilation o Computer generated imagery o Performance capture o Rotoscoping o Visual effects o Special effects o Slow motion o Fast motion o Color filters o Miniatures Chapter 5 – Film Sound - Complements visuals, creates an impression on the audience - 3 major elements o Voice § Human voice § Voice-off • Narrator § Voiceover o Music § Crucial element § Nondiegetic music oddly helps define reality § Background music vs source music § Cue • Narrative cuing • Stingers § Motives § Prerecorded music • Music supervisor • Pop music in film o Sound effects § Taken for granted, but a lot of effort goes into them in post production § Gives the image depth - Relationship between sound and image o Synchronous sound o Asynchronous sound o Parallelism/parallel sound o Contrapuntal sound o Diegetic sound o Nondiegetic sound - Hollywood and sound o Tends to be more conservative, stressing parallelism o Sound and image working together towards a stronger sense of realism - History of film sound o Melodrama o Minstrel tradition and vaudeville o Phonograph (Edison, 1877) o Silent cinema o Vitaphone o Movietone o Sound production § In the early years of sound, there was difficulty synchronizing the new forms of sound § Theatres had to adjust o Dialogue shrunk films within language barriers, national specificity - Sound production o Clapboard o Direct sound o Reflected sound o Production sound mixer § Sound editing • Sound bridge • Spotting § Foley artists § Post-synchronous sound o Automate dialogue replacement § Walla § Room tone o Sound mixing o Sound reproduction o Soundtrack - Dialogue o Overlapping dialogue - Synchronization - Sound continuity and montage
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