POSC 100 Exam #2 Review
POSC 100 Exam #2 Review POSC 100
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaila-Marie Hardaway on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Charles Mahoney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Intro to American Government in Political Science at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Political Science 100 – Test #2 Review Sheet Important Terms and Concepts to Review Election of the president o President is elected by the Electoral college, not directly by the people o Representative democracy Power of the presidency o The president may act quickly (without the approval of Congress) on many important matters o Head of political party o Has the power to veto o Unitary powers – executive orders, executive agreements, signing statements, presidential proclamations, national security directives, and regulatory reviews o The power of the president has grown significantly since the founding of the country Functions of the presidency Development of presidential powers o The framers envisioned the President to have limited powers o Because of the vague language in the Constitution, the role of the president as been able to expand President and Congress o Although the president is the Commander-In- Chief of the military, Congress has the power to declare war o This power is deliberately split between these two branches to force them to work together on such a key issue o Executive branch is managed by the president, but funded by Congress Commander-in-Chief o The president serves as the commander-in- chief of the armed forces o President can order US troops to fight when the country is attacked or attack appears imminent Defensive War o A war where at least one nation is mainly trying to defend itself from another Offensive War o A war where both sides are trying to invade and conquer each other Bureaucracy o Large organizations in which many people with specialized knowledge are organized into a clearly defined hierarchy Privatization o Contracting out some duties of the executive branch to private corporations o In some cases, the private sector is more efficient than government Congress o Legislative branch o Center of lawmaking in the fed. Government o The framers viewed Congress as the most powerful branch of government o Bicameral legislature o Enumerated powers – collect taxes, borrow money, regulate commerce, coin money, declare war, raise an army o Elastic cause: “The Congress shall have power – to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper…” Senate o Two senators for each state o Six year terms o 1/3 of senators up for election every two years o Elected via statewide contests o Has the power to conduct trial of the president and remove him from office o Filibuster House of Representatives o Each state’s number of representatives is based on the population size of that state o Two year terms of office o Has the power to impeach the president Redistricting o As long as district lines do not unduly disadvantage racial and ethnic groups, congressional districts can be drawn in any way legislatures choose Apportionment o The determining factor of the proportional number of members each US state send to the House of Representatives o Based on population figures Gerrymandering o Dominant state parties drawing districts that favor their partisan interests Bicameralism o The legislative branch is divided into two separate legislatures: House of Representatives and Senate Supreme Court o Assesses the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government and by the state o An important policy-making institution o The power of judicial review – gives the courts the power to declare unlawful actions of the other branches of government o Supreme ruler of the land o Decisions are final o Justices are nominated by the president and confirmed by Senate o Justices serve for life and hear about 80 cases per year Divided Government o When one party controls the presidency while the other party controls Congress Dissenting Opinion o An opinion written by one or more judges that does not concur with the judgment delivered by the majority of judges hearing the case. Majority Opinion o A judicial opinion agreed by more than half of the members of a court. o Majority opinion sets forth the decision of the court and an explanation of the rationale behind the court’s decision Concurring Opinion o A written opinion by one or more judges of a court which agrees with the decision made by the majority of the court, but states different (or additional) reasons as the basis for his/her decision
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