Exam 3 study guide
Exam 3 study guide CBIO2210
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Weidner on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CBIO2210 at University of Georgia taught by Rob Nichols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Anatomy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
CBIO 2210 Exam 3 Study Guide Topics: Cardiac Output-slides 51-56 Vessel Structure-slides 3-14, 21-22 Circulatory Physiology-slides 23-30 Respiratory Anatomy and Ventilation-slides 2-35 Top Hat Questions 1. According to Frank-Starling, stroke volume is most closely related to… o End diastolic volume 2. Negative inotropic agents would include all of the following except o Norepinephrine o Hypocalcemia o Hyperkalemia o Acidosis 3. Hypertension can cause (pick 2) o Reduced stroke volume o Reduced afterload (wrong because causes increased afterload) o Increased end-systolic volume 4. An increase in vessel diameter is called ______ As a result of this, the resistance in the vessel_____ o Vasodilation, decreases o Vasodilation, increases o Vasoconstriction, increases o Vasoconstriction, decreases 5. Which of the following is NOT performed by the respiratory system? o Transport of respiratory gases from the lungs to the tissues(job of circulatory system) o Clean and moisten incoming air o Providing an airway for the ventilation pf air into and out of the lungs o Provide a surface for the exchange of gasses between air and blood 6. Which of the following regions of the respiratory system is the only region that is NOT kept open by hyaline cartilage? o Nose o Trachea o Bronchi o Bronchioles 7. Which of the following regions of the respiratory system is not lined by ciliated epithelium? o Alveoli (would get clogged if there was mucus that the cilia move) o Nasal cavities o Trachea o Left primary (main) bronchus 8. When the volume of a chamber containing a gas increases, the pressure____. This principle is known as _____ o Decreases, Hooke’s law o Decreases, Boyle’s law o Increases, Hooke’s law o Increases, Boyle’s law 9. Atelectasis can occur when: o The intrapleural pressure equalizes with atmospheric pressure 10. Air moves into the lungs because: o The pulmonary pressure (P pul) is less than the atmospheric pressure (P atm) 11. What causes greatest influence on resistance? o Bronchiole diameter Cardiac Output 1. Cardiac output is a function of ____ and ____ a. Heart Rate and Stroke Volume 2. What is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute called? a. Cardiac output (CO= HR x SV) 3. What is a normal heart rate? a. 75 bpm 4. What regulates HR? a. Autonomic nervous system i. regulated by SA node, 1. increased by sympathetic: norepinephrine and epinephrine *ex: exercise, fright, anxiety* 2. slowed by parasympathetic: acetylcholine 5. What is stroke volume? a. how much blood pumped from the heart at end of first beat 6. What 3 factors control/regulate SV? a. Preload, contractility, afterload 7. Which is considered the most significant factor affecting SV? a. Preload 8. Define each of these factors. a. Preload: the amount of stretch of cardiac muscle cells (filling) before they contract (directly affected by End Diastolic Volume) b. Contractility: the “innate” contractile strength of cardiac muscle cells c. Afterload: the pressure that must be overcome for ventricles to eject blood i. Like opening a door when someone pushing back 9. Which of these factors represents an optimal zone in the length-tension relationship between actin and myosin? a. Preload 10. What is the major factor that increases the heart’s force of contraction? a. Calcium concentration in cardiac myocyte cytoplasm 11. What are positive inotropic agents? Give examples a. chemicals or hormones that increase contractility i. Ca 2+ ii. thyroxine iii. sympathetic stimulation 1. direct innervation from cardio acceleratory center (↑NE) 2. indirectly by blood born epinephrine 12. How do negative inotropic agents affect contractility? Give examples a. Decrease it i. acidosis (excessive extracellular H+ disrupts the pacemaker potentials); COPD or renal insufficiency can cause blood to be more acidic than I needs to be ii. increased serum K+ (hyperkalemia); renal insufficiency iii. calcium-channel blockers 13. Hypertension decreases afterload (T/F) a. False b. Hypertension increases afterload because it causes the ventricles to open later and close sooner due to the pressure pushing back. This causes less blood to get out of the ventricle 14. Hypertension results in ____ ESV (how much blood when finished contracting) and ___SV a. Increased, reduced 15. What is isovolumetric contraction? a. time when ventricle starts to contract but valve not open yet (how much contraction needed is determined by EDV) 16. What are the 3 major factors that contribute to the amount of friction? a. Viscosity (number or erythrocytes contributes to this) i. Increase viscosity increases PR b. Vessel diameter i. Increase vessel diameter decreases PR c. Vessel length i. Increase vessel length increases PR 17. When the heart is at rest there is no pressure (T/F) a. False, there is still a good amount of pressure when the heart is diastolic (about 80 mmHg) 18. What is the normal blood pressure for an adult? a. 120/80 19. What do the top and bottom numbers of a given blood pressure stand for? a. Top: systolic b. Bottom: diastolic 20. According to Frank-Starling, stroke volume is most closely related to… a. End diastolic volume 21. What does it mean when we say that systolic pressure is a cardiac function and diastolic pressure is a vascular function? a. Systolic-pressure blood puts on vessel b. Diastolic- pressure the vessel puts on blood 22. For reference: (sorry it is a little blurry) Physiology of Circulation 23. What is the volume of blood flowing through a vessel called? a. Blood flow b. Blood flow is proportional to pressure gradient and inversely proportional to resistance 24. What is blood pressure? a. the force that blood exerts on the vessel wall of the vessel that it’s in (this pressure gradient is what causes blood to flow) 25. Where is the blood pressure greatest? a. Aorta 26. Blood pressure gets ___ the farther it gets from the aorta a. Lower 27. The heart pushes the blood away from it to circulate it to the rest of the body (T/F) a. False, the blood flows as a result of going to places of lower pressure. 28. What is the opposition to ﬂow/function of the friction between blood and vessel walls? a. Resistance 29. What does MAP stand for? a. Mean Arterial Pressure 30. Arterial BP is a function of the force with which the heart ejects blood and the elastic recoil of the elastic arteries near the heart 31. Pulse Pressure = systolic pressure-diastolic pressure 32. Since BP ﬂuctuates with each heartbeat, MAP is the average force that drives blood ﬂow a. MAP = ⅓(PP) + DP b. MAP = ⅓(SP - DP) + DP c. ((120-80)/3) + 80 = 93.3 mm Hg d. Notice how low the MAP becomes in veins…this decrease in pressure is the reason the blood goes towards veins 33. What is venous return? a. Blood coming back into the right atrium of the heart 34. What things help the blood get back to the heart? a. Respiratory “pump” i. decreased intrathoracic pressure during inspiration ii. Taking deep breath increases slightly the overall cardiac output b. Muscular “pump” i. skeletal muscles around veins ii. venous valves ensure one-way ﬂow iii. When muscles contract squeezes veins and because of the valves in the veins, the blood gets pushed up to the heart (makes you feel good when you exercise) c. Smooth muscle in tunica media (provides ANS control) Circulatory Shock 35. What is circulatory shock? a. Any condition in which cardiac output is inadequate to meet the tissue demands of the body 36. List the signs of circulatory shock. a. low BP (hypotension) b. rapid HR (tachycardia) c. poor “end-organ” perfusion(blood flow through the organ) (confusion, LOC, low urine output) 37. What are the causes of circulatory shock? a. low/poor venous return: CO is low because not enough blood is returning to heart (low preload) (due to traumatic injury/loss pf blood) b. Pressure in vessels is inadequate to force blood into the capillaries (perfusion) c. cardiogenic: CO is low due to myocardial infarction (heart attack) i. hypovolemic (loss of volume) ii. vascular (normal volume) (lost no blood, when blood vessels vasodilate) 1. neurogenic iii. anaphylactic (result of allergy, drop in BP because vessels vasodilate) iv. septic (infection of the blood-usually bacterial) 1. strep and staff both cause vasodilation if get in blood Vessels and Vessel Walls 38. What are blood vessels? a. System of tubes for ﬂuid delivery that begins and ends with the heart 39. What is the deepest vessel wall? a. Tunica intima 40. What is the Tunics Intima made up of? a. Endothelium b. Basement membrane c. In capillaries these are the only two layers d. in arteries only, there’s an elastic layer between the basement membrane and the next layer (the internal elastic lamina) e. in veins only, there are valves that extend from the endothelium Arteries and Arterioles 41. Describe elastic arteries, muscular arteries and arterioles. a. Elastic (conducting) arteries i. closest to heart ii. largest lumen, least resistance (ﬁrst contribution to afterload) iii. pressure reservoirs (elastic recoil) iv. longer we live lose more elasticity b. Muscular (distributing) arteries i. thickest tunica media(smooth muscles that vasoconstrict or vasodilate): most inﬂuenced by ANS providing autonomic control of BP ii. carry blood into speciﬁc organs iii. acetylcholine causes vasodilation iv. epinephrine and norepinephrine cause vasoconstriction in these vessels c. Arterioles i. smallest arteries, no elastic laminae or tunica externa ii. greatest control over BP iii. feed into capillaries 42. Compare what happens to the elastic arteries during ventricular systole vs diastole. a. During ventricular systole, elastic arteries nearest the heart absorb the energy of the ejected blood i. stretch like rubber bands b. During ventricular diastole, their recoil helps to “conduct” (or carry away) the blood further along i. recoil keeps blood moving even during diastole 43. Capillaries are “exchange vessels” which move O2, CO2, waste and nutrients in/out of the blood(T/F) a. True 44. Where are fenestrated capillaries found? a. Where large amounts of materials ae rapidly filtered (kidneys/ small intestine) 45. What are the woven network of capillaries within tissues called? a. Capillary beds 46. What is the role of a precapillary sphincter? a. To regulate flow into “true” capillaries i. allows micromanagement of volume in capillary bed ii. controls routing of blood iii. made of smooth muscle, micromanage individual blood flow 47. Most of the time precapillary sphincters are in a dynamic state of bypass where some are open and some closed (T/F) a. true Respiratory System Anatomy (chapter 22) Functions 48. What are the functions of the respiratory system? Which is the primary function? a. Primary Function: i. Oxygenate blood for (and remove CO2 produced by) cellular respiration 1. This is one of the mechanisms for controlling blood pH (Co2 not so much O2) b. Secondary functions that support the primary: i. maintain an airway for ventilation ii. filter and clean incoming air iii. warm and moisten incoming air iv. recapture the heat and moisture of outgoing air 49. The 4 processes of Respiration 50. Describe pulmonary ventilation a. Bringing air into the pockets (alveoli) which have capillaries so that diffusion can happen (gas axchange/externalrespiration) 51. What happens during external respiration? a. Gas exchange/ O2 and CO2 Tracheobronchial Tree 52. What are the three layers of air tubes and what kind of tissue are they made of? a. mucosa (epithelium) (one he wants to focus more on) b. submucosa (connective tissue) c. adventitia (serous) 53. These may be wrapped by what tissue that constricts the air tubes? a. Smooth muscle 54. What is the function of the ring of cartilage in the tracheobronchial tree? a. They provide structure and maintain the airway by keeping the tubes open b. It is C shaped instead of a ring to allow the esophagus to expand 55. What is the official end of the trachea called? a. Carina (where trachea splits) 56. What is the respiratory mucosa made up of? a. Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium 57. What is the roll of the cilia in the respiratory mucosa? a. They wave back and forth to push the mucus from the goblet cells along the trachea until it reaches the underside of the vocal cords. 58. What are the 3 levels of the Bronchi? a. Primary (main) i. Left and right b. Secondary (lobar) i. 3 right ii. 2 left c. Tertiary i. lead to bronchopulmonary segments (each lung has about 10 of these segments) 59. Describe the characteristics of bronchioles a. <1 mm diameter (very small) b. *no cartilage rings* c. cuboidal epithelium(getting thinner!) d. mucus very thick to prevent infections 60. What is a terminal bronchioles? a. Where the bronchioles have no further branches before becoming a respiratory bronchiole 61. Where does the respiratory zone begin (gas exchange)? a. At the respiratory bronchioles 62. What is the main function of the alveoli? a. The “sac” structure allow a lot of surface area for gas exchange 63. What type of tissue are alveoli made up of? a. Simple squamous epithelium 64. Review of structural changes 65. What is the purpose of the elastin bands surrounding each alveolus? a. Helps them expand when we breathe 66. What are the three types of cells in an alveoli a. Type I cells i. Simple squamous cells ii. Make up wall (bricks) b. Type II cells i. Part of wall too ii. Secrete surfactant c. Alveolar macrophages 67. What is the very thin membrane that is the site for gas exchange/diffusion because it gets pressed up against the blood cells? a. Respiratory membrane 68. What are the three layers of the respiratory membrane? a. alveolar epithelium b. capillary endothelium c. shared basement membrane “dust” cells 69. The alveoli have a fluid with surfactant that lines the entire surface to create a fluid boundary between air and cells Respiratory System Physiology: Ventilation 70. There are 3 phases of ventilation (T/F) a. False, there are two: inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out) 71. Gases move from high pressure to low pressure (T/F) a. True 72. What are the two possible ways air can be made to move into and out of the lungs? And which of the two does our body use? a. Change pressure in chest or pressure of whole atmosphere…easier to just alter own chest cavity 73. How do the lungs alter pressures to accomplish inspiration/expiration? a. Change volume of thoracic cavity which changes pressure 74. Who is Robert Hooke? a. Robert Boyle’s assistant who discovered Boyle’s law by making a vacuum, 75. What does Boyle’s law state? a. Pressure varies inversely with volume i. ↑ V ↓ P ii. ↓ V ↑ P Mechanics of Breathing 76. Our breathing method requires a very specific atmospheric pressure to work properly, so when we suddenly go in high altitudes it is very hard to breathe. (T/F) a. False. Our breathing method adapts to change in atmospheric pressure, otherwise it would be very hard to breathe when you ride an airplane. 77. What does Ppul stand for and what is it? a. Intrapulmonary pressure b. A combination of pressure in all the alveoli in the lungs 78. Ppul is easy to measure (T/F) a. False, it is hard to measure 79. In order to breathe in the Ppul must be higher or lower than the Patm? a. Lower 80. In order to breathe out the Ppul must be higher or lower than the Patm? a. Higher 81. Ppul equalizes with what between inspiration (breathing in) and expiration (breathing out)? a. Patm (atmospheric pressure) 82. What does Pip stand for? a. Intrapleural pressure 83. Name two characteristics of Pip. a. Always negative (always less than Ppul and Patm) b. Fluctuates with breathing 84. What does Ptp stand for? a. Transpulmonary pressure 85. How do you find Ptp? a. It is not measurable, it is the difference between Ppul and Pip 86. Ptp should always be positive (T/F) a. True 87. What does it mean if Ptp is zero and what happens? a. This means that Ppul=Pip and this would cause the lungs to collapse 88. What is the term for a collapsed lung? a. Atelectasis 89. What causes Atelectasis? a. Traumatic injury that admits air and/or blood into pleural cavity i. result: P ip equalizes to P atm b. Plugged bronchioles (such as in COPD) i. loss of air pressure in bronchioles (need air pressure to keep them inflated, no cartilage rings) ii. leads to progressive collapse of alveoli c. most are just spontaneous 90. Inspiration and Expiration 91. Inspiration is an ____ process a. Active (requires constant muscle contraction of the diaphragm) 92. What inspiratory muscles contract to increase thoracic volume when resting? When being active? a. Diaphragm b. External intercostals (outer layer of muscles between ribs) 93. Is expiration an active or passive process? a. Both, it can be passive when relaxed (just sitting breathing) 94. Expiration is known as a “controlled collapse” of the lungs 95. What forces act on your lungs, trying to collapse them? a. Pro-collapse: elastic fibers & fluid lining alveolus b. Anti-collapse: negative Pip & surfactant 96. If relaxed expiration is passive then how does the intrapulmonary volume decrease when we breathe out? a. There is an elastic recoil from the fibers 97. When is expiration an active process? a. During forced expiration (coughing, sneezing, blowing out candles) 98. What muscles perform the active expiration? a. Internal intercostals (deeper layer on rib cage) and abdominal muscles Factors Influencing Ventilation 99. What are the three main factors influencing ventilation? i. Resistance, alveolar surface tension, compliance ii. *if there is an obstruction in the airway, they expiratory muscles will be needed to overcome resistance, even during relaxed expiration* 100. What is the greatest contributor to airway resistance? Why? i. Bronchioles because they are so small 101. What causes acute asthma attacks? i. reduction of bronchial diameter due to inflammatory response (histamine) ii. R is so high that flow is impaired or stopped regardless of ΔP 102. What effect does epinephrine have on the bronchioles? i. Dilates them 103. What is surface tension? i. attraction of liquid molecules for each other at gas-liquid interface 104. Surface tension resists expansion of surface area (T/F) i. True 105. The greater the surface tension, the greater the pressure necessary to inflate the . lungs 106. What role does surface tension have in the lungs? i. Pulls the alveoli in (this would cause the lung to collapse if it wasn’t for surfactant/ Type II alveolar cells) 107. Surfactant increases surface tension (T/F) i. False, it decrease it by equalizing surface tension in all alveoli, thus reducing the pressure necessary to inflate the lungs 108. What causes Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome? i. sufficient surfactant not produced until around 30 – 32 weeks of fetal development 109. What is compliance? i. the measure of how easy it is to inflate something. 110. What does it mean when something has high compliance? i. It is easy to inflate 111. What are the two primary factors of compliance? i. distensibility (“stretch”) of the lung tissue 1. generally high in healthy lungs ii. alveolar surface tension reduces compliance 1. kept low by surfactant 112. higher compliance means less effort by____ i. the respiratory system 113. What causes fibrosis and what does it result in? i. due to chronic inflammation/infections 1. results in replacement of healthy elastic fibers with non-elastic scar tissue Key Concepts 114. Flow of air in and out of the lungs (ventilation) is determined by_______ i. pressure gradients. 115. Pressure gradients are determined by_____ i. volume changes (Boyle) 116. Resistance and compliance are factors that affect ventilation a. resistance impairs flow (primarily at bronchioles due to greatest cross-sectional area) b. surface tension impairs compliance (reduced by surfactant)
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