Bio 160 Exam 2 Study Guide
Bio 160 Exam 2 Study Guide Bio 160
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christina Bouchillon on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 160 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Madision in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Bio 160 Exam 2 Study Guide: Learning Objectives by Chapter • Exocytosis • Endocytosis • Receptor-mediated endocytosis • Autophagy • Phagocytosis • Spontaneous reaction • Nonspontaneous reaction • Exergonic • Endergonic • Exothermic • Endothermic • Enthalpy • Entropy • Free energy • Kinetic energy (thermal energy) • Potential energy (chemical energy) • Cofactor • Coenzyme • Prosthetic group • Catabolic pathway • Anabolic pathway • Induced fit Chapter 7: • List the four key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 1. Eukaryotes have a nucleus enclosed in a nuclear envelope and prokaryotes have nonmembrane bound nucleoids. 2. Eukaryotes can be multicellular and unicellular whereas prokaryotes are only unicellular. 3. Eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes. 4. Eukaryotes have extensive compartmentalization with larger number of organelles than prokaryotes. • Compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells Plant cells have chloroplasts and cell wall. Animal cells have centrioles. They have all the same organelles other than those above. • Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the following components: peroxisomes, rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, nucleus, ribosomes, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cell wall Peroxisomes- Structure: Macromolecule transportation; enzymes that catalyze oxidation; -Function: oxidation of fatty acids, ethanol, etc. Rough ER- Structure: receptors for selected proteins; ribosomes. -Function: protein synthesis and processing. Smooth ER- Structure: enzymes for phospholipid synthesis. -Function: lipid synthesis and processing GA- Structure: receptors for RER products; stack of flattened cisternae; -Function: proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Lysosomes- Structure: proton pumps, acid hydrolases. -Function: digestion and recycling. Vacuoles- Structure: varies-pigments, oils, carbs, water, or toxins. -Function: varies- coloration or storage. Nucleus- Structure: double envelope (nuclear pores); chromosomes. -Function: information storage and transmission. Ribosomes- Structure: complex of RNA and proteins. -Function: protein synthesis. Chloroplasts- Structure: pigments, enzymes for photosynthesis. -Function: Photosynthesis. Mitochondria- Structure: double membrane, enzymes for ATP production. -Function: ATP production. Cytoskeleton- Structure: actin, intermediate filaments, microtubules -Function: Cell structural support and movement. Plasma membrane- Structure: transport and receptor proteins, phospholipid bilayer. - Function: selectively permeable; maintains intracellular environment. Cell Wall- Structure: carbohydrate fibers -Function: Cell structural support and protection in plants cells. • Compare different types of light and electron microscopy 1. Light microscopy allows us to look at living cells. 2. Electron microscopy allows us to look at dead cells more closely, & the surface features of small cells. • Explain how size, NLS, and the nuclear pore complex regulate molecules from passing through nuclear pores -nuclear pores function as door in/out of nucleus -Nuclear proteins are synthesized in the cytosol and contain a Nuclearlocalization signal (NSL) which allows it to be recognized as something that can be transported to the nucleus through nuclear pores. -nuclear pore complex= structure of combined nuclear pores consisting of many protein molecules • Describe how proteins are processed through the endomembrane system Cytoplasm > ER: ER signal sequence- sequence of amino acids that move proteins into ER lumen 20 amino acid signals to a signal recognition particle (SRP) 1. signal sequence synthesizes 2. signal sequence binds to SRP 3. SRP binds to receptor 4. SPR released 5. Protein fed into ER lumen ER> Golgi: imported via vesicles to CIS end of GA -proteins exit via TRANS end of GA. Golgi> out: proteins are tagged, stored & interact w/ receptors. ENTERS Rough ER: synthesizes the proteins. Exits ER inside a vesicle, travels to CIS end of GA. Cis-GA: protein enters GA and begins the processing. Trans-GA: protein exits the GA by vesicles once cisterna has matured. >>> Protein secreted from cell into plasma membrane • Define: Exocytosis: The moving of large molecules to outside of cell by transport vesicles Endocytosis: The absorbing of materials inside the cell vesicle Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis: Macromolecules bind to receptors on outside of cell and folds inward into vesicle Autophagy: Damaged organelle surrounded by membrane is delivered to lysosome and then the components are digested/recycled. (Eating itself) Phagocytosis: A cell engulfs a smaller cell and packages it within a food vacuole • Describe the size, structure, and function of the three cytoskeletal elements (and associated motor proteins) found in eukaryotes Actin Filaments- Structure: plus and minus end (plus end grows faster), double helical with actin proteins. -Function: Involved in movement. Myosin (thick filament) and actin (thin filament) make up muscle. Both are motor proteins. Intermediate Filaments- Structure: fibers wound like cable. Function: purely structural; flexible skeleton, maintain cell shape. (no motor functions) Microtubules- Structure: large, hollow tube. Function: structure/support/cell shape, movement, cell division. • Explain how motor proteins use the potential energy stored in ATP to move Dynein, kinesin, & myosin (motors proteins) hydrolyze ATP to move. Motor proteins “walk” along cytoskeletal elements. Kinesin “walks” along microtubule track Chapter 8: • Define: Spontaneous reaction: run in the direction that lowers the free energy of system Nonspontaneous reaction: opposite of spontaneous Exergonic: spontaneous and release energy Endergonic: nonspontaneous and energy is needed to start the reaction (no ATP) Exothermic: Heat is released in a reaction Endothermic: Heat is absorbed in the reaction Enthalpy: Total energy in a reaction Entropy: Measure of disorder in a system Free energy: energy that is able to be used by system Kinetic energy (thermal energy): Energy of motion Potential energy (chemical energy): Stored energy. Is stored in position of e-. Cofactor: Inorganic ions which reversibly interact with enzymes Coenzyme: organic molecules that reversibly interact with enzymes Prosthetic group: Non-amino acid atoms or molecules that are permanently attached to proteins Catabolic pathway: Metabolic pathways that break down carbon molecules for Energy sources Anabolic pathway: Metabolic pathways that use energy and carbon building blocks to synthesis molecules Induced fit: Enzyme forms to fit the substrate in a certain position that allows the substrates to line up. • Explain why changes in enthalpy and entropy are used to determine whether a reaction is spontaneous Change in Gibbs free energy equation: ΔG = Δ H – Δ S ΔH=enthalpy; ΔS=entropy ΔH= --, products have less potential energy than reactants ΔS= --, more order in products spontaneous= ( ΔG<0) & exergonic (releases energy) nonspontaneous= (ΔG>0) & endergonic (requires energy) Enthalpy: Total energy in a reaction Entropy: Measure of disorder in a system • Identify what is being reduced and what is being oxidized in a redox reaction “OIL”= Oxidation Is Loss of electron “RIG”= Reduction Is Gain of electron Oxidized= NAD+, FAD Reduced= NADH Exergonic reaction= oxidation Endergonic reaction= reduction • Explain why reduced molecules with many C-H bonds store more potential energy than oxidized molecules with many C-O bonds -Because carbon is reduced (gains an e- and proton) in C-H bonds, whereas it is oxidized in C-O bonds. • Explain why ATP has such high potential energy Three negative charges on phosphorus molecules • Explain what energetic coupling means and why life would not exist without it Energetic coupling= Chemical energy released from one reaction to drive another. -If the energy given off by exergonic (exothermic/spontaneous) reactions is not used by the endergonic (endothermic/nonspontaneous) reactions, then where would the endergonic reactions get the energy needed to start? – Transfer of high-energy electrons – Transfer of a phosphate group • Understand how enzymes speed up chemical reactions Lower activation energy by stabilizing the transition state and bring substrates together by induced fit • Explain how an enzyme’s active site can reduce the activation energy of a reaction It can bring substrates together in the correct position that allows for the reaction to take place. (Induced Fit) (hand shake) • Explain how temperature, pH, competitive inhibition, allosteric regulation, protein cleavage, and phosphorylation can regulate enzyme function -Temperature affects movement. -pH affects shape and reactivity. -Competitive inhibition is when an inhibitor binds to the active site instead of the -substrate (this could make the enzyme useless). -Allosteric regulation is when an inhibitor attaches to the enzyme somewhere other than the active site (this could activate or deactivate the enzyme). • Predict how the removal of the intermediate in a two-step metabolic pathway would affect the enzymatic rates of the first and last Speed up the first rate and slow down/stop the last rate Low product (active) High product (inactive) Chapter 9: • Explain the overall equation for cellular respiration C6H12O6+6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O. Glucose and oxygen go in; water and carbon dioxide come out. • Compare the reactants, products, location in the cell (in eukaryotes and prokaryotes), and energy yield of the following stages of cellular respiration (glycolysis, pyruvate processing, citric acid cycle, and electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation) Glycolysis: input= 1glucose, 2ATP, 4ADP, 2NAD+. Output= 2NADH, 4ATP, 2ADP 2pyruvate. Location=cytoplasm for both Eukary and Prokary. Energy yield=2ATP Pyruvate Processing: input= 2pyruvate, 2NAD+, 2CoA. Output= 2NADH, 2Acetyl CoA, 2CO2. Location=mitochondrial matrix for Eukary and cytoplasm for Prokary. Energy yield= 0ATP Citric Acid Cycle: input= 2Acetyl CoA, 2ADP, 2FAD, 6NAD+. Output= 2ATP, 6NADH, 2FADH2, 2CoA, 4CO2. Location=mitochondrial matrix for Eukary and cytoplasm for Prokary. Energy yield= 2ATP ET/OP: input= 25ADP, 2FADH2, 10NADH, 6O2. Output= 25ATP, 2FAD, 10NAD+, 6H2O. Location= inner mitochondrial membrane for Eukary and cytoplasm for Prokary. Energy yield= 25ATP. • Explain why many different molecules (including lipids, amino acids, CO )2are radiolabeled when cells are fed glucose with 1C radioactive carbon ***** • Explain how an electrochemical gradient is established and how it is used to generate ATP in the electron transport chain The ETC creates a proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis by transporting protons across the inner membrane of mitochondria from the matrix to the intermembrane space. This establishes a gradient through ATP synthase which creates ATP when protons flow through it. • Compare the reactants, products, and energy yield of aerobic metabolism versus lactic acid fermentation and alcohol fermentation Aerobic metabolism: See above Lactic Acid Fermentation: Input= Glucose. Output= 2 Lactic acid. Energy Yield= 2ATP Alcohol Fermentation: Input= Glucose. Output= 2 Ethyl alcohol. Energy Yield= 2ATP • Indicate where fermentation occurs in the cell Mitochondrial matrix • Describe products that are made by utilizing the fermentation capability of various microorganisms Bread, beer, wine, cheese, yogurt, pickles etc. • Explain why organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways seldom ferment pyruvate if an electron acceptor at the end of the ETC is readily available **** • Predict the effect of a drug that inhibits a particular aspect of cellular respiration It would decrease the efficiency of ATP production. Chapter 10: • Explain the overall equation for photosynthesis in plants 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2. Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy produce glucose and oxygen through photosynthesis • Explain why photosynthesis is important to all living organisms Photosynthesis gives producers energy which then is transferred to other organisms through consumption and travels through the ecosystem. • List the types of organisms that carry on photosynthesis Plants, some fungi, some bacteria • Compare the reactants, products, location in the cell (in eukaryotes and prokaryotes), and energy yield of the following stages of photosynthesis (light-capturing reactions and the Calvin cycle) Light-capturing reactions: Input= ADP, Light energy, H2O, NADP+. Output: ATP, O2, NADPH. Location= thylakoids for Eukaryotes Calvin Cycle: Input= ATP, NADPH, CO2. Output= ADP, NADP+, sugar. Location= stroma for Eukaryotes • Explain why leaves are green with reference to the electromagnetic spectrum Chlorophyll a and b absorb all wavelengths of visible light except for green which is reflected and why leaves are green. • Describe the role of pigments in the light-capturing reactions They are responsible for absorbing the wavelengths of light. When a red or blue photon strikes a pigment, it excites an electron which is then transferred to a nearby chlorophyll molecule. • Compare and contrast the flow of electrons in mitochondria and chloroplasts (what are the primary electron donors and terminal electron acceptors, and how do they differ in terms of energy?) Mitochondria: O2; FAD+/FADH. Chloroplasts: H2O; NADP+/NADPH. • Explain how ATP is synthesized in the light-capturing reactions Protons flow through ATP synthase creating a water-and-dam relationship that powers ATP synthase. • List the three phases of the Calvin cycle Fixation: RuBP + CO2 => 3PGA Reduction: 3PGA + ATP + NADPH => G3P Regeneration: G3P + ATP => RuBP • Explain how photorespiration affects the number of photons required to produce one glucose molecule It decreases the rate of glucose production; therefore, it increases the amount of photons needed. O2 binds to RuBP instead of CO2 which wastes energy and produces CO2 when it needs the carbon to produce 2 3-C molecules. • Understand the role of stomata in photosynthesis It opens to allow the necessary gas exchange that powers the Calvin Cycle. However, it closes when it is hot or dry so it does not lose the water that powers the other half of photosynthesis. • Compare and contrast C , C3, a4d CAM plants C3: Stomata is closed in hot and dry weather. Most common type. Takes place in the same cell. CO2 is converted to a three carbon molecule first in the Calvin cycle C4: Separated by cells. Takes place in two different cells. More efficient for hot and dry. CO2 is converted to a four carbon molecule before Calvin cycle CAM: Separated by time (Day: stomata is closed. Night: stomata is open and the gases are stored in vacuoles until day which then uses the sunlight and stored gases to go through photosynthesis) • Predict the effect of a chemical that inhibits a particular aspect of photosynthesis It will not produce the sugars or O2 needed by other processes.
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