Study Guide for Pols 155
Study Guide for Pols 155 POLS 155
Popular in Intro to American Government
Popular in Political Science
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Dhont on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 155 at California State University Chico taught by Craig Scarpelli in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 353 views. For similar materials see Intro to American Government in Political Science at California State University Chico.
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Study Guide Pols Direct Democracy A type of democracy where the people vote directly for their policies and laws. Representative Democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy. Shays Rebellion A rebellion of farmers in 1787 that had people wondering if we needed a stronger central government. Over taxes and debt. Articles of Confederation was an agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution. Politics and Social Conflict Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society. Social conflict or group conflict occurs when two or more actors oppose each other in social interaction, reciprocally exerting social power in an effort to attain scarce or incompatible goals and prevent the opponent from attaining them. Political problems are a great example. Virginia Plan (also known as the Randolph Plan, after its sponsor, or the LargeState Plan) was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. *Elitism the advocacy or existence of an elite as a dominating element in a system or society. People who are smarter, richer, and better off to rule should be the ones in charge of a nation. New Jersey Plan the unicameral legislature with one vote per state was inherited from the Articles of Confederation. This position reflected the belief that the states were independent entities and, as they entered the United States of America freely and individually, remained so. Pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many nongovernmental groups use their resources to exert influence. The central question for classical pluralism is how power and influence are distributed in a political process. *the view that in liberal democracies power is (or should be) dispersed among a variety of economic and ideological pressure groups and is not (or should not be) held by a single elite or group of elites. Convention Compromise took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the intention was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States. Politics and Economics Economics is concerned with studying and influencing the economy. Politics is the theory and practice of influencing people through the exercise of power, e.g. governments, elections and political parties. In theory, economics could be nonpolitical. An ideal economist should ignore any political bias or prejudice to give neutral unbiased information and recommendations on how to improve the economic performance of a country. Elected politicians could then weigh up this economic information and decide. Checks and Balances is used to keep the government from getting too powerful in one branch. For example, the Executive Branch can veto bills from the Legislative Branch, but the Legislative Branch can override the veto. "To promote the general Welfare" A General Welfare clause is a section that appeared in many constitutions, as well as in some charters and statutes, which provides that the governing body empowered by the document may enact laws to promote the general welfare of the people, sometimes worded as the public welfare. Changing the Constitution The Congress, whenever TWO THIRDS of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as ... Political Ideologies Today, scholars generally talk about five major political ideologies: Anarchism. Absolutism. Liberalism. Conservatism. Socialism. Anarchism Anarchism is a social movement that seeks liberation from oppressive systems of control including but not limited to the state, capitalism, racism, sexism, speciesism, and religion. Absolutism Absolutism, the political doctrine and practice of unlimited, centralized authority and absolute sovereignty, as vested especially in a monarch or dictator. The essence of an absolutist system is that the ruling power is not subject to regularized challenge or check by any other agency, be it judicial, legislative, religious, economic, or electoral. Liberalism liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Conservatism Conservatism is any political philosophy that favours tradition (in the sense of various religious, cultural, or nationallydefined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change. Socialism Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production; as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment. Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with representative democracy under the rule of law and emphasizes economic freedom. Classical liberalism developed in the 19th century in Europe and the United States. Federalists/ Anti Federalists Federalists: A term for persons who advocated ratification of the constitution in 1787 and generally favored strong central government, it was also the name of the dominant political party during the administrations of presidents George Washington and john Adams. Antifederalists: In the first years of government under the constitution, antifederalists in congress were persons who opposed ratification of the constitution in 1787 and opposed policies associated with a strong central government such as a national bank. republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic (rather than as a monarchy or dictatorship) under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are "republics" in the sense of no monarchy. However this article covers only those that adhere to or debate the ideology of republicanism. Contemporary Liberalism In the twentieth century, a viewpoint or ideology associated with free political institutions and religious toleration, as well as support for a strong role of government in regulating capitalism and constructing the welfare state. Neo Liberalism A pragmatic form of liberalism that emphasizes such beliefs as the promotion of wealth rather than its redistribution. And the reform of military practices rather than the simple reduction of military spending. Marbury vs madison Marbury v. Madison, arguably the most important case in Supreme Court history, was the first U.S. Supreme Court case to apply the principle of "judicial review" the power of federal courts to void acts of Congress in conflict with the Constitution. Judicial Review Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution. conservatism Conservatism (or conservativism) is any political philosophy that favours tradition (in the sense of various religious, cultural, or nationallydefined beliefs and customs) in the face of external forces for change, and is critical of proposals for radical social change. McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 This case is important because it set up the idea that the federal government can do more or less whatever it wants. It set up a broad definition of the power of Congress under the Constitution. Before this case, it was not clear what Congress was allowed to do. There are very specific things that the Constitution explicitly says Congress may do. These are called expressed powers. But are these the only things Congress may do? This is the question McCulloch decided. In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that the "elastic clause" is what we should pay attention to when deciding what Congress can do. It says Congress may do anything "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers. In this case, the Court said that this clause allowed Congress to set up the Bank of the United States even though the Constitution never says "Congress may set up a bank." Three Democratic Systems Of Government Direct Democracy, Presidential Democracy, Parliamentary Democracy Federal Government Powers *Collect taxes *Regulate interstate commerce *Coin money, regulate currency, set standards of weights and measures *Declare war *Raise and maintain an army and navy "Supreme law of the land": the Constitution and federal laws take precedence over state laws (Art. 6) state powers GIVEN BY 10th AMENDMENT Overlapping powers: Powers allotted to both state governments and the federal government. These include: *The power to levy taxes *The power to borrow money *The power to charter corporations *Statetostate relations: *Full faith and credit clause: Each state must honor other states' public acts and records *Anyone who is charged with a crime in one state and escapes to another state must be returned to the state where the crime was committed *Congress may admit new states to the Union, but no new states can be created within the boundaries of existing states without the approval of Congress and the state legislatures concerned (Art. 4, § 3). Concurrent powers Concurrent powers are powers that are SHARED by both the State and the federal government. These powers may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory and in relation to the same body of citizens. These concurrent powers including regulating elections, taxing, borrowing money and establishing courts. cooperative federalism Cooperative federalism (1930s1970s) is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally (such as the dual federalism of the 19th century United States) or clashing. duel federalism Dual federalism, also referred to as divided sovereignty, is a political arrangement in which power is DIVIDED between the federal and state governments in clearly defined terms, with state governments exercising those powers accorded to them without interference from the federal government. New Federalism New Federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states. Categorical/Block Grants Imagine you are the governor of a state, and you need funding for state projects. How would you like to receive a boatload of money from the federal government? Sounds good, right? Not so quick... there's always a catch! This is the basic idea of a categorical grant. A categorical grant is money granted by the federal government to state and local governments, with strict limitations on how it is to be spent. The money can only be received if the state or local government complies with certain regulations. However, the states do not have to take the money if they do not want to comply with the regulations. 16th amendment The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census. 1913 Changing State Constitutions The ways a state constitution can be amended or revised are: *Via a legislatively referred constitutional amendment. *Via an initiated constitutional amendment. Eighteen states allow this method of amendment although the requirements in several of these states are so prohibitively difficult that the process has rarely if ever been used (Illinois, Mississippi). *Via a commissionreferred amendment process, which takes place only in Florida. *Via a constitutional convention. In some states, automatic ballot referrals allow voters to decide at regular intervals whether to hold a convention. Through direct action of the state legislature with no vote of the people. (This happens only in Delaware). Miranda Warnings The Miranda warning, which can also be referred to as the Miranda rights, is a right to silence warning given by police in the United States to criminal suspects in police custody (or in a custodial interrogation) before they are interrogated to preserve the admissibility of their statements against them in criminal ... " You have the right to remain silent" The Exclusionary Rule The exclusionary rule is a legal principle in the United States, under constitutional law, which holds that evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights is sometimes inadmissible for a criminal prosecution in a court of law. OJ Simpson case. Free exercise / establishment clause The Free Exercise Clause is the accompanying clause with the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause together read: " Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof... Prior Restraint Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or prepublication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place. Defamation Of Character Defamation of character is a term that is used to describe when false statement is written or spoken about an individual with the intent of harming or slandering their reputation. *Civil War Amendments The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War. The amendments were important in implementing the Reconstruction of the American South after the war. Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857 In Dred Scott v. Sandford (argued 1856 decided 1857), the Supreme Court ruled that Americans of African descent, whether free or slave, were not American citizens and could not sue in federal court. The Court also ruled that Congress lacked power to ban slavery in the U.S. territories. Finally, the Court declared that the rights of slaveowners were constitutionally protected by the Fifth Amendment because slaves were categorized as property. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 xPlessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896), was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal". "Separate but equal" remained standard doctrine in U.S. law until its repudiation in the 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education. Brown v. Board Of Education 1954 The story of Brown v. Board of Education, which ended legal segregation in public schools, is one of hope and courage. When the people agreed to be plaintiffs in the case, they never knew they would change history. The people who make up this story were ordinary people. They were teachers, secretaries, welders, ministers and students who simply wanted to be treated equally. (kansas, deleware, south carolina, kentucky) Affirmative Action In institutions of higher education, affirmative action refers to admission policies that provide equal access to education for those groups that have been historically excluded or underrepresented, such as women and minorities. Voting Rights Act 1965 Image result for Voting Rights Act 1965 The Voting Rights Act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson (190873) on August 6, 1965, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote under the 15th Amendment (1870) to the Constitution of the United States De Jure/De Facto Segregation The first thing to understand about de facto segregation is that it has nothing to do with the law. Since the institution of slavery itself, as it existed in colonial and preCivil War America, was a system that subordinated one race to another, segregationist laws were not established until after the war. Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, an executive order and presidential proclamation, was supposed to free slaves in the states to which it applied. So Southern states, which were covered by the order and unwilling to conform to the demands for racial equality, used segregation to create new restrictions. Southern segregation laws, generally referred to as Jim Crow laws, were named after a popular minstrel show in the 19th century. They are the bestknown example of what's called de jure segregation, which means segregation concerning the law. The use of the legal system to create a permanent level of inequality occurred across the South. Newly freed AfricanAmericans were barred from voting and holding office and restricted in relation to both property rights and in public discourse. De jure segregation prevented black citizens from attaining anything like economic independence, creating a macabre repetition of the conditions of slavery. Comparable Worth Comparable worth, also called sex equity or pay equity, in economics, the principle that men and women should be compensated equally for work requiring comparable skills, responsibilities, and effort. Nineteenth Amendment The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
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