Study guide for midterm #2
Study guide for midterm #2 ANTHRO 101
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauri Schleicher on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHRO 101 at Emory University taught by Dr. Stutz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Anthro 101 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Emory University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Anthro Midterm 2: Dependence on culture for survival—unique to humans We see our current state of evolution as the final goal when in reality, humans are constantly changing o biological continuum: we’re not the purpose of evolution, but a single product of it We’ve underestimated the complexity of nonhuman organisms as calling them primitive th The 19 century marked a migration to cities (demographic explosion) and belief in constant change and progress o Era of imperialism and colonization The world is coming into contact with human difference Ethnocentrism: people think their culture is dominant, therefore hierarchical thinking and racism emerge Darwin’s origin of species changed how people and cultures viewed themselves and the ideal image became the European white male Challenge the idea of a divine creator Image of God by William Blake: God created us as imperfections by using his left hand Challenged idea of “types” and fixed/permanent species o We’re in constant flux, there’s no permanent form of existence (see biological continuum) Humanity was given a biological history (not just got plopping is down there were older species of humanity that eventually formed us from Neanderthals) Population thinking replaced by typological thinking Changed how people viewed their place in the world 4 central principles that formed on Darwin’s trip to the Galapagos from the variation of Finch bills (they weren’t originated with a variation of bills, but instead formed them over time): 1. nonconstancy of species: the diversity of life does not follow a static organizing order; life is always evolving, sometimes adding or pruning away from diversity 2. the notion of branching evolution we’re a common species in the sense that we branch from a common ancestor 3. evolution is gradual 4. the mechanism for evolution is natural selection a. survival of the fittest/most beneficial to the location b. central concept=inheritance i. geniation: we are generations of indelible and microscopic instructions ii. variation among species and from generation to generation iii. BOTH OF THE ABOVE ARE NECESSARY FOR NATURAL SELECTION D: those with better fit instructions will survive and reproduce in greater numbers o ex) green bugs=good to eat, so orange bugs become greater in abundance o 2 steps are necessary 1. production of variation (chance) 2. selection from the variation o evidence of natural selection it’s the best model to explain adaptiveness it’s been simulated and observed o limits of natural selection it must act on existing variation directional selection only acts to increase fitness it must respect physical and developmental constraints some evolutionary changes aren’t the outcome of natural selection Darwin’s formula for diversification o Variation typological thinking had determined clear boundaries with different “essences” (i.e. a color wheel) By stressing variation, boundaries are broken—no clear color wheel, but they all blend Racism biologically cannot exist because of the lack of clear boundaries Variation is nonessential and accidental D: individuals in a population vary from one another o inheritance: parents pass on their traits to their offspring genetically o selection: some variants reproduce more than others o timesuccessful variations accumulate over many generations Mayr and Langdon: 3 areas Darwin examined: evolutionary biology; the philosophy of science, and the modern zeitgeist o founded modern biology: came up with theory of nonconstancy evolution; common descendant, evolution is gradual (no jumps), and the mechanism for evolution=natural selection natural selection=to eliminate inferior individuals (nonrandom elimination) Spencer=survival of the fittest diverse population necessary for the workings of natural selection o the production of abundant variation is followed by the elimination of inferior individuals. This latter step is directional. By adopting natural selection, Darwin settled the severalthousand yearold argument among philosophers over chance or necessity. Change on the earth is the result of both randomness and necessity. o 3 potential reasons dinosaurs are extinct: a devastating epidemic; a catastrophic change of climate; and the impact of an asteroid, known as the Alvarez theory— all but last have been proven wrong by facts Transmutation=the establishment of a new species or new type through a single mutation, or saltation “Orthogenesis” held that intrinsic teleological tendencies led to transformation. Lamarckian evolution reliance on the inheritance of acquired characteristics generation to generation Darwin’s variation evolution, through natural selection. o causal factor of the possession of a genetic program is unique to living organisms, and it is totally absent in the inanimate world. theories are based on laws Observation, comparison and classification, as well as the testing of competing historical narratives, became the methods of evolutionary biology, outweighing experimentation. 1850, almost all scientists were Christian men o natural selection=god is no longer the creator rejection of the supernatural o eliminates typology which is unable to accommodate variation and gives rise to a misleading conception of human races. o No teleology or determinism o Rejected man as a dominant being o Scientific foundation for ethics Survival of all depends on cooperation from few How Humanlike was Ardi? The tracing of lineage requires a lot of guess work Ardi could walk on hind legs if needed, but often didn’t o A knee joint would tell all "In the same way Tim [White] argues that it's naive to assume" chimpanzees haven't evolved in millions of years, Begun says, it may be naive to assume Ardi bears much resemblance to a common ancestor. Our Place in Nature: Carlos Linnel looked at differences and similarities in how places look before genetics was a thing Species: separated by a reproductive barrier, which emerges when two species that may have a common ancestor separate and evolve differences thru accumulated mutations that are no longer able to produce a fertile offspring o Ex) horse and donkey=infertile mule o Accumulate changes over time through natural selection and mutations We’re descended from homo sapiens, a common ancestor to all animals to study the history of humanity, we study remains and the diversity in species of the present, but know less and less the further back in history we go we’re the only hominid (humanlike) creatures that exits today hominid by phenotype o subgroups=orangutan, apes, and humans o we share 98% of our DNA with the DNA of chimpanzees o humanity=The Naked Ape o DNA molecules=four chemical bases that create genetic code Codes for amino acids that control development passed on through generations Noncoding makes up 91% of our DNA o As mutations occur independently in different species, speciation occurs Accumulation of differences/mutations over time leads to separated o More DNA can be collected from the mother (mitochondrial/MT DNA) Chimps and bonobos have the most DNA in common with us o Human, chimp, bonobo, and gorilla=more similarities than with orangutans Hemoglobin can be used to calculate the time and which mutations took place 1.5 units ago o 1.5 units=1mya o 7 units separate humans and apes humans are related to chimps and bonobos more than any are related to gorillas o diverged 57 mya, gorillas were 68, and orangutans were 1216 mya chimps: manipulative use of culture o do stuff with stuff; different ways to do things in different areas all great apes modify tools to extract food and water o behaviors transmitted through learning like the “unfinished human” learn form mother (first five years) and social networks o use sex to reproduce o the more social they are, the better they are at using tools o both arbitrary and regional customs emerge bonobos: sex is great and used for fun o they have a lot of sex to build communities it happens with everyone at one time and it mediates competition for food they have no selfrestraint o chimps and bonobos=separated by 2my The Early Human Niche animal carcass butcher hone marrow and brain extraction (rich in calories and fatty acids) digging for tools and with tools projectiles for hunting and defense stick carrying, baskets, and bags hammer and other tools used to crack nuts and seeds first “candidate”: o Homo habilis, associated with Olduwan technology (tools)in East Africa, 2.3 1.4 mya. Second “candidate”: Homo erectus o Appears in Africa 2mya o Acheulean technology and the use of fire o Similar body to ours, bigger brain size o Ex) Turkanya boy from Kenya and Java Man from East Africa o Fossils known from Africa, Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia Tool Making Timeline: Olduwan Industry o 1.8 million years ago o Simplest system of tool making o Jaded flakes from round cores o Choppers, scrapers, pounders Archeulean Tools (who used the hand axe) o Main lower Paleolithic system o Flat oval hand axes o Versatile Mousterian o Sophisticated o 14 categories o New methods to avoid physical abuse o Flint tools made of stone Upper Paleolithic o Removed sharp blades from cores o Most sophisticated o Burins, blades Homo Erectus Lifeways: Controlled Fires Small Hunts Family Units Organized Hunts Homo Heidelbergensis: Found in South Asia, East and South Africa, South Europe 800,000 – 100,000 years ago Height and weight similar to humans, smaller than H Erectus 1283cc cranial capacity due to large brain case and high cranial vault Bipedal Neanderthals: 130,000 – 30,000 years ago 1856 – first find in Germany, seemed ape like Thick brow, big eyes, developed jaw, big brain case (larger than H Heidelbergensis), large teeth Highly intelligent, adaptable, some language ability Shorter, wider, more powerful than humans Europe, Middle East, West Asia Sophisticated tool making Existence of social customs such as burial rituals CroMagnon Culture: 130,00020,000 years ago Anatomically modern humans in Africa Upper Paleolithic toolkit (more elaborate than Neanderthal) Cave art General Trends in Hominin Evolution: Autocatalytic Trends o Brains (especially forebrain) more complex, higher cranial capacity o Better communication, tools/technology, social skills o Development of specialized parts of brain for language o Evolution of speech organs – change in larynx, nasal cavity, and mouth Changes in Diet Erect Posture Pedomorphosis o Anatomical Evidence Hairless bodies, large head to body ratio, gracile skull o Cultural Advantage Play, creativity and invention Manipulating tools Social coordination Object play Games with rules Chimpanzee vs. Human Development o Chimpanzee develops faster o Early autonomy for chimps but extended dependency for humans o Early mobility for chimps but early visualization for humans o Low playfulness in chimps but high in humans o High human interest in objects/signs but chimp interest in social Intelligence brain size continues to increase Communication becomes more advanced and specialized Tool Manufacturing – more complex with more technology Hominids – humans and their early post ape ancestors, now includes the great apes, Hominoids – super family of all apes and humans, Hominins – subfamily of all species living or extinct that are more related to humans than chimps Major Early Fossil Finders o Eugene Dubois (1891) First to set out on a search for fossils Java Man o Raymond Dart (1924) First australopithecine finds Taung child (what classification was it) found in South Africa First non ape finding Human tooth structure Around 2,000,000 years old o Robert Broom (1938 – Australopithecus Robustus) Robust jaw Large molars Robust skull 540 cc cranial capacity 1,000,000 – 2,000,000 years old o Donald Johannsen (1974 – Lucy) Found in Ethiopia o Mary and Louis Leakey 1959 – Australopithecus Boisei robust found in Tanzania 1,000,000 – 2,600,000 years old 1978 – Laetoli Footprints Fossilized footprints Found in Tanzania 3,600,000 years old Evidence that Lucy was bipedal Homo Habilis Gracile 600700 cc cranial capacity East and South Africa 1,700,000 – 2,000,000 years ago Possibly first relative of humans From Ardipithecus to the Homo/Human Line o Ardipithecus Kaddaba Late Miocene – 5.5 5.8 million years ago Ancestor of australopithecines Discovered in 2001 in Ethiopia Upright posture Reduced upper canine teeth o Ardipithecus Ramidis Discovered in 1992 in Ethiopia Arm bones are mosaic of ape and human traits Foot structure suggests possibly bipedal 4.4 million years ago o Australopithecus Anamensis Discovered in Kenya Bipedal 4.2 million years ago o Australopithecus Afarensis Discovered in Ethiopia Gracile 3.83 million years ago o Australopithecus Africanus Gracile Bipedal 2.53 million years ago Bipedalism and early ancestors, what makes us human? The characteristics that make us human: brain capacity, extremely good motor skills, bipedalism, tool use, extreme sociability Bipedalism: a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs o The beginning of upright walkers: carry things, reach more, scan surroundings more, more exposure, to enemies possibly, can’t climb trees as well, balance The first hominids+ the process of speciation o The human lineage split away from Chimps and Bonobos approx. 6mya (mya=million years ago) o After that, the Taung child was recognized by Raymond Dalt in 1925 in South Africa Named Australopithecus africanus. Approx. 23 mya Scientists began to realize that the oldest life form came from Africa Other fossils were eventually recognized Very robust traits Map of Crucial fossil: concentration in South Africa (Great African Rift Valley) “Lucy”: Australopithecus afarensis approx. 3.1 mya in Ethiopia o East African species 3.72.9 mya o Shows bipedalism Has involved interrelated anatomical changes throughout the body Spine—we have double curvature, apes have less curvature Pelvis—centered in humans and things converging towards knees Hip—apes adapted for power and humans adapted for balance Bipedalism makes the birth canal narrower The human body has less room to maneuver Adaptation to human lineage “Ardi”: Ardipithecus ramidus in Ethiopia about 4.4 mya o Bipedal (but less so than we) on the ground o Quadrupedal in the trees. MIXED ANATOMY o A tree living hominid with a combination of anatomical features which situates it as close to the common ancestor as chimps Handy Technology: Australopithecus garhi/africanus and homo habilis=first known to use technology and tools o Used for extraction, transport, construction, to transmit and store info, for social life, and to solve other practical problems o Earliest tools from Gona, Ethipoia 2.6mya Rapid blows with a hammer stone to create flakes that oculd cut through elephant hide butchering tools Divergence from chimp niche to terrestrial omnivorous niche 6mya in the subtropical forests of Africa is where our ancestral lineage stems from o in the break, bipedalism formed (aprox. 3mya) Lucy Out of Africa again and again Homo erectus spread out of Africa shorty after their development o Spread to Europe, Asia (Eurasia), SE Asia o Evolved into the Neanderthals in the European Peninsula During the same time in Africa, (200,000100,000) =first anatomically modern human Develop our traits and more sophisticated tools AMI=new material culture: Aurignacien o Marked by elevated and elongated blades Used to pierce animal skin…by using animal teeth Tools also used for jewelry culture Neanderthal and AMI cultures that coexisted a. Qafzeh=first found AMH burial grounds (100,000 ya) and Kebara=Neanderthal burial (60,000) b. SW France and La Cerrassie rock shelters i. 2 adults, 6 children found: Neanderthal (35,000ya) ii. Abri Cro Magnan burial of AMH remains (35,000ya) During the last phase of Neanderthals: start doing things and using tools (animal teeth) differently DNA drawn from Neanderthals (38,000ya) bones o Found that AMH vs. Neanderthal DNA was very different at first, but over time, it’s been seen that we’re closer related to one another than initial results showed b/c now we have better technology o No reproductive barrier=same species o Genes share a common ancestor w/genes of Neanderthals by looking at 400,000 yearold remains from 400,000 Traces from both species seen in child from Lager Vehlo (25,000ya) Traces from both species seen in child from Mladec (31,000ya) o Even with genetic overlap, the typical visual (phenotypica) Neanderthal traits disappear Mammoth bone huts: show sophisticated use of technology o Kostenki, Ukgrain Earliest extraction and use of tools= 2.51.7mya for butchery, bone marrow extraction, and digging for tubers o Became signals for identities (jewelry and body art) o 20,000ya=tools transformed for use in clothes, body decorations, sculptures, paintings o 3D technology emerges about 40,000020,000ya i.e. sculptures o earliest body decoration and rock art=Africa 120,000100,000ya o earliest figurines and cave paintings=36,00014,000 ya Ice Age Europe: Neanderthals and US How homo erectus developed on the African continent and their quick movements form the continent (tools they took with them) o Oldest tools found in Georgia (country not the state?) o 1833 in Belgium is where the first Neanderthal was found (1836=Origin of species) After they left Africa, they travelled to the Middle-European peninsula Astrolptigus Gari=associated with the oldest tools that have been found in Ethiopia o Capacities with hands developed for tool use Astrilipidicus Afreencus: Lucy=bipedal and she wasn’t a tool user to a full extent o Development of social relationship to help with child birth Ardi=bipedal and tree person thing Speciation=the key to explaining a common ancestor o Homo sapiens are a single biological species and all pops of modern humans are interconnected via gene flow Neanderthal traits evolved and emphasized with time until they died out o Spread to middle east approx. 80,000 ya (years ago) o Spy=the first place where they were recognized as a species Fossil recognized 60,000 ya o Noticed large cranial capacity and occipital bun o Receding forehead, strong brow ridge, no pronounced cheek bones or chin, projecting midface o Large retro molar gap, broad nose, broader skeleton to be better adapted to colder climates Neanderthal: a lineage of ancient humans occupying Europe and part of Western Asia between 200,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago o Debate between whether they’re homo sapiens or homo neanderthalenus o Marked by extensive tool use and use of warm clothes o Ability to plan steps ahead o First evidence of burial practices seen—took care of dead Kebara Cave, Israel o Like us in their competency for social interaction, tool use, and care for others Who came after the Neanderthals? Approx. 40,000 ya, new people (anatomically modern humans) came along o Also from Africa—migration happens over and over again Homo erectus leaves African Euro evolve La Ferrassie 1 – o A classic Neanderthal fossil, from a roughly 60,000-year-old cave site in France The Neolithic and The Origins of Agriculture-Feb 29. Marked by the domestication of plants and animals o Dogs were domesticated by hunters o Diseases from animals introduced and spread through domestication Also from staying in one place Communities move from on from hunter gathers Created demographic explosion (increased population) o The reading points out the advancement of food and food technology ability to cool cereal allowed for more nutrients to be released and for better teeth preservation Led to increased populations because less of a need to breast feed Changes in our biology and greater impact of humans on environment o More people=more environmental manipulation via grazing animals and creating plant beds Transitions in food occurred 12,000-5,000 ya o Near East=wheat, barley, lentils o China=rice millet o Central America= maize, beans, squash o Importance of agriculture: It fed the most important period of population growth before the industrial revolution changed our biology and how we process food o food storage: grain kept in holes o Near East, food production linked to: overexploitation climate change change from sedentary hunter-gatherer hamlets and agricultural villages (the case 10,000-15,000 ya) Supported rise of cities, states, and empires o Emergence of social inequality o Territory control: people “own” things o Violence to keep land o Gain rights to land Marriage and exchange to gain rights to land violence or threat of such to keep land Abu Hureyra located in the fertile crescent o 11,500-10,000 ya (BP?) wild plants and animals o 200 year hiatus o 9,800-7,000 ya (BP)=second phase of Hureyra domesticated plants w/wild hunting and the introduction of domesticated animals pottery (7,300) o infants could wean off their parents, but adults suffered gum disease, cavities, and hunger-related stress women and infants suffered bone abnormalities from carrying heavy things women have messed up knee and toe bones from kneeling and grinding food grooves in teeth from weaving baskets osteology: the study of bones
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