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Date Created: 03/01/16
Psych 101 Memory - The learning that has persisted over time—information that has been acquired, stored, and can be retrieved - the use of past experience to affect or influence current behavior - Measures of retention o Recall: retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time (a fill-in-the-blank question tests this) o Recognition: identifying items previously learned (a multiple-choice question tests this) o Relearning: learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time—when studying for a final exam or engaging in a language used in early childhood, you will relearn the material more easily then you did initially - Information-processing models are analogies that compare human memory to a computer’s operations—to remember any event, we must… o Get information into our brain (encoding) o Retain that information (storage) o Later, get the information back out (retrieval) - Different then a computer’s, our dual-track brain processes many things simultaneously (some of them unconsciously) by means of parallel processing - Connectionism (one information-processing model) o Views memories as products of interconnected neural networks o Specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these networks o Every time you learn something new, your brain’s neural connections change, forming and strengthening pathways that allow you to interact and learn from your constantly changing environment - (1968) Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin proposed another model to explain our memory-forming process (3 stages) o We first record to-be-remembered information as sensory memory o Then, we process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal o Finally, information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval - Others have updated this ^ model to include working memory and automatic processing - This stage is not just a temporary shelf for holding incoming info—it’s an active desktop where your brain processes info, making sense of new input and linking it with long-term memories - Working Memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory - Things you read might enter working memory through vision or you may repeat info using auditory rehearsal - As you integrate these memory inputs with your existing long-term memory, your attention is focused (Baddeley suggested a central executive handles this focused processing (2002)) - Without focused attention, information often fades—sometimes Google replaces rehearsal - Atkinson and Shriffin’s model focused on how we process our explicit memories: facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (declarative memories) - We encode explicit memories through conscious effortful processing - Other information skips the conscious encoding track and barges directly into storage, this is unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word meanings (automatic processing—happens without our awareness), this produces implicit memories: retention independent of conscious recollection (nondeclarative memory) - Our implicit memories include procedural memory for automatic skills (riding a bike!) and classically conditioned associations among stimuli (automatic) o Space o Time o Frequency Memory operates through 5 Steps: 1) Sensation: have to sense info in order to put it into brain 2) Attention: 3) Encoding 4) Storing 5) Retaining the info Context effects TYPES OF MEMORY Sensory memory: where everything goes—everything you sense Stays there until you decide if its relevant or not (brief duration, 250-500 mil) Precategorical, no perception—haven’t made meaning of it To categorize something, have to go through whole system If important, you’ll pay attention to it, then goes to short-term memory Iconic memory: Echoic memory: Short-term memory Limited duration (last 3-20 sec, if you don’t do anything to it)—stays with maintenance rehearsal Chunking: meaningful bits of information Limited capacity (7+ or – 2 chunks of info) Maintenance rehearsal: move to long-term memory (memory strategies o Organization: using categories/relationships to reorder and put items in ways to be remembered o Elaboration: linking items to be remembered in image or sentence (eggs/milk- cow having egg—linking the two) o Visual imagery o External memory aids: lists, timers, strings, something out of place (lower ability to memorize) THE BRAIN PARTS (many parts of the brain interact as we encode, store, and retrieve information that forms our memories) The Hippocampus and Frontal Lobes - The network that processes and stores your explicit memories for facts and episodes - Processing sites for your explicit memories - Many brain regions send input to your frontal lobes for working memory processing - Left frontal lobe: recalling a password and holding it in working memory - Right frontal lobe: calling up a visual party scene - The hippocampus, a temporal-lobe neural center located in the limbic system, is the brain’s equivalent of a “save” button for explicit memories (names, images, events are laid down via ^) - Damage to the hippocampus therefore disrupts recall of explicit memories - Left-hippocampus damage: people have trouble remembering verbal information - Right-hippocampus damage: have trouble recalling visual designs and locations - Sub-regions of the hippocampus: o One part is active as people learn to associate names with faces o Another part is active as memory champions engage in spatial mnemonics o The rear area, which processes spatial memory grows bigger the longer a London cabbie has navigated the maze of streets - Memories are NOT permanently stored in the hippocampus—it acts as a loading dock where the brain registers and temporarily holds the elements of a remembered episode (its smell, feel, sound, and location), then memories migrate for storage elsewhere The Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia - Automatic processing, implicit memories (skills and conditioned associations) - The cerebellum plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning—with a damaged cerebellum, people cannot develop certain conditioned reflexes - Implicit memory formation needs the cerebellum - The basal ganglia, deep brain structures involved in motor movement, facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills (ride a bike) - The basal ganglia receive input from the cortex but do not return the favor of sending information back to the cortex for conscious awareness of procedural learning - These parts help explain why the reactions and skills we learned during infancy reach far into our future - Our conscious memories of our first three years are blank (infantile amnesia) o We index much of our memory using words that nonspeaking children have not learned o The hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature The Amygdala - Our emotions trigger stress hormones that influence memory formation - When we are excited or stressed, these hormones make more glucose energy available to fuel brain activity, signaling the brain that something important has happened - Stress hormones provoke the amygdala to initiate a memory trace in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia and to boost activity in the brain’s memory- forming areas - Emotional arousal can sear certain events into the brain, while disrupting memory for neutral events around the same time - Emotions often persist without our conscious awareness of what caused them (evident in amnesia patients) - Significantly stressful events can form almost indelible memories (wartime ambush, rape) - “Stronger emotional experiences make for stronger, more reliable memories” and weaker emotions mean weaker memories - Memory serves to predict the future and to alert us to potential danger - Emotion-triggered hormonal changes help explain why we long remember exciting or shocking events - Flashbulb memories: a clear memory of an emotionally significant event/moment Proactive interference Memory Processing Automatic o Things that you don’t have to think about (driving a car after a couple year of experience, listening to someone talk in your first language) Control o Things you have to pay attention to, think about to do (when you first learn to drive a car, when your learning a lesson in a different language —you first interpret then learn) Levels of Processing: - Depth of processing affects our long term retention - The deeper, more meaningful the processing, the better our retention - If new information is not meaningful or related to our experience, we have trouble processing it Shallow Processing - Very basic level - A word’s letters - (Structural) is the word in capital letters? Intermediate Processing: - A words sound - (Phonetic) does the word rhyme with? Deep Processing: - Meaning of the words - (Semantic encoding) would the word fit into the sentence? Distributed practice: - We retain information better when our encoding is distributed over time - Spacing effect: distributed practice (equals better long-term recall) (beats cramming) - Spreading your learning over several months, rather than over a shorter term, can help you retain information for a lifetime - One effective way to distribute practice is repeated self-testing (the testing effect) - Its better to practice retrieval than to merely reread material State-dependent memory Mood-congruent memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood Serial position effect: our tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items in a list Primacy effect: You remember things/names/words at the beginning of a list because that’s what you took the most time to repeat in your head (most likely to be in long-term memory so you can remember after distraction) Recency effect: You remember things/names/words at the end of a list because they are the ones you have heard/seen most recently (they are in your short-term memory so can be forgotten after a delay or distraction Memories: - When we retrieve memories, we reweave them, incorporating info we imagined, expected, saw, and heard after the event - This The misinformation effect (the imagination effect) Exposed to misleading information, we tend to misremember Example: Eyewitness reconstruct memories after a crime or accident (smashed (much faster and shattered glass) and hit (not as fast and no glass), different results in speed and if the glass broke or not—words changed memory of event) Words can get woven into memory and people think they actually saw it (yield sign/stop sign) It can influence later attitudes and behaviors Even repeatedly imagining not existent actions and events can create false memories Digitally altered photos have also produced this imagination inflation The human mind seems to come with built-in Photoshopping software False memories: thinking something is in a list of things because it goes a long with the gist of the other words (thinking sleep was in the list of these words: tired, pillow, bed, alarm, mattress, dreams because it goes along with the overall concept) Source amnesia: (source misattribution): - Heart of many false memories - Attribution of an event to the wrong source we experienced, heard, read, or imagined - DRM paradigm: (sleep) not on list but related to other words or gist of sequence - 25 % of people can be convinced that they were lost in the mall as a child - *Cornell professor (sam stone experiment) - Michaels case - Mick Martin- Cali, Nickels???? - Suzies case - Kids saying no to cards than after being re-asked they said yes with lots of perceptual detail - Source amnesia: o Leading questions o Repeated questions and time lapse (now familiar) o Source misattribution o Recovered memories - Eileen Franklin: o In therapy for emotional distress o Led to believe that she had memories from childhood that had been repressed (her father sexually abusing her and her friend and murdered her friend (20 years earlier)—he served 5 years in prison) Repression: A defense mechanism that operation unconsciously to prevent conscious recollection of disturbing events - Originates with Freud - Ongoing debate BUT research suggests that repression rarely, if ever, occurs - A memory from childhood is unlikely to be recovered accurately years later - Emotional events are more likely to be remembered - APA: “it is impossible to distinguish true memory from a false one”—so cannot convict on this! Loss of memory: AMNESIA: the loss of memory - Most suffering from amnesia lose explicit memory but retain implicit Retrograde Amnesia: Can make new memories, but cannot remember the past Very rare!!!! Anterograde amnesia: Can remember past (mostly) but cannot make new memories Most common Live in short-term memory (30 seconds) Causes of amnesia: Brain damage (by injury or disease) o Temporal lobe o Hippocampus Psychological causes (dissociative amnesia) o Rare (may not be permanent) o Type of retrograde amnesia o Fugue state: temporary loss of identity and autobiographical memory Korsakoff’s Syndrome Result of chronic alcoholism (B, deficiency) Unable to form new long-term memories Anterograde amnesia H.M. Suffered from severe epilepsy 1953 Scoville removed 2/3 of hippocampi and other areas of the medical temporal lobe Anterograde amnesia Some retrograde amnesia Clive Wearing Encephalitis caused damage to hippocampus Anterograde with some retrograde amnesia Procedural memory largely intact (piano) Cannot transfer memory from STM to LTM (no new memories) Remembers wife Diary (series of things written, crossed out, and same thing written over and over again (8:00 I am awake, cross out, 9:00 now I am awake) Psych 101 Learning Learning: Associative Learning Classical conditioning: Associate different stimuli we do not control and respond automatically Ian Pavlov (Russia, studying digestion) Dog started salivating to machine sound instead of food) Stimulus response (1 in psychology) Stimulus requires something to happen Conditioned= learned (dog becomes afraid of metronome bc its associated with the shock) Unconditioned= unlearned—(unconditioned response is just how we’re built) US: unconditioned stimuli (food) UR: unconditioned response (response to food) NS: neutral stimuli (bell) CS: condition stimuli (bel leading to salvation, you learn) CR: conditioned response (salvation/responding to the bell) Conditioning: repeated pairing of US with NS Phobias fetishes, etc. are formed by this Operant conditioning: Associate our own behaviors that act on our environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli (operant behaviors) with their consequences Acquisition: the initial learning of an association Half a second usually works well as time elapsed between NS and US If US appeared before the NS conditioning would likely not occur Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive because it helps humans and other animals prepare for good or bad events—if good or bad event already occurred, the NS/CS will NOT help the animal prepare The NS becomes a CS after signaling an important biological event Objects, smells, and sights associated with sexual pleasure can become conditioned stimuli for sexual arousal Conditioning helps an animal survive and reproduce Extinction: the diminished responding that occurs when the CS no longer signals an impending US Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of (weakened) CR after a pause/delay— this suggests extinction just suppresses the CR rather than eliminating it Positive reinforcement: strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response Negative reinforcement: strengthens a response by reducing or removing something negative—it is not a punishment, it removes punishing Reinforcers: Primary: biologically satisfying (thirst, hunger, sex, etc.) Secondary: associate with primary things (money, smells, etc.) Reinforcement increases a behavior…Punishment does the opposite Punishment: any consequence that decreases the frequency of a preceding behavior Punishment tells you what not to do reinforcement tells you what to do Positive/Negative +: to add something to the environment -: taking something away from the environment + - Give texting Take away R vacuuming Give a Take away P spanking texting Other examples: Negative Reinforcement: st 1 grader doesn’t like school, gets stomach ache and can go home later fakes stomach ache to go home Taking aspirin to get rid of headache *bribes usually increase the behavior Target behavior: the behavior your targeting to change *Skinner: take away reinforcement if you want behavior to go away (if you give, they do that behavior next time when they want) Temper tantrum: Shaping???????????? Acquisition: learning phase Extinction: getting rid of the association Generalization: treat similar stimuli as same Discrimination: tell the difference between similar stimuli Reinforcement Schedules: - Continuous: get a reward every response (ex. fixed ratio) - Ratio (amount): reward every so many (x) responses (free coffee every x time) - Interval (time): reward every so often (on average) - Fixed-ratio: o Set # of responses o Predictable organism can easily figure out and learn pretty fast o Example: paid on every iphone you make (commission), free flight every x number of flights - Variable-ratio (Intermittent) o No set # of responses but every so responses o Slot machines o Bug someone until they give up o Never know if the next one may pay of????? ADDICTING - Fixed-interval (scalloped) o A specific time of responses (set time) o Example: boss walks around at 3, work hardest at that time o Increase behavior at test time (cramming) - Variable-interval o No set time of happenings or responses o Can’t predict when it’s going to happen o Constant learning over time (surprise quizzes) o Example: waiting for a post on Facebook (random) Watson Thinks we can be trained to be anything (regardless of genetics, age, ancestors, etc.) Generalization: moving learning (fear, etc.) to all things instead of one (if scared of bunny, then scared of cat, squirrel, dog, etc.) B.F. Skinner (behaviorism) (Thorndike’s Law of Effect) Insisted external influences (not internal thoughts and feelings) shape behavior External consequences already haphazardly control people’s behavior Operant conditioning* Behavior is guided by its consequences—can increase animal’s behavior (reinforcement) or decrease (punishment) Who determines whether is reinforcement/punishment… the organism! Examples in real life: School: o Envisioned a day when teaching machines and textbooks would shape learning in small steps—revolutionize education o Computers were Skinner’s final hope o “Students must be told immediately whether what they do is right or wrong, and when right, they must be directed to the step to be taken next” o Today’s interactive software, web-based learning, and online testing bring us closer to achieving Skinner’s ideal Sports: o Reinforcing small successes and then gradually increasing the challenge o Those trained by this behavioral method have shown faster skilled improvement Work: o Organizations have invited employees to share the risks and rewards of company ownership o Some have focused on reinforcing a job well done o Rewards are most likely to increase productivity if the desired performance is well defined and achievable o Message for managers: reward specific achievable behaviors, not vaguely defined “merit” o Reinforcement should be immediate o “How much richer would the whole world be if the reinforcers in daily life were more effectively contingent on productive work?” (Skinner) Home: o Parents should remember basic rule of shaping: notice people doing something right and affirm them for doing it o Target a specific behavior, reward it, and watch it increase o For ourselves: we can reinforce our own desired behaviors and extinguish undesired ones State your goal in measurable terms, and announce it Monitor how often you engage in your desired behavior Reinforce your desired behavior Reduce the rewards gradually An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology—each species’ predispositions prepare it to learn the associations that enhance its survival (environments are not the whole story) Learning by Observation: - Social Learning: watching people do stuff - Attention: see consequences and if one likes them, then they will do the action as well - Motivation: has to be motivated, has to want to pay attention in order to watch (memory) and then replicate - Have to store watched action in memory - Have to be motivated to then replicate it at the right time - Have to have ability to replicate action - Cognition is certainly a factor in observational learning (learn without direct experience, by watching and imitating) - Modeling: observing and imitating others - Albert Bandura (pioneering researcher for observational learning) - Experiment: Bobo doll (adult model hit, kicked, threw the doll (did specific things)—the kids that observed this model were more likely to lash out at the doll (similarly to model) when they played with it) (they replicated model’s action) - “By watching a model, we experience vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment, and we learn to anticipate a behavior’s consequence in situations like those we are observing” - When we identity with someone, we experience their outcomes vicariously (fMRI scans show when observing a specific situation our own brain’s system of that particular area activates, example: when watching someone receive a reward (especially if we like them) our reward system lights up) (mirrors neurons) - Mirror neurons: watching someone do something brain lights up like they’re doing it - Mirror neurons provide a neural basis for everyday imitation and observational learning Psych Chapter 4: Developing throughout the lifespan Developmental psychology examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across the life span—focuses on 3 major issues: Nature and nurture o Genetics vs. environment o How does our genetic inheritance (nature) interact with our experiences (nurture) to influence our development? o Together sculpt our synapses Continuity and stages (discontinuity) o Changes in quantity/amount (more or something) (Skinner) and change to something/qualitative change (in type) (larva) (Piaget) o What parts of development are gradual and continuous? o What parts change abruptly in separate stages? o Those who emphasize learning and experience support continuity o Those who emphasize biological maturation support stages Stability and change o Which of our traits persist through life? o How do we change as we age? Difference vs. deficit o Different = something wrong o Deficit: person does not match the context “goodness to fit”— (sometimes can benefit from disadvantage or doesn’t matter at all) o Niche picking: picking context to match who you are Time o Variable in developmental psychology 3 areas: cognitive, socio-emotional, biological (physical) (all happens simultaneously) DOES NOT CORRELATE WITH TRIMESTERS (3 stages) Prenatal Development Conception (STARTS HERE) (WOMB TO TOMB) Germinal period: (fertilization-2 weeks) - Process starts when a woman’s ovary releases a mature egg - The 200 million or more sperm begin racing towards the egg - One sperm penetrates its coating and welcomed in - Before half a day elapses, the egg nucleus and the sperm nucleus fuse (two become one) (becomes a zygote) (fallopian tubes) - Fewer than half of all fertilized eggs (zygotes) survive beyond the first two weeks - Cells then begin to multiply (cell division) (zygote divides) (makes exact copies of itself—same genetic material) o Monozygotic: identical twins (one egg) (100% genetic similarity) o Dizygotic: fraternal twins (piece of egg breaks off and duplicates) (possible for this to be from two different sperms…. (different daddies)) (50% genetic similarity) - Then cells begin to differentiate—to specialize in structure and function - 10 days after conception, the zygote attaches to the mother’s uterine wall (the host) (implantation) (ends here) Embryonic stage (2-8 weeks) (most important) - The zygote’s inner cell becomes the embryo and the outer cells become the placenta - The placenta is the life-link that transfers nutrients and oxygen from mother to embryo (pulls nutrients from her and sends waste out of her) - Construction of support structures (placenta, umbilical cord, amniotic sac) - Development of major body structures (respiratory, alimentary, nervous system) - Most susceptible to environmental agents (teratogens) (things that come from the outside that can negatively effect the baby) o Alcohol #1 cause of problems (Fetal alcohol syndrome FAC) o Stress o Drugs o Pollutants o Maternal disease (STI’s, Ziko) - Effect of teratogens depends on o Timing (when in development stages) o Type (alcohol effects nervous system, etc.) o Amount (higher dosage = bigger effect) o Individual differences (genetic vulnerability) Fetal stage (8 weeks to birth) - By 9 weeks, an embryo looks unmistakably human and is now a fetus - Finishing touches - Growth andthefinement - During 6 month, organs such as stomach have developed (chance of survival if born prematurely) - Age of viability: ability to live outside of the host (22-28 weeks) (below 22, lungs not ready, can’t control body temperature, etc.) - By 6 month, fetus is responsive to sound of its mother’s muffled voice (why they prefer her voice) - Prefer hearing mother’s language, if she spoke two during pregnancy they display interest in both - Just after born, cries bear tuneful signature of their mother’s native tongue Other factors impacting prenatal development: - Maternal weight gain (25 pounds average) - Maternal age (over 35, birth issues/higher risk) (15 & under, birth complications/hips, diet, lifestyle) - Baby’s gender (boys are more vulnerable to genetic abnormalities and dying after birth) Motor Development - The developing brain enables physical coordination - As an infant’s muscles and nervous system mature, skills emerge - Physical (motor) development is universal - These behaviors reflect not imitation but a maturing nervous system (brain/spinal cord) - Genes guide motor development - Identical twins typically begin walking on the same day - Maturation (including the rapid development of the cerebellum at the back of the brain) creates our readiness to learn walking at about the age of 1 (experience before that time has a limited effect) - With bowel and bladder control—before the necessary muscular and neural maturation, pleading or punishment will not produce successful toilet training - **** The sequence, but not the timing, is universal Brain Maturation and Infant Memory Infant amnesia: not remembering experiences as a young child - Average age of early conscious memory is 3.5 years - Going on 4 to 6 to 8, children become increasingly capable of remembering experiences - Brain areas underlying memory (hippocampus and frontal lobes) continue to mature into adolescence - Although we remember little from age 4, brain was processing and store information during the early years - Babies are capable of learning (string tied on foot to move crib) - Also capable of remembering original things and recognizing the difference (different mobiles) - Can remember for a period of time (a month later recognized original mobile and began kicking) - Traces of forgotten childhood language can persist - What the conscious mind does not know and cannot express in words, the nervous system and our two-track mind somehow remembers Cognitive Development Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication - 1920 Jean Piaget intrigued by similar wrong answers among same-age children - From that ^, we understand children reason differently than adults - A child’s mind develops through a series of stages (Piaget) - The driving force behind our intellectual progression is an unceasing struggle to make sense of our experiences (Piaget) - The maturing brain builds schemas: concepts or mental molds into which we pour our experiences (ways of making sense of experiences) and represent knowledge—by adulthood we have built countless schemas (ranging from cats and dogs to our concept of love) (first are physical reflexes) - Equilibrium: (balance) o Cold-shivers o Hot-sweat cool down - Disequilibrium: (out of balance) o Necessary for development o Organization (rearrange to make sense) and adaptation (changing the system to make world make sense) - Piaget proposed two concepts (to explain how we use and adjust our schemas): o We assimilate new experiences—interpreting them in terms of our current understandings (already existing schemas) (what you already know) o We accommodate (adjust) our schemas to incorporate information provided by new experiences (new schemas are created or old ones radically adjusted) - Children construct their understanding of the world while interacting with it (Piaget) - Children’s minds experience spurts of change, followed by greater stability as they move from one cognitive plateau to the next, each with distinctive characteristics that permit specific kinds of thinking: - Sensorimotor Stage (birth to nearly age 2): o Take in the world through their senses (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, grasping) o As hands and limbs begin to move, they learn to make things happen o Infants live in the present (out of sight, out of mind) o Infants lack object permanence: the awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived o By 8 months, they begin exhibiting memory for things no longer seen o Today’s researchers believe object permanence unfolds gradually— they see development more continuous than Piaget did o Also believe Piaget and his followers underestimated young children’s competence: (The “whoa!” look) infants stare longer at an unexpected and unfamiliar scene of a car seeming to pass through a solid object, a ball stopping in midair, an object violating object permanence by magically disappearing Wynn showed 5-month olds one or two objects, she then hid them and visibly removed or added object. When shown to the infant they did a double take, staring longer when shown a wrong number of objects Babies’ number sense extends to larger numbers, to ratios, and to such things as drum beats and motions If accustomed to a Daffy Duck puppet jumping three times on stage, they showed surprise if it jumped only once - Preoperational Stage (until about age 6 or 7): o Too young to form mental operations (imagining an action and mentally reversing it) o Children lack the concept of conservation: quantity remains the same despite changes in shape o A child who can form mental operations can think in symbols and pretend plays (ability to mentally represent things) o Develop language o Symbolic thinking appears at an earlier age than Piaget supposed o Piaget contended preschool children are egocentric: have difficulty perceiving things from another’s point of view (Adults can be as well (curse of knowledge)—assuming other’s share are opinions and perspectives or that if something is clear to us, it’s clear to everyone) o Theory of mind (David Premack/Guy Woodruff): people’s ideas about their own and other’s mental states, ability to infer others— preschoolers begin to understand this and begin to tease, empathize, persuade, and anticipation o Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty understand that another’s state of mind differs from their own - Concrete operational stage (by age 6 or 7): o Given concrete (physical) materials, they begin to grasp conservation —change in form does not mean change in quantity o Piaget believed children become able to comprehend mathematical transformations and conservation o Ability to see others’ point of view o Logical thinking (if this, then that) but lack ability to think abstractly (logic limited to their experience) o Deductive reasoning: reasoning from general to specific - Formal operational stage (age 12): o Reasoning expands, encompasses abstract thinking (involving imagined realities and symbols instead of concrete) o Ability to argue o Many become capable of thinking more like scientists: pondering hypothetical propositions, deducing consequences, systematic reasoning (decide which on to act on/pursue) o Formal operation thinking: people begin to think logically about abstract concepts - Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt shifts - Piaget emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with physical environment Adolescence - A transitional phase/stage between childhood and adulthood - Every society defines the end of adolescence differently - Begins with puberty (sexual maturity) (no age because individual differences) (rapid growth associated with adolescence) (girls first menstruation (menarche), boys spermarche (sperm in urine)) - Secular trend: the gradual lowering of the age in which people become sexually mature o People are getting younger and younger o Only occurred in industrialized countries (goes down with famine) o Nutrition and medical care o Secular trend has bottomed out (9/10) - Primary sex characteristics: directly involved with reproduction o Women: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina o Men: testicles, penis, (all involved in sperm production) scrotum, seminal vesicles, prostate gland - Secondary sex characteristics o Women: breasts, pubic hair, change in voice/skin, width and depth of pelvis o Men: pubic hair, change in voice/skin, facial hair, muscular development, broadening of shoulders Emerging adulthood: (new stage) (school longer, parenting pushed off) period from age 18 to the mid-twenties and beyond (up to time of social independence) (not yet assumed full adult responsibilities and independence, feel “in between”) Adulthood: (most places when fertile) American society, when you become financially independent Life span: the maximum # of years a member of the species can live Life expectancy: how long an average person in that society will live Declination: Every sense declines (especially ears) Can’t say aging is all about decline (some things get better) (domain specific: ability to learn new words, etc.) Most people do not notice decline (compensation: adjustment to the declines) Declines may happen because one has to adapt to a lifestyle People of all ages report to have similar levels of happiness Lev Vygotsky - Russian developmental psychologist - Studied how children think and learn and how child’s mind feeds on the language of social interaction - By age 7, they increasingly think in words and use words to solve problems— they do this by internalizing their culture’s language and relying on inner speech - Parents who say “No, no!” when pulling a child’s hands away from the cake are giving the child a self-control tool—later when child needs to resist temptation they may say “No, no” nd - 2 rdgraders who muttered to themselves while doing math problems grasped 3 grade math better the following year - (out loud or audibly) Talking to themselves helps children control their behavior and emotions and master new skills - he emphasized how the child’s mind grows through interaction with social environment - By mentoring children and giving them new words, parents and others provide a scaffold from which children can step to higher levels of thinking - Language, an important ingredient of social mentoring, provides the building blocks for thinking Erik Erikson - Erikson disagreed with emphasis on sex - Focused on individual and society - Primary task during adolescence is forming an identity - Each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs a solution - Crisis: represent tasks throughout life-span—each crisis must be dealt with and it effects you for the rest of your life (NEED balance) - Psychosocial crisis model Born-1 year: Trust vs. Mistrust Develop that Mom cannot do everything for you Also develop caution/fear 1-3 years: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt You are separate from your mom—you can effect the world separately Shame and doubt comes from the inside You can fail and break stuff (but never try if too much) (but also have limits) 3-6 years: Initiative vs. Guilt Goals (internalized) What you think is wrong—can’t live up to it 6-12 years (latency period) (school): Industry vs. Inferiority Have to perfect Can’t handle failure, never try Never will be as good as anyone else Balance: try, win some, lose some and can handle both ***12-19 years (adolescence): Identity vs. Role Confusion If something threatens identity, messes up everything (badly) Doesn’t know how to fit into society 19-25 years (early adulthood): Intimacy vs. Isolation Sharing yourself with others too much—giving up too much of your identity/self Not being able to compromise about anything (my way or highway) 25-50 years (adulthood): Generativity vs. Stagnation Being a mentor/giving back what you’ve learned back to the world You stop learning and give to no one 50 years or older: Ego Integrity vs. Despair Ability to die happy with yourself—accept negatives and positives Too much, don’t accept weaknesses and think you were a great everything You sucked at everything, might as well leave now More on Identity by Erikson: 3 components of Identity Crisis A) A quest to be unique B) Continuity of experience with past (childhood) C) Solidarity with a group’s ideals (belonging in larger context) A + C = conflict Marcia’s Identity Statuses NO YES NO 1 2 YES 3 4 1: Diffusion No desire to change, no aspirations, no crisis (exploration) 2. Foreclosure Premature identity formation (no crisis) Decide early on and never though about anything else 3. Moratorium Middle of crisis (2 years of college) Time to experiment without consequences, a time out 4. Identity Achievement Deliberate commitment to an identity or course of action Went through crisis - Erikson observed that the adult struggles to attain intimacy and generativity Emotions: Attachment (Klaus and Kennell) - Bonding does not exist between parents and infants - Came from nursing and studying goats - They say: critical period for touch with mother and child, if doesn’t happen then no relationship - No critical period - Child contribution: none - Mother contribution: none (biologically 0, but can be psychologically 100%) - If mother believes she missed window, will treat child different b/c of that belief Theories of Attachment Psychoanalytic (Freudian) “I love you because you feed me” Learning Theory (Skinner) “I love you because your reinforcing” (pretty much same as Freud’s) Contact Comfort (Harlow) “I love you because you make me feel secure/safe/comfy” Ethological (Bowlby) “I love you because I was born to love” (biologically predisposed to be that way) Skinner vs. Harlow (Food vs. Contact Comfort) (monkey experiments) o No matter which “mother” had food/nourishment, they preferred the cuddly, comforting one o Security from monster o Will explore/able to learn when comforting mother was around o What to take from this: becomes template for relationships when you get older Attachment: an active reciprocal (BOTH) relationship between 2 people as opposed to all others How do we measure attachment in Humans? (Ainsworth: strange situation) (Behaviors of Interest) o Exploration (secure base-mom) o Proximity seeking o Contact maintaining/resisting o Comfortability (how quickly are they comforted when mom/dad comes back) Attachment classifications o Secure attachment (play happily when mom is there, when mom leaves, become distressed and when returns seek contact with her) o Avoidant attachment (not need mom) o Ambivalent attachment/insecure resistance attachment (desperately feel the need of security) (I want you but I hate you/anger/remain upset when returns) o Disorganized/disoriented attachment (doesn’t know if mom/dad loves them or not—freezes when they leave the room) These all contribute to working model of SELF Autism spectrum disorder: Poor communication among brain regions that normally work together to let us take another’s viewpoint Said to have an impaired theory of mind They have difficulty inferring others’ thoughts and feelings, do not appreciate that playmates parents might view things differently, have difficulty mind reading (what most of us find intuitive—smirks, sneers) Has differing levels of severity—“high-functioning” individuals have normal intelligence, and often have exceptional talent/skill, but lack social and communication skills and tend to become distracted by minor/unimportant stimuli (those at the spectrum’s lower end are unable to use language at all) Boys are systemizers (rules or laws, mathematical and mechanical systems Girls are empathizers (reading facial expressions and gestures) Children exposed to high levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in the womb may develop more masculine and autistic traits Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life Goslings, ducks, and chicks have this Humans do not imprint—they do though become attached to what they’ve known Mere exposure to people and things fosters fondness (familiarity is a safety signal) Temperament: a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity From the first few weeks of life, infants differ in their characteristic emotional reactions, with some infants being intense and anxious, while others are easygoing and relaxed (these are differences in their temperament) Genetically influenced (physiological differences) Helps form our enduring personality Tends to remain stable throughout life Developing Morality - Two crucial tasks of childhood/adolescence are discerning right from wrong and developing character - Think morally and act accordingly - Piaget and Kohlberg: moral reasoning guides moral actions - Piaget believed that children’s moral judgments build on their cognitive development (Kohlberg agreed) - Kohlberg posed moral dilemmas and asked children, adolescents, and adults whether the action was right or wrong - Their answers led him to propose three basic levels of moral thinking: preconventional (self-interest, obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards), conventional (uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order), and postconventional (actions reflect belief in basic rights and self-defined ethical principles) - Haidt believed that much of our morality is rooted in our moral intuitions - These led to moral paradoxes (trolley problems) Studies: Cross-sectional Compare people of different ages Longitudinal Restudy and retest the same people over a long period of time Parenting styles 1) Authoritarian: parents impose rules and expect obedience 2) Permissive: parents submit to their children’s desires 3) Authoritative: parents are both demanding and responsive
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