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Midterm Review

by: Donae Pollard

Midterm Review 20133

Donae Pollard
Clayton State
GPA 2.7

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Indian and China
Survey PreModern World History
David Gilbert
Study Guide
World History
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donae Pollard on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20133 at Clayton State University taught by David Gilbert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Survey PreModern World History in History at Clayton State University.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Midterm  Study  Guide  1 Sunday,  February  21, 8:24  AM The  four  main  river  civilizations  on  the  map  are  called… • Tigris  (North)  and  Euphrates  (South) • Nile  River  runs  along  Egypt • The  Indus  River  (further  west)goes  through  India  and  the   Ganges  river  is  on  east  India • Yellow  river  is  north  and  the  Yangtze  is  sorth Alexander  the  Great was  outside  invader  caused  the  Indian  princes  " Chandgra  Mauryan "    to  unite  to  create  the  Mauryan  Empire. grandfather  Chandgra  Maurya  unified  the  Indians  against  the  Greeks. his   -­‐But  Ashoka  led  his  armies  on  a  series  of  campaigns  in  north  and   central  India. Both  of  the  Indian  religions. One  of  the  oldest  Hindu  scriptures  is  the  Vedas Mahabharata-­‐ it  is  also  one  of  the  worlds  largest  poems Bhagavad-­‐ Gita.  This  is  poem  is  significant  to  the  Hindu  religion   because  its  about  a  warrior  who  struggles  with  doing  the  right  thing   in  the  war,  he  ends  up  having  a  conversation  with    god  name  Vishnu   and  he  tells  him  to  follow  his  dharma. Ramayana-­‐ the  women  who  is  in  captivity  and  she  goes  on  trial  to   prove  to  her  husband  she's  been  faithful. The  Upanishads are  a  source  for  the  Hindu  Philosophy. The  three  gods  in  the  Hindu  pantheon  and  their  avatars.   -­‐Shiva  "The  Destroyer"  has  a  son  he  Ganesh and  he  "Is  the  remover   of  all  obstacles"   Side  note:  He  has  an  elephant  head. Vishnu  "  The  Preserver" this  god  has  avatars that  come  back  as   Ramaand  Krishna of  all  obstacles"   Side  note:  He  has  an  elephant  head. Vishnu  "  The  Preserver" this  god  has  avatars that  come  back  as   Ramaand  Krishna -­‐ Kali  she  is  the  god  of  death.  She  is  the  symbol  of  ultimate  rage  and   she  is  related  to  Shiva. The  evolution  of  Hinduism  started  from  a  ritual  phase  called  Vedic.   The  oldest  hindu  scripture  is  the  veda.The  Brahmans  (Priest)   practiced  these  rituals.  In  this  religion  they  had  a  caste  system  and  the   priest  was  at  the  top  of  the  list. The  two  religions  that  was  formed  later  against  the  Hinduism   Religion. -­ Jainism,  this  religion  consist  of  non  violent  followers.  They  are   vegetarians.  This  religion  was  founded  by   Mahaviraand  he  spent   12  years  testing  and  doing  asceticism.  The  idea  of  giving  away   your  things  for  a  higher  person . -­ Mahavira  was  born  into  a  royal  family  at  the  age  of  30,  he  left  his   home  in  pursuit  of  spiritual  awakening.    For  the  next  twelve  and   a  half  years,  he  practiced  intense  meditation  and  severe  penance.   He  traveled  all  over  South  Asia  for  the  next  thirty  years  to  teach   the  Jain  philosophy.  Mahavira  died  at  the  age  of  72  and  attained   nirvana Jains  follow  certain  principles, An  essential  aspect  of  Jainism  is  the  ascetic  lifestyle.     &  Non-­‐violence   Buddhism was  founded  by  Siddhartha  Gautama.  The  Buddha  means  enlighten   one.  This  was  the  first  missionary  religion.  He  was  a  prince  who   became  an  ascetic  to  become  enlighten.  When  he  left  the  palace  he   saw  four  things  a  dead  body,  wandering  ascetic  who  looked  happy,   old  man  and  a  sickly  person .  So  he  sat  under  a  bodhi  tree  and  came   up  with  the  four  noble  truths -­‐All  life  is  suffering -­‐All  suffering  is  caused  by  desire -­‐Desire  can  only  be  overcome  by  nirvana -­‐ The  eight-­‐ fold  path  leads  to  nirvana.   Long  after  his  death  the  Buddha's  teachings were  written  down.   This  collection  is  called  the Tripitaka.  Buddhists  believe  in   reincarnation  and  that  one  must  go  through  cycles  of  birth,  life,  and   death.  After  many  such  cycles,  if  a  person  releases  their  attachment  to   -­‐ The  eight-­‐ fold  path  leads  to  nirvana.   Long  after  his  death  the  Buddha's  teachings were  written  down.   This  collection  is  called  the Tripitaka.  Buddhists  believe  in   reincarnation  and  that  one  must  go  through  cycles  of  birth,  life,  and   death.  After  many  such  cycles,  if  a  person  releases  their  attachment  to   desire  and  the  self,  they  can  attain  Nirvana.  In  general,  Buddhists  do   not  believe  in  any  type  of  God The  two  different  types  of  denominations  in  Buddhism  are   Mahayana  and  Theravada. • Theravada is  when  the  Buddha  is  the  teacher  only  and  he  is   extinct  because  he  reached  nirvana • Mahayana was  the  most  popular  form  and  this  happen   through  the  silk  road  going  east,  and  this  god  was  a   human  until  he  died  then  his  body  was  used  as  a  vessel   to  help  others.    He  is  the  savior! Buddhism  and  Jainism  both  rejected  the  caste  system. The  differences  between  Hinduism,  Jainism  and  Buddhism… Hinduism  is  the  study  of  polytheistic  and  traced  through  the  Indus   river.  Hindus  follow  a  strict  caste  system  which  determines  the   standing  of  each  person.  The  caste  one  is  born  into  is  the  result  of  the   karma  from  their  previous  life.  Only  members  of  the  highest  caste,   the  Brahmins,  may  perform  the  Hindu  religious  rituals  and  hold   positions  of  authority  within  the  temples. Jainismhas  many  similarities  to  Hinduism  and  Buddhism  they  believe   in  karma  and  reincarnation  as  do  Hindus  but  they  believe  that   enlightenment  and  liberation  from  this  cycle  can  only  be  achieved   through  asceticism.   Dharma  for  the  jains  is  non  violence They  all  believe  that  unreality  ,  karma  and  reincarnation  and  dharma. A stupa is  a  hemispherical  structure  containing  relics  of  the  remains   of  monks  and  used  as  a  place  of  meditation. Ashoka  was  the  third  king  in  the  Indian  empire  and  some  of  his   accomplishments  were…. He  adopted  to  Buddhism  religion  as  the  state  religion,  promoted   cultural  unity  and  political  control.  Their  was  also  inscriptions  in  a   pillar  and  the  people  claimed  he  built  new  roads,  intertwined  in  the   message  of  Buddhist  compassion,  were  the  merits  of  King  Ashoka. The  rock  edicts  were  sermons  of  the  Buddha  and  these  were  along   map  ways.  The  oldest  written  evidence  of  Buddha  was  written  by  him.   He  adopted  to  Buddhism  religion  as  the  state  religion,  promoted   cultural  unity  and  political  control.  Their  was  also  inscriptions  in  a   pillar  and  the  people  claimed  he  built  new  roads,  intertwined  in  the   message  of  Buddhist  compassion,  were  the  merits  of  King  Ashoka. The  rock  edicts  were  sermons  of  the  Buddha  and  these  were  along   map  ways.  The  oldest  written  evidence  of  Buddha  was  written  by  him.   The  message  contained  "The  four  noble  truths"  and  the  idea  of   dharma. Travelers  seeking  to  enter  South  Asia  and  Central  Asia .  Religion   among  other  exports  silk,  paper  and  other  goods  were  transported   through  the  silk  road .  The  silk  was  made  from  an  actual  silk  worm. The Kushan  Empire  the  first  Buddha  state ,  extended  fromthe   valley  in  northern  India.   -­‐believed  to  be  Indo-­‐European  people  from  the  eastern  Tarim  Basin,   China,  possibly  related  to  the  Tocharians,  created  the  empire.   -­‐They  were  the  furthest  eastern  Indo -­‐European  speaking  people.  The   empire  attained  great wealth  by  uniting  sea  trade. -­‐ Their  pantheon  of  deities  have  been  revealed  by  the  images  and   inscriptions  on  the  coins.  This  was  the  began  beginning  for  of   Mahayana  religion  of  Buddhism. China  civilization Chinese  writing, this  is  basically  logographic,  one  of  the  world’s   greatest  writing  systems. Silk  Road:  is  an  ancient  network  of  trade  routes  that  were  central  to   cultural  interaction  through  regions  of  the  Asian  continent   connecting  the  west  and  east from China  to  the  Mediterranean. 1.Shang  dynasty: The  Shang  dynasty  was  located  in  northern  China,  in  the  fertile  land   around  the  Yellow  River  (north). They  grew  millet  and  barley  on  the  yellow  river   Rice  grew  along  the  Yangtze  river Advancements  and  Achievements: -­‐ developed  a  refined  writing  system  that  had  over  2000  symbols -­‐ mass  production  of  bronze  items -­‐ made  fine  woven  silk  from  the  silk  worm The  writing  system  of  China • The  writings  of  the  Chinese  were  made  on  silk,  bamboo  sticks,   stones,  bronze  items,  ox  bones  and  tortoise  she" os  acle   bones". • Deviation  is  contacting  the  spirits  of  the  oracle  bones • The  writing  system  recorded  information  about  business   • The  writings  of  the  Chinese  were  made  on  silk,  bamboo  sticks,   stones,  bronze  items,  ox  bones  and  tortoise  she" os  acle   bones". • Deviation  is  contacting  the  spirits  of  the  oracle  bones • The  writing  system  recorded  information  about  business   activities,  warfare,  weather,  religious  activities,  and  ceremonies. The  Shang  king  burials  cite  were  unique  because  they  had  several   layers  of  bodies  that  were  loyal  to  the  king.  He  was  buried  at  the   bottommost  layer  with  his  relics.  Those  loyal's  and  workers  sacrificed   themselves.  This  type  of  sacrifice  showed  historians  how  powerful  the   kings  were  and  that  they  believed  in  the  afterlife. The  Zhou  Dynasty Advancements  and  Achievements: • origin  of  Chinese  philosophy  developed  to  deal  with  political  and   social  changes(  Confucianism,Daoism,Legalism) • lasted  longer  than  any  other  dynasty  in  Chinese  history  (450   year) • use  of iron for  technology • developed  technology  for  irrigation,  drainage,  waterways,  canals,   dikes,  and  dams  due  to  the  river  floods This  was  the  main  reason  for  the  boom  in  China.  Its  been  over   populated  every  since. Significant  Achievement: • use  of iron for  technology • developed  technology  for  irrigation,  drainage,  waterways,  canals,   dikes,  and  dams  due  to  the  river  floods This  was  the  main  reason  for  the  boom  in  China.  Its  been  over   populated  every  since. Significant  Achievement: The  most  significant  achievement  of  the  Zhou  Dynasty  was  the   development  of  the  Chinese  philosophies,  including  Confucianism,   Daoism Confucianism • Confucius  was  the  teacher  and  he  had  a  series  of  conversations   called  The  Analects • The  idea  was  that  people  should  behave  ethically  and  have  great   respect  and  commitment for  their  families.This  would  result  in   a  better  society. • Filial  Piety;  respects  for  ones  parents Li=  ritual  actions  (acting  the  right  way)  aka  manners Ren=  human  heartedness  (benevolence)(kind) Daoism • Lao  tzu  was  an  ancient  Chinese  philosopher  and  writer  and   the  founder  of  Daoism. • If  people  follow  the  Dao,  they  would  live  in  peace  and  find   contentment. • Daoism  is  if  one  learns  to  control  he  or  she's  breathing  or  life   force.  One  could  attain  super  human  powers  and  possibly   immortality. • Daoism  associates  with  the  Chinese  practices  like  acupuncture,   Tai  Chi,  and  Fung Shui  because  its  all  about  balance. These  were  suppose  to  unify  the  country  restore  harmony. The  Warring  States  Period  was  between  the  Zhou  Dynasty  and  the   between  8  states.  These  states had  frequent  wars  until  221  BCwhen   Qin  conquered  them  all. The  Qin  Dynasty • built  network  of  roads  and  canals • built  irrigation  to  improve  farming • Made  Great  Wall.  To  promote  unity Significant  Achievement: Unified  China  through  legalism • The  Qin  came  to  power  in  221  B.C.  after  conquering  the  warring   • built  network  of  roads  and  canals • built  irrigation  to  improve  farming • Made  Great  Wall.  To  promote  unity Significant  Achievement: Unified  China  through  legalism • The  Qin  came  to  power  in  221  B.C.  after  conquering  the  warring   states. • A  Legalist  form  of  government  was  implemented  to  rule  the   people. Legalism • believed  that  people  were  evil  by  nature  and  needed  strict  rules   and  punishment  to  control  their  conduct. The  King  of  the  Qin  Dynasty  he  died  with  "Terracotta  Warriors  and   Horses"  this  is  a  collection  of sculptures  depicting  the  armies  oQfin   Shi  Huan,  the  first  emperor  of  china.That  was  buried  with  him. Eunuch-­‐is  a  man  who  has  been  castrated. Shang  Yang,he  promoted  legalism  also  he  was  crazy! Dao ,primarily  used  for  slashing  and  chopping.   The  Qin  dynasty  ended. Shi  Huangdi's  attack  on  intellectuals  and  high  taxes  to  support   military  expansion,  construction  of  Great  Wall,  made  him  unpopular.   Liu  Bangled  a  peasant  revolt  and founded  the  Han  dynasty Han  Dynasty: Buddhism  got  to  china  around  this  time  but  they  did  not  like  it   because  it  was  foreign  and  it  taught  men  to  leave  their  families. The  nomadic  tribes  started  to  attack  China  because  of  the  way   they  were  living.  Many  wanted  what  they  had  the  dynasty  ends   up  falling  because  they  got  weak  and  eventually  was  overan. • The  Han  dynasty  (207  BCE   – 220  CE).  The Central  Asiasections   of  the  trade  routes  were  expanded  around  114  BCE  by  the  Han   dynasty,  largely  through  the  missions  and  explorations. • The  Chinese  took  great  interest  in  the  safety  of  their  trade   products  and  extended  the wall  of  china  to  ensure  the  protection   of  the  trade  route. • paper,  magnetism,  acupuncture  were  all  developed  in  this   dynasty dynasty,  largely  through  the  missions  and  explorations. • Thproducts  and  extended  the wall  of  china  to  ensure  the  protection   of  the  trade  route. • paper,  magnetism,  acupuncture  were  all  developed  in  this   dynasty The  Han  Dynasty  also  brings  back  Confucianism  by  making  it   the  state  religion. To  select  candidates  for  the  state  bureaucracy  they  gave  people  a   standardized  exam  that  was  a  4 -72  hour  essay  that  measured   knowledge  of  Confucianism.   The  Han  dynasty  expanded  its  borders  to  include  what  is  now  known   as  Tibet,  North  Korea,  and  northern  Vietnam.


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