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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donae Pollard on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20133 at Clayton State University taught by David Gilbert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Survey PreModern World History in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Midterm Study Guide 1 Sunday, February 21, 8:24 AM The four main river civilizations on the map are called… • Tigris (North) and Euphrates (South) • Nile River runs along Egypt • The Indus River (further west)goes through India and the Ganges river is on east India • Yellow river is north and the Yangtze is sorth Alexander the Great was outside invader caused the Indian princes " Chandgra Mauryan " to unite to create the Mauryan Empire. grandfather Chandgra Maurya unified the Indians against the Greeks. his -‐But Ashoka led his armies on a series of campaigns in north and central India. Both of the Indian religions. One of the oldest Hindu scriptures is the Vedas Mahabharata-‐ it is also one of the worlds largest poems Bhagavad-‐ Gita. This is poem is significant to the Hindu religion because its about a warrior who struggles with doing the right thing in the war, he ends up having a conversation with god name Vishnu and he tells him to follow his dharma. Ramayana-‐ the women who is in captivity and she goes on trial to prove to her husband she's been faithful. The Upanishads are a source for the Hindu Philosophy. The three gods in the Hindu pantheon and their avatars. -‐Shiva "The Destroyer" has a son he Ganesh and he "Is the remover of all obstacles" Side note: He has an elephant head. Vishnu " The Preserver" this god has avatars that come back as Ramaand Krishna of all obstacles" Side note: He has an elephant head. Vishnu " The Preserver" this god has avatars that come back as Ramaand Krishna -‐ Kali she is the god of death. She is the symbol of ultimate rage and she is related to Shiva. The evolution of Hinduism started from a ritual phase called Vedic. The oldest hindu scripture is the veda.The Brahmans (Priest) practiced these rituals. In this religion they had a caste system and the priest was at the top of the list. The two religions that was formed later against the Hinduism Religion. - Jainism, this religion consist of non violent followers. They are vegetarians. This religion was founded by Mahaviraand he spent 12 years testing and doing asceticism. The idea of giving away your things for a higher person . - Mahavira was born into a royal family at the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening. For the next twelve and a half years, he practiced intense meditation and severe penance. He traveled all over South Asia for the next thirty years to teach the Jain philosophy. Mahavira died at the age of 72 and attained nirvana Jains follow certain principles, An essential aspect of Jainism is the ascetic lifestyle. & Non-‐violence Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama. The Buddha means enlighten one. This was the first missionary religion. He was a prince who became an ascetic to become enlighten. When he left the palace he saw four things a dead body, wandering ascetic who looked happy, old man and a sickly person . So he sat under a bodhi tree and came up with the four noble truths -‐All life is suffering -‐All suffering is caused by desire -‐Desire can only be overcome by nirvana -‐ The eight-‐ fold path leads to nirvana. Long after his death the Buddha's teachings were written down. This collection is called the Tripitaka. Buddhists believe in reincarnation and that one must go through cycles of birth, life, and death. After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to -‐ The eight-‐ fold path leads to nirvana. Long after his death the Buddha's teachings were written down. This collection is called the Tripitaka. Buddhists believe in reincarnation and that one must go through cycles of birth, life, and death. After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can attain Nirvana. In general, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God The two different types of denominations in Buddhism are Mahayana and Theravada. • Theravada is when the Buddha is the teacher only and he is extinct because he reached nirvana • Mahayana was the most popular form and this happen through the silk road going east, and this god was a human until he died then his body was used as a vessel to help others. He is the savior! Buddhism and Jainism both rejected the caste system. The differences between Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism… Hinduism is the study of polytheistic and traced through the Indus river. Hindus follow a strict caste system which determines the standing of each person. The caste one is born into is the result of the karma from their previous life. Only members of the highest caste, the Brahmins, may perform the Hindu religious rituals and hold positions of authority within the temples. Jainismhas many similarities to Hinduism and Buddhism they believe in karma and reincarnation as do Hindus but they believe that enlightenment and liberation from this cycle can only be achieved through asceticism. Dharma for the jains is non violence They all believe that unreality , karma and reincarnation and dharma. A stupa is a hemispherical structure containing relics of the remains of monks and used as a place of meditation. Ashoka was the third king in the Indian empire and some of his accomplishments were…. He adopted to Buddhism religion as the state religion, promoted cultural unity and political control. Their was also inscriptions in a pillar and the people claimed he built new roads, intertwined in the message of Buddhist compassion, were the merits of King Ashoka. The rock edicts were sermons of the Buddha and these were along map ways. The oldest written evidence of Buddha was written by him. He adopted to Buddhism religion as the state religion, promoted cultural unity and political control. Their was also inscriptions in a pillar and the people claimed he built new roads, intertwined in the message of Buddhist compassion, were the merits of King Ashoka. The rock edicts were sermons of the Buddha and these were along map ways. The oldest written evidence of Buddha was written by him. The message contained "The four noble truths" and the idea of dharma. Travelers seeking to enter South Asia and Central Asia . Religion among other exports silk, paper and other goods were transported through the silk road . The silk was made from an actual silk worm. The Kushan Empire the first Buddha state , extended fromthe valley in northern India. -‐believed to be Indo-‐European people from the eastern Tarim Basin, China, possibly related to the Tocharians, created the empire. -‐They were the furthest eastern Indo -‐European speaking people. The empire attained great wealth by uniting sea trade. -‐ Their pantheon of deities have been revealed by the images and inscriptions on the coins. This was the began beginning for of Mahayana religion of Buddhism. China civilization Chinese writing, this is basically logographic, one of the world’s greatest writing systems. Silk Road: is an ancient network of trade routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the west and east from China to the Mediterranean. 1.Shang dynasty: The Shang dynasty was located in northern China, in the fertile land around the Yellow River (north). They grew millet and barley on the yellow river Rice grew along the Yangtze river Advancements and Achievements: -‐ developed a refined writing system that had over 2000 symbols -‐ mass production of bronze items -‐ made fine woven silk from the silk worm The writing system of China • The writings of the Chinese were made on silk, bamboo sticks, stones, bronze items, ox bones and tortoise she" os acle bones". • Deviation is contacting the spirits of the oracle bones • The writing system recorded information about business • The writings of the Chinese were made on silk, bamboo sticks, stones, bronze items, ox bones and tortoise she" os acle bones". • Deviation is contacting the spirits of the oracle bones • The writing system recorded information about business activities, warfare, weather, religious activities, and ceremonies. The Shang king burials cite were unique because they had several layers of bodies that were loyal to the king. He was buried at the bottommost layer with his relics. Those loyal's and workers sacrificed themselves. This type of sacrifice showed historians how powerful the kings were and that they believed in the afterlife. The Zhou Dynasty Advancements and Achievements: • origin of Chinese philosophy developed to deal with political and social changes( Confucianism,Daoism,Legalism) • lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history (450 year) • use of iron for technology • developed technology for irrigation, drainage, waterways, canals, dikes, and dams due to the river floods This was the main reason for the boom in China. Its been over populated every since. Significant Achievement: • use of iron for technology • developed technology for irrigation, drainage, waterways, canals, dikes, and dams due to the river floods This was the main reason for the boom in China. Its been over populated every since. Significant Achievement: The most significant achievement of the Zhou Dynasty was the development of the Chinese philosophies, including Confucianism, Daoism Confucianism • Confucius was the teacher and he had a series of conversations called The Analects • The idea was that people should behave ethically and have great respect and commitment for their families.This would result in a better society. • Filial Piety; respects for ones parents Li= ritual actions (acting the right way) aka manners Ren= human heartedness (benevolence)(kind) Daoism • Lao tzu was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer and the founder of Daoism. • If people follow the Dao, they would live in peace and find contentment. • Daoism is if one learns to control he or she's breathing or life force. One could attain super human powers and possibly immortality. • Daoism associates with the Chinese practices like acupuncture, Tai Chi, and Fung Shui because its all about balance. These were suppose to unify the country restore harmony. The Warring States Period was between the Zhou Dynasty and the between 8 states. These states had frequent wars until 221 BCwhen Qin conquered them all. The Qin Dynasty • built network of roads and canals • built irrigation to improve farming • Made Great Wall. To promote unity Significant Achievement: Unified China through legalism • The Qin came to power in 221 B.C. after conquering the warring • built network of roads and canals • built irrigation to improve farming • Made Great Wall. To promote unity Significant Achievement: Unified China through legalism • The Qin came to power in 221 B.C. after conquering the warring states. • A Legalist form of government was implemented to rule the people. Legalism • believed that people were evil by nature and needed strict rules and punishment to control their conduct. The King of the Qin Dynasty he died with "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" this is a collection of sculptures depicting the armies oQfin Shi Huan, the first emperor of china.That was buried with him. Eunuch-‐is a man who has been castrated. Shang Yang,he promoted legalism also he was crazy! Dao ,primarily used for slashing and chopping. The Qin dynasty ended. Shi Huangdi's attack on intellectuals and high taxes to support military expansion, construction of Great Wall, made him unpopular. Liu Bangled a peasant revolt and founded the Han dynasty Han Dynasty: Buddhism got to china around this time but they did not like it because it was foreign and it taught men to leave their families. The nomadic tribes started to attack China because of the way they were living. Many wanted what they had the dynasty ends up falling because they got weak and eventually was overan. • The Han dynasty (207 BCE – 220 CE). The Central Asiasections of the trade routes were expanded around 114 BCE by the Han dynasty, largely through the missions and explorations. • The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the wall of china to ensure the protection of the trade route. • paper, magnetism, acupuncture were all developed in this dynasty dynasty, largely through the missions and explorations. • Thproducts and extended the wall of china to ensure the protection of the trade route. • paper, magnetism, acupuncture were all developed in this dynasty The Han Dynasty also brings back Confucianism by making it the state religion. To select candidates for the state bureaucracy they gave people a standardized exam that was a 4 -72 hour essay that measured knowledge of Confucianism. The Han dynasty expanded its borders to include what is now known as Tibet, North Korea, and northern Vietnam.
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