Juvenile Justice System Exam 2 Study Guide
Juvenile Justice System Exam 2 Study Guide CRJ 221CM-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by CarlyM. on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRJ 221CM-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Lindsay Runell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Justice System in Criminal Justice at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Juvenile Justice System Study Guide Chapter 4: Theories of Causation Scientific Theory- a set of two or more related, empirically testable assertions. Demonology- the “devil” made me do it. Classical Theory- threat of punishment is considered to be a deterrent to criminals who rationally calculate the consequences of the illegal actions. Rational Choice Theory- main idea is that delinquents weigh the costs and rewards and if they perceive a favorable outcome then they will commit the crime. Deterrence Theory- if punishment is swift, certain, and severe, it is unlikely that we will take a risk on a particular crime. Routine Activities Theory- lifestyle determines whether or not you will commit crime or become victimized, crime is a function of people’s everyday behavior; presence in certain types of places, frequented by motivated offenders, makes him or her a suitable target. “Born Criminal” Theory- some people were biological throwbacks and they had no other choice but to be criminals in a modernized society. Cesare Lombroso- is the father of modern criminology. Sheldon studied prisons and examined their body shapes. (the endomorph- fat, the ectomorph- thin, and the mesomorph- athletic) Hooton wanted to sterilize, isolate, and use genetic engineering and eugenics on the prisoners. Biology is not the only factor in crime. Sigmund Freud divided the personality into three parts: the id (un socialized self, impulse), the ego (problem solver, directing id and superego), superego (mediator between the others, conscious) Delinquency results from an uncontrollable id, an underdeveloped superego, or a faulty ego. Behaviorism- concerned with the study of observable behavior: stimuli and response. Anomie- describes the breakdown of social norms or the disassociation of the individual from a general sense of morality. There are two social structures in society: a value structure (goals) and a normative structure (means). General Strain Theory- criminality results from negative affective states. Ecological/ Social Disorganization Theory- the consequences of urban decay. Labeling Theory- getting caught increases the chance of being “labeled” by someone by authority. Feminist Theory- women’s experiences in areas of victimization, gender differences in crime , and differential treatment by the juvenile justice system. Integrated Theories- combination of theories from multiple disciplines. Chapter 5: Child Abuse and Neglect Domestic Violence- intentional violence committed, attempted, or threatened. Violence in the home can lead to child maltreatment and neglect. Child Maltreatment- any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child. Child Abuse- occurs when a child under eighteen is maltreated by a parent, immediate family member, or any person responsible for the child’s welfare. Physical Abuse- physical acts that cause or can cause physical injury to a child. Emotional Abuse- most common and difficult abuse to define. Sexual Abuse- involvement of the child in sexual activity to provide sexual gratification or financial benefit to the perpetrator. Pedophile- someone who seeks out children for purposes of sexual gratification. White v Illinois (1992)- The state’s attorney is neither required to produce the young victims at trial nor demonstrate why they were unavailable as witnesses. Craig v Maryland- Closed circuit television was sufficient in cases of abuse. Chapter 6: Purpose and Scope of Juvenile Court Acts The purpose statement of a juvenile court act spells out the intent or basic philosophy of the act. The scope of a juvenile court act is indicated by sections dealing with definitions, age, jurisdiction, and waiver. A preliminary hearing for an adult is a preliminary conference or detention hearing. A petition in a juvenile case is the same as a grand jury indictment in the adult criminal justice system. The goals of the Uniform Juvenile Court Act is to protect juveniles from stigmatization, maintain the family unit, and preserve constitutional rights in juvenile court proceedings. In re Gault, juvenile court acts address procedural rights: due process and beyond a reasonable doubt. Jurisdiction- legal power or authority to hear and determine a cause. Blended sentencing- juvenile and/or adult courts impose adult sanctions and youth correctional sanctions on certain juveniles. Breed v Jones- the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Fifth Amendment’s prohibition against double jeopardy precludes criminal prosecution of a juvenile subsequent to proceedings in juvenile court involving the same act. Presumptive/ judicial waiver provisions allow judges to determine whether the youth should be transferred to adult court jurisdiction.
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