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Bio II Notes 3/1

by: Rocket

Bio II Notes 3/1 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes on today's class covering mostly digestion systems and tracts
Thomas Holder
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Digestive System Ch. 45 + 46  +Heterotrophic  ­ Ingest feeding  ­ Needed for survival, maintenance, growth,  reproduction    +Gut Tract (2 types)  ➔ Blind Gut System:  ­ No cavity between gut and body wall   ­ One opening       ❖ Tube­within­a­tube Arrangement   ­ Advanced form  ­ Flow through digestive tube  ­ Fluid­filled body cavity (coelom) between gut and body wall  ­ Separate openings      +Digestive Enzymes­ Hydrolases  ­ Need water for splitting bonds  Carbohydrases→  carbohydrates  Proteases→  proteins  Lipases→  lipids  Nucleases→  Nucleic acids    +Basic Functions of Digestion Systems  1. Digestion  ­Breakdown of large molecules into smaller forms  ­Chemical (water + enzymes) and Mechanical (teeth to break  things down)       2.   Absorption   ­Uptake of digestive foods by cells lining the gut track (ex.  glucose)      3.   Transport  ­Moving food through gut track  ­Mouth to tubbing to stomach to tubbing to intestines     4.    Elimination  ­Removal of undigested and unabsorbed materials     +Alimentary Canal:  ­Digestive tract/tube  ­Distinct separate mouth and anus    Region of Reception: Food Breakdown  +Buccal cavity:   ­ Mouth and all accessory structures in the mouth  ­ Both chemical and mechanical digestion occur here  ­ Jaws, teeth, tongue   ­ Salivary glands (*amylase)  ­ Pharynx: back of mouth cavity, point where digestive and respiratory system cross paths    Region of Conduction: Conducting food away from mouth cavity  +Esophagus  ­lined with simple epithelium and moves food by smooth muscle  ­food gets pushed down by​  Peristalsis (rhythmic wavelike  contractions pushing food through)    Region of Storage and Digestion:  +Stomach:  ­ Most vertebrates contain  ­ Insects and Bird have a *Crop   ­ Storage organ, where enzymes continuously breaking down food  +Stretchable   ­Rugae (when small): folds of inner linning, simple epithelium     +Wall of stomach lined with smooth muscle   ­3 layers  ­churning movements when contracting  ­speeds up digestion    +Enzyme→ Chemical Digestion  ­Protein breakdown begin in stomach    +Inner lining  ­Epithelium with pits and glands  ­Mucous cells: secrete moisture to soften things  ­Chief cells: secrete pepsinogen ​ (inactive enzyme)  ­Parietal cells: secrete hydrochloric acid   *Lumen (cavity) of stomach    Pepsinogen + Hydrochloric acid→ Pepsin→ Enzyme for proteins    Stomach itself  +Minimal absorption  ­ Lipid soluble materials ex. nutrients, alcohol    Region of Terminal Digestion + Absorption:  ­ Whatever gets to this region is waste   +Small Intestine (SI)­ Vertebrates/ called midgut in insects  ­ Chemical digestion of lipids and nucleic acids begins and  ends  ­ Chemical digestion of carbohydrate and proteins and  continued here  ­ In mammals: estimated length of SI = 8 x height  + 3 regions of SI  ­ Duodenum: many secretions, beginning  ­ Jejunum  ­ Ileum    +Absorption: lined with simple epithelium  ­ Surface lining modifications to increase absorptive area    1. Plicae Circulares​ : folds of inner linning, estimated to increase surface area x2 or x3  2. Villus (plu. villi):​  finger like projections, estimated to increase surface area x10  3. Microvilli:​  folding of plasma membrane of cells lining villi, estimated to increase surface  area x20                          Region of Water Absorption and Concentration of Solids   +Large Intestine (LI) hindgut in insects  ­ Average mammal roughly 1.5 meters  ­ No plicae, villi, microvilli  ­ Water absorbed from tube through epithelium,  reduce much water loss  ­ Compacts/ eliminates feces    +Wastes Eliminated  ­ Water 75%  ­ Inorganic substance 5%  ­ Fat 5%  ­ Undigested protein, bile, dead cells 7%  ­ Roughage 8%    +Vitamin Synthesis via Bacteria  Anus: opening to outside  Cloaca (all birds + reptiles): chamber receiving the  contents of the urinary, digestive, and reproductive  tracts    Accessory Digestive Glands  ­ Not part of tube but necessary for digestion  +Pancreas: secretes enzymes into duodenum  +Liver: constant production of bile trickle, necessary for  breakdown of fat molecules  +Gall Bladder: storehouse where bile is kept, when higher  quantity of bile needed it’s send from here    How they break down:    ­Carbohydrates→ Polysaccharides→ mono + disaccharides    ­Proteins→ Polypeptides→ Amino acids    ­Fats→ Glycerol→ fatty acids    ­Nucleic acids→ nucleotides     *Enzymes activity: speed up chemical reactions, allow them to occur at biological temperatures*             


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