Bio II Notes 3/1
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Digestive System Ch. 45 + 46 +Heterotrophic Ingest feeding Needed for survival, maintenance, growth, reproduction +Gut Tract (2 types) ➔ Blind Gut System: No cavity between gut and body wall One opening ❖ Tubewithinatube Arrangement Advanced form Flow through digestive tube Fluidfilled body cavity (coelom) between gut and body wall Separate openings +Digestive Enzymes Hydrolases Need water for splitting bonds Carbohydrases→ carbohydrates Proteases→ proteins Lipases→ lipids Nucleases→ Nucleic acids +Basic Functions of Digestion Systems 1. Digestion Breakdown of large molecules into smaller forms Chemical (water + enzymes) and Mechanical (teeth to break things down) 2. Absorption Uptake of digestive foods by cells lining the gut track (ex. glucose) 3. Transport Moving food through gut track Mouth to tubbing to stomach to tubbing to intestines 4. Elimination Removal of undigested and unabsorbed materials +Alimentary Canal: Digestive tract/tube Distinct separate mouth and anus Region of Reception: Food Breakdown +Buccal cavity: Mouth and all accessory structures in the mouth Both chemical and mechanical digestion occur here Jaws, teeth, tongue Salivary glands (*amylase) Pharynx: back of mouth cavity, point where digestive and respiratory system cross paths Region of Conduction: Conducting food away from mouth cavity +Esophagus lined with simple epithelium and moves food by smooth muscle food gets pushed down by Peristalsis (rhythmic wavelike contractions pushing food through) Region of Storage and Digestion: +Stomach: Most vertebrates contain Insects and Bird have a *Crop Storage organ, where enzymes continuously breaking down food +Stretchable Rugae (when small): folds of inner linning, simple epithelium +Wall of stomach lined with smooth muscle 3 layers churning movements when contracting speeds up digestion +Enzyme→ Chemical Digestion Protein breakdown begin in stomach +Inner lining Epithelium with pits and glands Mucous cells: secrete moisture to soften things Chief cells: secrete pepsinogen (inactive enzyme) Parietal cells: secrete hydrochloric acid *Lumen (cavity) of stomach Pepsinogen + Hydrochloric acid→ Pepsin→ Enzyme for proteins Stomach itself +Minimal absorption Lipid soluble materials ex. nutrients, alcohol Region of Terminal Digestion + Absorption: Whatever gets to this region is waste +Small Intestine (SI) Vertebrates/ called midgut in insects Chemical digestion of lipids and nucleic acids begins and ends Chemical digestion of carbohydrate and proteins and continued here In mammals: estimated length of SI = 8 x height + 3 regions of SI Duodenum: many secretions, beginning Jejunum Ileum +Absorption: lined with simple epithelium Surface lining modifications to increase absorptive area 1. Plicae Circulares : folds of inner linning, estimated to increase surface area x2 or x3 2. Villus (plu. villi): finger like projections, estimated to increase surface area x10 3. Microvilli: folding of plasma membrane of cells lining villi, estimated to increase surface area x20 Region of Water Absorption and Concentration of Solids +Large Intestine (LI) hindgut in insects Average mammal roughly 1.5 meters No plicae, villi, microvilli Water absorbed from tube through epithelium, reduce much water loss Compacts/ eliminates feces +Wastes Eliminated Water 75% Inorganic substance 5% Fat 5% Undigested protein, bile, dead cells 7% Roughage 8% +Vitamin Synthesis via Bacteria Anus: opening to outside Cloaca (all birds + reptiles): chamber receiving the contents of the urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts Accessory Digestive Glands Not part of tube but necessary for digestion +Pancreas: secretes enzymes into duodenum +Liver: constant production of bile trickle, necessary for breakdown of fat molecules +Gall Bladder: storehouse where bile is kept, when higher quantity of bile needed it’s send from here How they break down: Carbohydrates→ Polysaccharides→ mono + disaccharides Proteins→ Polypeptides→ Amino acids Fats→ Glycerol→ fatty acids Nucleic acids→ nucleotides *Enzymes activity: speed up chemical reactions, allow them to occur at biological temperatures*
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