Test 2 Study Guide: SMAD 101
Test 2 Study Guide: SMAD 101 SMAD 101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Butcher on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Intro to media arts and design in Art at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Newspaper Characteristics of early newspapers expensive most publishers and print masters news was NOT timely colonial government did NOT support free press Colonial Press (to 1765) i.e. “Boston Newsletter” and “Boston Gazette” mostly news from Europe that was several weeks or months late Prior Restraint: censorship imposed usually by a government on expression before the message is communicated could NOT be critical of government Sedition: communication against a government form Seditious Libel: communication against a specific government official Harris: did NOT listen to the government and got shut down Cambell: listened to the government John Zenger: published about an official (aka seditious libel) Hamilton: Zenger’s lawyer asked the jury to determine the truth of the article and defense Revolutionary Press (1765 1783) white men could read so the paper was geared towards their interests must have a stamp to sell a copy (Taxation Without Representation) used for propaganda and ratifying the Constitution Party Press (1783 1833) intense partisanships and name calling first daily newspapers Bloodless Revolution: first party switch Alien and Sedition Act of 1788 ability to deport illegal immigrants incarcerated if you were against the president Penny Press (1833 – 1861) pulp paper process steam powered cylinder press Benjamin Day and “The Sun” first mass circulated paper advertising pays for the cost of the paper James Gordon Bennett “New York Harold”: most profitable and largest circulation EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Newspaper first to conduct newspaper interviews first to receive exclusive interview with president established cash in advance advertising Invention of Photography continuous tone = photograph Henry Fox Talbot: Calotype Process: first negative to positive contact printing process Louis Daguere: Tintype Process Frederick Scott Archer: Collodion Process: began using glass plates as negatives Civil War Press used telegraph photojournalism began Inverted Pyramid: who, what, when, where, why in first paragraph because they didn’t know when wires would be cut Competition and Yellow Journalism William Randolph Hurst: NY Journal very critical/make or break you depending on what is said about you 3D’s: death, dishonor, and disaster Joseph Pulitzer: NY World simple with lots of pictures increased ad space social advocate Edward Scripps: chain ownerships Yellow Journalism featured the “yellow kid” (Pulitzer vs Hurst) social advocate Syndicated Feature: you write and a firm sells your work to different newspapers vs you working for a specific newspaper Sensationalism: exciting stories at the expense of accuracy, in order to provoke public interest i.e. The Maine Social Reform and Jazz Journalism (1900 – 1927) Muckrakers: group of journalist that shine a light on a specific topic Ida B. Wells: NAACP; treatment of African Americans Nellie Bly: send information around the world Ida Tarbell: went after corporations i.e. Rockefeller EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Newspaper Jazz Journalism: “if it bleeds, it leads” return of sensationalism Increase of P.M. papers because people wanted to read after work *tabloids are 5 pages long Responsible Journalism (1929 – 1960) competing with radio and tv more indepth information higher quality and reduced costs with offset printing objectivity becomes ideal Golden Age of Photojournalism (1930 – 1950) Jacob Riis photographed NYC slums Investigative Journalism (1960 – 1974) country in crisis: Civil Rights, Vietnam, Pentagon Papers, Watergate first time in the history of the US, an injunction (restraint) was placed on the newspaper Computer Journalism (1974 – present) desktop publishing, digital press, electronic database, electronic delivery Newspaper Business 2/3 of the paper was advertising News Hole: advertising goes in first then news set on “dummy” Display Ad: full, ½, ¼ page Classified Ad: 1 column x 2” (hurt by craigslist) Standard Advertising Unit (SAU): pay same amount per ad per space Types of Newspapers National Papers: i.e. USA Today, NY Times, Wall Street Journal, etc. WASHINGTON POST IS NOT A NATIONAL PAPER!! Big city dailies, small dailies, weeklies, etc. Hard News: timeliness, impact, proximity, etc. i.e. politics, war, crime, etc. Soft News: human interest, humor, lifestyle, etc. i.e. fashion post, Miley Cyrus, etc. News Services Associated Press (AP): created in 1848 as an effort to reduce telegraph costs United Press International (UPI): merging of United Press and International News Service in 1958 Syndicate EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Newspaper Print syndication: distributes news articles, columns, comic strips and other features to newspapers, magazines and websites feature syndicates: untimely, human interest, advice humor, etc. Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) syndicates are paid by circulation size The Visual Environment Visual Windows/Framing: crop out the information that you don’t want seen Manufactured Realities: composite images i.e. the basketball added to the pic Framed Realities: “decisive moment” – Henri Cartier Bresson: father of 35mm photojournalism Digital Age creation of 24/7 news cycle Embedded Journalism: journalist become close to the situations and may become biased or less objective Citizen Journalist: common people can record, write, etc. anything with media *The Drudge Report broke Lewinsky/Clinton Scandal *Andrew Breibert broke the Weinergate Scandal Present and Future Printing Technology: ink, paper, color, speed, etc. Information Technology: electronic newsrooms, desktop publishing, etc. Delivery Technology: satellite transmission, enewspaper, interactive news Backpack Journalism: one person with news gathering information that can be placed in a backpack (risk one life vs a team of 3 or 4 lives) EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Magazine Early Development (1741 – 1865) Franklin’s “General Magazine” Bradford’s “American Weekly Mercury” low literacy rate, lack of advertising, and poor distribution subscription only (at beginning) The Golden Age (1865 – 1900) increased by 700% significant factors that contributed transcontinental railroad postal act of 1792 better technology (pulp, printing press, linotype (set print)) Narrowcasting: select a specific demographic i.e. Cosmopolitan was first to go after a national audience Muckrakers: social reformers who wrote about issues that others didn’t want to address such as: child labor Henry Luce: Time Magazine, Life Magazine, and Sports Illustrated Three Types of Magazines 1. Digest i.e. Readers Digest 2. News Weekly i.e. Time Magazine 3. Pictorial i.e. Look/Life Magazine Magazine Genre 1. News Magazine 2. General Interest 3. Geographic i.e. *Cirio, Shenandoah 4. Lifestyle i.e. GQ 5. Special Interest i.e. Guns & Ammo, Knitting 6. Demographic i.e. Boys Life, *Ebenie 7. Trade and Professional 8. Elite: target the elite/high income/1% i.e. The New Yorker Magazine Employment Writer: employ both staff and free lancers Editors: content researchers Layout: expertise in digital desktop publishing Media Rep: selling space to advertisers Historical Development language began as an oral tradition 1. Cuniform: clay tablet EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Magazine 2. Papyrus Rolls: Egypt 3. Parchment: sheep and goat hives in Greece 4. Printing Press: China Johann Gutenberg: printing press, movable type, Mainz Bible Blasphemes Liable: if you write about the crown, you will be tortured in this life and the next because criticizing the King is the same as criticizing God EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Book, Graphic Novel, and Comic Book *mandatory attendance in schools helped the book industry drastically Hortio Alger: rags to riches novels McGuffey Readers: schoolbook readings American Publishing literacy rate was 90% publishing houses go public in the stock exchange Book Types Trade Books: general consumer 95/5: 5% of books that breakeven or make money must compensate for the 95% that don’t make money Textbook: school books 4 billion dollar industry Adoption Code: user friendly Paperback Books: reprint of tradebook cheaper to produce and buy Perfect Binding: glue spine vs sewn spine like a hardback Professional Books: written by specialists i.e. doctors, scientist, etc The author is paid a lot of money because their ‘real job’ would make them more money than writing a book. This in turn makes the books a lot more expensive to purchase. John Kennedy Toole: “A Confederacy of Dunces”: committed suicide because publishing companies kept rejecting him. After he died, someone made an exact copy and turned it in, and because they were well known, they ended up getting a Pulitzer Prize for it. *in order to make it in the book industry, you have to be well known Graphic Novel: a novel in comicstrip format i.e. Maus: mice in a concentration camp Comic Book: Will Eisher: launched Batman, Spider Man and Fantastic Four Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster: serialized Tarzan, Buck Rogers, Dick Tracy Superman was the first superhero Comic Magazine Association of America didn’t want to be risqué so they created the Editorial Advisory Board EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Book, Graphic Novel, and Comic Book Illiteracy: cannot read Aliteracy: can read but choose not to EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Film Marey and Muybridge: bet about the horse Edison and Dickson: motion picture camera Lumiere Brothers: had original idea of motion camera and Edison came to France and stole their idea Nickelodeons: pay a nickel to see movie Bovie: movie based on a book Positive After Image (PAI): our eyes see a blending of images. 2430 frames per second Georges Melies: first special effects in “A Trip to the Moon” Edwin Porter: first full story with “The Great Train Robbery” D. W. Griffith: first to use movie techniques in “Birth of a Nation” about the KKK Early Black Cinema Emmett J. Scott: “Lincolns Dream” box cars were dolled up for film Paul Robeson: wrote/produced but was black listed (can’t work in Hollywood) Oscar Micheax: 8 real motion picture black man making film about lynchings Silent Picture Block booking: contract with a set of movies with some good bad, and maybe 1 block buster type movie Star System: Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton Mary Pickford, Clara Bow The Talkies “Jazz Singer” was the first talkie “The Lights of New York” was first full length Color Films 1932 red, blue, green 1) film noir (pessimism, fatal) 2) westerns (good guy vs bad guy) 3) musical Post War Decline development of television EXAM 2: SMAD 101 Film Paramount Decision: vertical integration was declared unconstitutional and could not own production down to theaters Spectaculars: 3Ds were something different Cinema Scope Ratio: screens on three sides of you Censorship and Ratings Motion Picture Production Code (MPPC) 1934 careful around sex and drugs aka Hayes Code “Man With the Golden Arm” in 1955 about Sinatra and heroine “Blue Moon” about a risqué girl Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating system in 1966 theme, language, nudity, and violence Marketing and Promotion Mind Space: want people to want to see it Shelf Space: want people to want to buy it Product Placement: a certain brand is in the movie Tie ins: i.e. Mcdonalds has toys from new movies soundtracks and sequels Three Lives: theatre, video, and broadcast Distribution and Exhibition from downtowns and driveins to malls and multiplexes Selective Contracts: the movie helps pay for advertising for theater Blind Bidding: see a short trailer and decide if you’ll play the movie Four Walling: vertical integration Block Booking: watch other movies to watch the one that you want 6/10 movie chains are in bankruptcy Blockbusters and Independents most movies do NOT breakeven independent movies often dominate awards
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