Botany Algae Study Guide
Botany Algae Study Guide Bio 210
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany O'Connor on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 210 at Ball State University taught by Peebles-Spencer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Botany in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Botany Exam 2: Algae Introduction Phycologyis the branch of botany that focuses on algae. Algae are primary producers, or the base of a food web. They can be single celled or multicellular and they can colonize. They can have cell walls made of glass. Algae are photosynthetic meaning the produce glucose sugars and oxygen. Their carbon compounds make them delicious to predators but they have a mucus-like film that tastes bitter in order to combat that. They can be found in both marine and fresh water. Algae are used as indicators of environmental quality; whether that be the presence or absence of certain algae, water can be determined as healthy or in poor health. Algae are economically important. Eutrophication occurs when there is an excessive amount of nutrients in a body of water, a result of this can be large algal blooms. These algal blooms consume oxygen at night while suffocating the fish and other aquatic animals living in that body of water. Harmful algal blooms are toxic and can cause death to animals and sever liver problems within humans. These algal blooms are very expensive in terms of water treatment. There are also edible algae that can be found in baby formula, seaweed, etc. New, innovative alternative energy sources are growing algae and then using the oil extracted from them as biofuel. Multicellularity and land plants evolved because of algae. Algae colonies eventually fused together creating multicellularity. Studies on the molecular level have linked land plants to green algae which are aquatic organisms. Coleochaetes are green algae that are considered the closest relative to land plants. Green algae gave rise to land plants most likely because of their ability to withstand droughts. The move on to land was incremental with new developments and adaptations as new terrestrial environments were encountered. From ancestral algae, non- vascular plants, such as moss, emerged. These plants had to live in wet places and had a waxy cuticle to prevent water loss. Then developed the vascular seedless plants, they had tough tissues for structure and support, the vascular system provided water throughout the plant and they grew vertical in order to compete for sunlight. An example of a vascular seedless plant is the fern. Gymnosperms, such as evergreen trees, were the next to evolve; they were some of the first to produce seeds. Their seeds were stored within cones that provided protection, this adaptation really allowed plants to move away from the water and completely on land. Finally, angiosperms or plants that produce flowers and fruits, evolved. They have fleshy seeds (fruits) that can be distributed through animals and they attract pollinators to their flowers so they can sexually reproduce with other flowering plants. Algae are very diverse, they can be considered eukaryotic and prokaryotic and therefore are classified in many different ways. Algae can be classified by their cells (unicellular, multicellular, colonial), mode by which they acquire energy (autotropic, heterotrophic), their pigments (Chlorophyll A/B, carotenes, xanthophylls), storage products, the number of membranes around their chloroplasts, level of motility and what type of reproduction they use (vegetative, asexual, sexual). Prokaryotic algae have no membrane around their chloroplast; an example of this are cyanophyta or bluegreen algae such as cyanobacteria. Eukaryotic algae can have chloroplasts with two, three or four outer membranes. Simple chloroplasts have two membranes and can be found within the Rhodophyta, or red algae, and the Chlorophyta , or green algae. Eukaryotes with three outer membranes are theEuglenophytaand Dinophyta. Those with four outer membranes are the Chrysophyta (golden brown algae), Bacillariophyta (diatoms) and Phaeophyta (brown algae). Euglenophyta Line of Evolution: Green Clade; chlorophylls A/B, two flagella Mode of Nutrition: Mostly heterotrophic (consumes food), few are photosynthetic Habitat: Mostly freshwater but still important within some marine environments Flagella: Two, unequal, anterior Whiplash flagella – pushes organism in order to move Tinsel flagella – uses hair-like projections to pull organism through environment Carbohydrate storage: Paramylon Reproduction: Asexual, binary fission (mitosis), permanently condensed chromosomes (always ready to split) Euglena have a red eyespot, or stigma, which is a light-sensing system that helps it move towards the light in order to photosynthesize. Pellicle – cell membrane made of spiral protein strips that can be somewhat flexible and can also be used for locomotion if crunching or wriggling Lorica– hard protective covering The lorica is a covering around the cell wall whereas the pellicle is the cell membrane underneath the cell wall that can sometimes slide with the expanding and contracting of the cell when moving. Metaboly– the ability of some cells to alter their shape Dinosphyta Line of Evolution: Brown Clade, contain chlorophyll A/C, two flagella Mode of Nutrition: Most are photosynthetic Mixotroph – organism with the ability to be autotrophic and heterotrophic at the same time Habitat: Freshwater and marine Flagella: have a girdle flagellum that connects all the way around and then a trailing flagellum that follows Carbohydrate storage: Starch Reproduction: Sexual, gametes fuse to make a zygote; asexual, the parental theca pull apart shedding their plates and a new offspring is form from each theca Motility: they spin like a top while they move Dinoflagellates can be either armored or unarmored. When they are armored their lobes are called theca and they are harder than the unarmored lobes called cones. The theca and cones are called epitheca and epicone respectively when referring to the anterior lobe while the posterior lobes are called the hypotheca andhypcone respectively. Dinoflagellates are essential to the formation and continuation of coral reefs. They are huge oxygen producers and provide food for most coral, in return, the coral provides protection; they are endosymbionts of coral. As good as they are for coral, dinoflagellates can also have a negative ecological affect. Their algal blooms or “red tides” are full of toxins they have produced and also deplete the available oxygen for animals; algal blooms occur when algae become very numerous. Dinoflagellates also produce bioluminescence. Bioluminescence is the light given off by a living organism, more commonly seen in a firefly, however, dinoflagellates use their bioluminescence to startle predators and then make predators more visible if eaten. Dinoflagellates glow because of an enzymatic reaction used to bind with excess oxygen. Phaeophyta Line of Evolution: Brown Clade, 1 tinsel flagellum/1 whiplash flagellum, fucoxanthin photosynthetic pigments (gives color), chlorophylls A/C Mode of Nutrition: Autotrophic Habitat: Marine, cold waters Flagella: 2, tinsel and whiplash Carbohydrate storage: Laminarin Reproduction: Alternation of generations Phaeophyta have a branched, filamentous thallus in order to create the holdfast so they can have a strong attachment to their substrate. Pseudoparenchymatous– have a compact mass of tissue made up of interwoven hyphae/filaments Their cell walls have cellulose embedded in the matric of algin which makes it tough and slimy. This is a necessity because during high tide the cell walls need to be protected from the water and they need to be able to withstand being bashed against their substrate. Alginate – a salt of alginic acid from the algin of brown algae, economically important because used in food, pharmaceutical and textile industries Examples of brown algae include: rockweeds and kelps Trumpet cells – elongated cells that join together in large numbers to transport sugars through brown algae, end walls are perforated with holes to form sieve, very fast flow rate LaminariaLife Cycle Dioecious – having male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals The thallus in the luminaria life cycle is a thin, flat blade that floats under the surface and is attached to the holdfast by a long stem-shaped stipe. The holdfast prevents the algae from drifting away during the changing of the tides. The sexual reproduction of Laminaria is oogamous. Fucus Life Cycle Receptacle – enlarged area at the apex of a stem that bears the organs of a flower Conceptacle – an organ or cavity enclosing reproductive bodies Sargassum – brown seaweed with berrylike air bladders, typically forming large floating masses Sargasso Sea– only sea on Earth with no coastline, located in the North Atlantic Ocean Rhodophyta Line of Evolution: Red Clade, Chlorophyll A, phycoerythrin photosynthetic pigment (when destroyed the color varies, may appear purple, brown, green or yellow) Mode of Nutrition: Photosynthetic Habitat: Mostly marine, tropical waters Flagella: None Carbohydrate storage: Floridean starch (similar to glycogen) Reproduction: Asexual and sexual Coralline algae– a branching reddish seaweed with a calcareous jointed stem Rhodophyta have a hard thallus because of the calcareous deposits within the cell walls. Red algae have ecological and economical value. They are used as nori (sushi) and agar (food thickener) along with being involved in anti-tumor capabilities and helping build reefs. Examples include: Coralline algae, Palmaria, Delesseria, Chondrus, seaweed Bacillariophyta Line of Evolution: Brown Clade, Chlorophylls A/C, one flagellum Mode of Nutrition: Autotrophic Habitat: Marine and freshwater Flagella: none of heteroknot Heteroknot– having a tinsel and whiplash flagella of different lengths Carbohydrate storage: Chrysolaminarin Reproduction: Asexual, each daughter cell gets ½ of the parent frustule and forms a new valve, the new valve is always the hyoptheca which is the smaller half so they have a shrinking division phase where a smaller half is formed The part that is heteroknot in Bacillariophyta is the male gametes. The cell wall is covered by silica (Si2) and is call the frustule, or test. The frustule resembles a petri dish by having two valves; the larger, upper valve is the epitheca and the smaller, lower valve is the hyoptheca. The Order Pennales and Order Centales are determined by what type of symmetry they have, respectively they are bilateral and radial. Bacillariophyta are considered marine diatoms and marine diatoms are estimated to make up a quarter of the total primary producers on Earth meaning they are major oxygen producers. Another ecological affect they have is that some can produce domoic acid which is a neurotoxin that can cause amnesiac shellfish poisoning in humans. Bacillariophyta are economically important because they are used in many aspects of humans’ daily lives. Some examples include: they are in toothpastes, used as filtering medium in swimming pool/beer/etc., insulation of heat, absorbent, reflective paints like on highway signs and many more. Chrysophyta Line of Evolution: Brown Clade, Chlorophylls A/C, 2 flagella Mode of Nutrition: Autotrophic Habitat: Freshwater, few marine prefer cooler waters Flagella: Two, tinsel/whiplash Carbohydrate storage: Chrysolaminarin Reproduction: Sexual, oogamy Chrysophyta’s thallus can be unicellular or colonial. When they are filamentous, they have a true cell wall made of cellulose and silica. However, they are more commonly unicellular or colonial in which case the lack a true cell wall and do not have a cell covering but a pellicle and/or a lorica. The pellicle/lorica of the unicellular/colonial thallus can be made of cellulose, pectins, silica or minerals. An example of both filamentous and unicellular/colonial respectively are Class Xanthophyceae and Class Chrysophyceae. Some Chrysophyceae (unicellular/colonial) can cause toxic brown tides which leads to millions of dollars lost due to the death of shellfish and salmon. Chlorophyta Line of Evolution: Green Clade, 2 flagella, Chlorophyll A/B, chlorophyll B photosynthetic pigment Mode of Nutrition: Autotrophic and heterotrophic Habitat: Freshwater and marine, some terrestrial Flagella: 2 whiplash Carbohydrate storage: Starch Reproduction: Sexual, mostly haploid, some diploid/alternation of generations Chlorophyta’s lysine biosynthesis is a diaminopimelic acid pathway. They are not considered to be in the Plant Kingdom because they have a simple thallus with very little cellular differentiation with the reproductive structures as an exception, they also have no tissue development and no embryo that develops in a parent plant. Green algae have a diverse range of thalli including: unicellular, colonies, filamentous, multinucleate, and pseudoparenchymatous/plant-like. An example of unicellular thalli are the Chlamydomonas. They have two anterior, whiplash flagella, one cup-shaped chloroplast with a stigma and many pyrenoids(micro compartments within chloroplasts that contribute to the carbon-concentrating mechanism) and nucleus but their cell wall is not made of cellulose, and instead it is made of glycoproteinaceous. Chlamydomonas have a diploid lifecycle and an either be isogamy, oogamy or anisogamy. Some examples of colonial thalli are Gonium, Pandorina, Eudorina, Volvox andHydrodityon. Volvox is connected with plasmodesmata which is the sharing of cytoplasm between cells. This form of communication allows for the coordinated movement of all the flagella together. Hydrodityon are connected together in such a way as to create a “water net”. Ulothrix(unbranched filament), Stigeoclonium(branched),Frischella(branched), Oedogonium(unbranched), and Spirogyra(helical)are all examples of filamentous thalli within Chlorophyta. Stigeocloniumand Fritschiellahave a heterotrichous thallus which is a thallus with two parts, a prostrate form from horizontal growth and an erect form arising from the prostrate form. This type of thallus is important because it provides the basis of necessary conditions for the development of land plants to begin. Oedogonium have a haploid life cycle and can produce asexually or sexually. Spirogyracan produce asexually or sexually. When reproduction sexually two forms of conjugation can occur, scalariform or lateral. Scalariform conjugation used two different filaments whereas in lateral conjugation a single filament holds the gametes; both utilize conjugation tubes in order to complete conjugation. Spirogyra has a zygospore with a slimy mucilage sheath has a covering for protection. Multinucleate or siphonous thalli have a siphonous tube which means they are without any septations. Some examples of these are Acetabularia,Caulerpa, Penicillus, Udoteaand Cympolia. Thalli that are pseudoparenchymatous and plant-like include Monostroma, Ulva, Chara, and Coleochaete. In Chara, there is a distinct morphology shown through the node-internode arrangement where at the nodes whorl of branches occur and the internodes are long, multinucleate cells. Charahas a haploid life cycle and reproduces sexually and vegetatively. The antheridia (male sex organ) are located above the oogonium (female sex organ). Land plants are most closely related to the Coleochaete. There are three major classes of green algae: Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Charophyceae. Most of the green algae are placed under Chlorophyceae, most of the marine green algae are placed under Ulvophyceae and the smaller but more advanced Charophyceaecontains the plant-like green algae.
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