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Study Guide for Exam 2 - Module 2

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Study Guide for Exam 2 - Module 2 PLPA 3000

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General Plant Pathology
Dr. Lawrence
Study Guide
plant pathology, pathology, plant, auburn, au, war eagle
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rabbit on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PLPA 3000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Lawrence in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see General Plant Pathology in Biomedical Sciences at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
Study Guide 2: Plant Pathology Exam 2: 2 Mar 2016 Know the structures; identify the different class/phylum of fungi Zygomycete, Oomycete, Deuteromycete, Ascomycete, Basidiomycete Be able to match the common name with the scientific name of the causal organism and the general diseaWhichscription. ones are Oomycetes, Zygomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Ascomycetes, or Basidiomycetes? Phyla of fungi: Zygomycete, Oomycete, Deuteromycete, Ascomycete, Basidiomycete Fungi: Fungi Chapter 11 Book: Reproduction: Fungi are: Spores are the 1. usually microscopic, Reproductive bodies that are specialized: 2. Eukaryotic organisms, 3. Filamentous bodies, Coenocytic or less cells 4. spore bearing (sexual) 5. Have no chlorophyll Can be formed sexually/asexuallyss walls 6. Chitin & or cellulose in cell Facltwalls days of their life: Septa - septum sapropPARASITE cross wall in th hyphae  Can be saprophytes on dead organic matter. obligate parasites or biotrophs Only grow on/in organisms MORPHOLO alive GY Mycelium - mycelia body of the fungus Hyphae – Hypha Zygomycetes: asexual, sporangiospore - nonmotile spores in a sporangium seuxla, zygospore - zygote formed when two gametes of equal size unite mycelium; have nonmotile asexual spores called sporangiospores, bread molds; soft rots, are saprophytes and very weak parasites of plants: Rhizopus stolonifer Mucus spp, Figure 1: reference of online search. well developed mycelium, sexual reproduction by zygospores, union of 2 similar gametes Rhizopus spp: soft rot, water soaked, very soft, gray fungus on surface, loss of moisture, vegetables and fruits and flowers Oomycetes: asexual, zoospores - motile spores in a zoosporangium sexual, oospore- 2 gametes of unqueal size form a zygote water molds, white rutsts, downy mildews, zoospores - asexual spores oospores - sexual spores Pythium ultimum- damping off of seedlings, water soaked roots, white cottony fungus growth; direct penetration- mechanically and with enzymes; vegetables and fruits get maceration soft watery rot; fruiting structures: sexual - oospore, antheridium, oogonium; asexual- zoosporangium, zoospore has a wide host range, is non-specific in their host; survive indefinitely in soil because of oospore production; control by resistant varieties, biological, cultural: good drainage, air circulation, favorable temperature, rotation, seed treatment and systemic fungicide Signs Symptoms Phytophthora infestans- late blight of potato water molds, oomycetes, water soaked lesions, chlorotic borders, expand rapidly, white sporulation, leading lesion edge, plant death, potato tubers infected, sporangiospores from foliage and they have a reddish color; while in storage invaded by soft rot bacteria; control: resistant varieties, crop rotation, fungicides Plasmopara viticola- downy mildew of grapes oospores in leaf tissue, they germinate and turn into sporangia or zoospores transported by wind and water and enter stomates symptoms: pale yellow irregular spots, downy growth on underside leaf, berries leathery Ascomycetes: are higher fungi ascospore-sexually produced spores born in the ascus (saclike cell of hyphae where meiosis occurs) cleistothecium -- entirely closed ascocarp (has asci) perithecium - flask shaped ascocarp, opening at one end w/ asci apothecium- open cup shaped ascocarp, has asci sexual, ascospore within ascus haploid mycelium w/ cross walls Deuteromycetes: are ascomycetes that have lost need for sexual stage imperfect fungi, acervulus- subepidermal saucer shaped asexual fruiting body, procude conidia on short condiophore pycnidia, thick walled strucutre where conidia are produced conidiophore, specialized hyphae where conidia are produced asexual stage of fungi not know to produce sexually spores formed at the end of a conidiophore are called conidia which is produced on hyphae conidiophore are specialized hyphae where conidia are produced pychnidia are thickly walled structures where conidia are produced acerbulus is a sub epidermal saucer shaped and is the asexual fruiting body that produces conidia on a short conidiophore asexual cycle: haploid spores --> haploid mycelium --> haploid spores <-- most common - secondary inoculum Ascomycetes & Deuteromycetes Diseases: leaf spots, blights, cankers, fruit spots and rots, anthracnose, tem rots, root rots, vascular wilts, soft rots True Fungi: Ascomycota Phylum: sac fungi, sexual stage: telemorph (ascus) asexual stage: anamorph (conidia/hyphae, pycnidia or acervuli) Higher fungi: Foliar(sooty mold, powdery mildew, leaf curls, etc.), stem and twig cankers, anthracnose , fruit and general, vascular wilts, root and stem rots, postharvest diseases Foliar Diseases: briefly mentioned in ppt:  yeasts (Saccharomycete, naked asci, unicellular, budding)  powdery mildew (list): Genuses: o Spaerotheca-roses o Erysiphae-herbaceous o Levillula-tomato o Podosphaera-apple  Cereal diseases o barley stripe, tan spot (wheat) Pyrenophora spp. o brown spot on rice, crown rot, root rot (wheat, barley) Cochliobolus spp.  Canker causing fungi (trees under stress, facultative parasites, live on dead bark until tree weakened, filamentous ascomycetes, Pyrenomycetes, perithecia ascomycetes) o Apple and peach: Botryosphaeria dothidea o Ceratocysis fimbirata stone fruits o Endothia parasitica chest nut blight o Eutypa armeniacea grape and apricot o Nectria galligena forest trees  Anthracnose diseases (black spot and glomerella spp) Foliar diseases: common sooty mold peach leaf curl powdery early blight Southern Chestnut Nectria canker Soybean black spot anthracno name mildew of tomato Corn leaf blight stem canker of rose se blight disease; perennial scientific Taphrina Sphaeroth Alternaria Cochliobol Endothia Nectria Diaporthe Diplocarpo Glomerell name deformans eca solani us parasitica galligena phaseolorum n rosae a spp. pannosa f heterstrop var calivora cingulata sp. rosae hus (telemorph ) Bipolaris maydis (anamorph ) class of dark- Archiascomyc Filamentou Pyrenomyc Pyrenomycete Ascomycete; ascomycete ascomyce fungi, colored etes (lack s etes; s; filmaentous filamentous , te- phylum ascomycete ascocarpus); Ascomycet filmaentous ascomyetes, asco, telemorph, telemorph & class s Ascomycota; es ascomyetes Ascomycota perithecia ; ascospores , asci in Ascomycot cylindrical apothecia a with septa parts leaves/stem leaf, flower, wide host leaves, texas bark and wounds, leaf nodes, beans, affected/ s fruit & twigs; range, stems, cytoplasm stem, crotches of leaves, cotton, plants stone fruits young flowers, male cambium limbs, fruits, sweet and trees, shoots, fruits; tomato sterility and inner apples and pea, witch's broom; buds, & others gene, leaf bark; pears, cereals, peaches, flowers, of corn, american hardwood cucrbits, nectarines, fruits, stalk chestnut forests tomato, plums upper side sheaths very strawberr of leaves ears and susceptible y , onions cobs, (North kernels America, Asia, Europe) environm warm/humi warm moist require 8 severe ent d temp, weather days of warm to humid moisture and cool temperatures humid above 20C areas; overwinte rs descripti black powdery hay feer, saprophyt penetrates mid season, on mycelium; white facultative e in soil bark and losses up to mildew sprophytes, wounds 100% toxins (host stem; reported specific and grows in non specific) inner bark and the cambium; other not worldwide economica common spread by economic parasitic; distribution; l worldwide; birds, importance; live off economic importanc insects and worldwide; honeydew; importance e (roses); rain; minor reduces ascospores importance flower shot into in health of production air, winter plant , weakens or early plant spring Sympto leaves curled leaf spots small tan cankers cankers, bud cankers black dark ms thicken, chlorotic (dark brown lesion on develop; scars, wounds, lesions, brown distort, yellow flowers, to black) leaves, reddish small circular chlorotic sunken to gray leaves, target like kernels orange, brown areas zone lesion, shoots and appearance; black felty pycnidia with raised around fungus buds, lower leaves mold, ears and borders lesion, attacks overwinter attacked first, die, perthecia leaves fall petioles s, affected seedlings prematurel and veins, mycelium leaves die, , plant y, raised underside in buds yellow-fall debris, purple red of leaves off; stems seed lesion, 1st have long and branches year canes dark dark sunken lesions, cankers, small seedling circular cankers; sunken fruits (spots water sunken in) woaked leathery or spots, , velvety burnt looking spots, Signs overwinters, gray-white pathogen; black felty conidia bright colored chlorosis, spore ascospores leaves dark mold, over ooze, perithecia, 2 necrosis, masses and conidia, with mycelium, winter pycnidia, celled small reddish center, rainfall powdery conidiophore mycelium orange ascospores, brown lesion pink distributes, mycelium s - condidia, or conidia curls micro and at node glomerell penetrate myceluim in chains, macro conidia a, cuticle, surface: conidia are colletrich mycelium haustoria, longitudinal um - intercellular, asexual, and have black, hypertrophy conidiapho cross wall mature res (5-10 pods have conidia), spore chains, masses oval shape IPM control fungicide resistant resistant resistant avoid sanitation, resistant sanitation, disease insects spray, varieties, varieties, varieties, wounding, remove and vars, fungicides, free seed, Bordeaux, fungicides, disease free disease severe burn cankers, fungicide, 7-10 day seed Chlorthalonil weekly seed, free seed, pruning, fungicides in spray intervals as treatment application fungicides, fungicides, remove autumn programs leaves with s, adequate N crop cankers, appear fungicides biological(f fertilizer, crop rotation, dry , crop uture) rotation, remove weather, rotation, removal of plant new resistant plant debris, debris systemic varieties, greenhouse fungicides removal setting, UV of absorbing infected films, woody biological plants, control w/ spray mycoparasiti fungicides c fungi note know winter: difference sexual b/een sooty (cleistothe and slime cia w/ appendage s); ascospores develop in fall and spring times know diff b/een powdery mildew and downy mildew of grapes Basidiomycetes: produce sexual spores- basidiospores on a basidium basidium is a club shaped structure hyphae has 2 haploid nuclei remaining separate in the cell Higher Fungi: Deuteromycetes, Ascomycetes Spermatia -Spermagonium Aecium ­ aeciospores Uredia - Uredospores Telia ­ teliospores Lower Fungi: Oomycetes, Zygomycetes Differences between Powdery Mildew and Downy Mildew of Grapes: -powdery mildew: ascomycete/deuteromycete, upper surface, conidia, conidiophores -downy mildew: oomycete, lower surface, sporangiospores sporangia Myxomycota-slime molds, zoospores Pathogenic fungi, pseudofungi Physarium cinereum crusty gray fruiting structures, moist warm weather, do not invade plants control: none necessary, hosing down turf washes away slime, fungicides, Thiram are toxic moist warm weather, sign : fructifications of leaf Plasmodiophormycota- endoparasitic slime molds - plasmodia produced within cells of plants Plasmodiophora brassicae - club root of crucifers Resting spore produces 1 zoospore, infects root hair, plasmodium produced and the zoospores are formed in zoosporangia in host, zoospores released and infect, overwintering resting spores Polymyxa graminis- root disease cereals Sympto Signs ms Spongospora subterranea - Powdery scab of potato Sympto ms Avoid contamination for control; healthy transplants; crop rotation; 7.2 pH, fungicides Original List given in study guide from professor (underlined if described above; organize later as lower/higher/phyla/scientific name combined & picture) Soybean stem canker Southern corn leaf blight Soft Rot lower fungi, Slime molds Powdery mildew no cros walls, lower fungi, Peach leaf curl Nectria Canker of trees Late blight of potato sporalation, target spots Brown rot of fruits: Monilinia fructicola Gray mold:  Botrytis cinerea, disease of beg, ornamentals, tulips, 2nd soft rots fruit and veg in storage (facultative saprophyte) - moist conditions, space issues (too close) - look at mycelium, deuteromycetes, higher fungi has cross walls under microscope  -warm temps high moisture  -speckles on rose flowers Blossom blights, after fruit rots, humid weather produces conidia, spread to pedicel fruit  Life Cycle: overwinters - mycelium in plants, conidia germinate penetrates wounds on plants  Sclerotia germinate (allows to survive in soil) - apotehcia -asocscopores , damp weather, low temps  -not picky since it is always there, sclerotia is where it survives  -more commonly fruits and flowers of the plant  -invades tissues, sporaltes within a week  -very rapid  Control:  Sanitation, removal of debris and fruit, aeration!! , reduce humidity, spacing of plants, fungicides are partially successful, a lot of selection so resistant strains  check the signs and symptoms comparison on PowerPoint, need to find conidiophore structure to identify difference between brown rot and brown mold Vascular wilt of tomato - widesrpead desturctie, rapid, causes death, anuals die in weeks, perennials are dead in months or years after infection (won't produce fruit) - Fusarium spp. - fungicides some - Verticillium spp. -no fungicides - common symptoms: leaves lose turgitidity, flaccid, wilt, lighter green to yellow, brown and die - affect half a leaf at a time, they are at root and move up vascular tissue or just send toxins up the vascular system to kill plant - no target spots, more necrosis on half the leaf on long spans compared to late blight, higher in tempreature - ex tomato: dies in week - cross sections stems, discolored brown vascular area, vasulcar tissue clogged with mycelium, spores, gums and tyloses - Fusarium wilt of tomato: Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici , most destructice souther us warm climates, sandysoils, kill entire fields, high temps all season = seriouseness!! (90 degree weather warm, 100 degrees no, here at auburn) - symptoms: will appear on one side of the stem upward, vascular bundles with upward discoloration o 1st vein clearing younger leafs, o older leaves, drooping of petioles, o plant wilt and die suddnely, o yellowing of lower leaves, adventitious root formation, necrosis of leaves , sudden death - start from roots and move up - signs: macro and micro conidia; o mycelium will wall up and create chlimydospores o whorled , alternate , cross walls, o can see elongated spores under microscope - enter through cracks in roots, clog in vascular cylinder, wilt; plant responds with tyloses and gums to kill it - soil inhabitant, once infected , always infected - spores are spread by wind, water - control: resistant varietyes, practical in field; seed treatments, greenhouse: sterilize soil; healthy seed and transplants; biological contorl (fungus: Trichoderma green fungus; - Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis - fusarium wilt of melons: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - bananas; sign of spores elongated, - Fusarium oxysporum f. lycopersici - fusarium of tomato; asexual stage ; Root & Stem rots: Take-all disease - appear water soaked, brown to black, lesion often covered by mycelium, roots and stems killed rapidly, non obligate parasites - Gaeumannomyces graminis take all disease of wheat, temperate climates, wheat following wheat; sometime hits turfgrass; necrosis on stems and root, losses are variable 0 - 50% - biological aspect: controls itself - appears as patches, poorly devloped, seeling is yellowshi, stunted plants, and few tillers produced; turfgrass: donuts - symptoms: plants ripen prematurely, produce heads that are sterile, and bleached spikelets, "whiteheads"; root system destroyed when observed, dry rot extends from the crown up to the lower leaf bases; - signs: dark mat of mycelium devlops between the lowest leaf sheath, bmall black raised necks of fungal perithecia, diagnostic of disease is the presence of thick brown strangs of hyphae (hyphopodia infection patch to penetrate to advance), cross walls - most severe, infertile, compacted alkaline and poorly drained soils (north alabama) - life cycle: mycelium is more commonly visual, increases for several seasons 3-6 yrs, then it declines and stabilizes to a low level (competition? food source for something else? ) - control: crop rotation with nonhost plats; apply adequate nutrients, K+, P-, NH4+ ammonium nitrogen, tolerant varieties, no highly resistant varieties are available, seed treatment with systemin fungicides - biological control: soil suppresiveness, root conoloincing bacteria, antagonistic (take all decline) Ergot of cereals Early blight of tomato ******Genus species of the causal agent 1. Alternaria solani 2. Botrytis cinerea 3. Claviceps purpurea 4. Cochliobolus heterostrophus - Bipolaris maydis 5. Cryphonectria (Endothia) parasitica 6. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora 7. Diplocarpon rosae - Marssonina spp 8. Fuligo, Mucilage, or Physarum 9. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 10. Gaeumannomyces graminis 11. Glomerella spp.-Colletotrichum spp. Gloeosporium spp. 12. Monilinia fructicola - Monilia fructicola 13. Nectria galligena/ Fusarium spp. 14. Phytophthora infestans 15. Plasmodiophora brassicae 16. Plasmopara viticola 17. Pythium ultimum 18. Rhizopus spp. 19. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 20. Sphaerotheca pannosa f. sp. rosae 21.Taphrina.deformans 1) A diseased tomato seedling with a water soaked lesion on the root and hypocotyl. You see mycelium under the dissecting microscope. Placing the mycelium on a glass slide under the compound microscope – there are no cross walls or division in the mycelium. This characteristic is called a) Coenocytic b) Septate 2) The Coenocytic mycelium narrows the scope of possible fungi classes you have isolated. What are the possible classes? a) Zygomycete, b) Oomycete, c) Deuteromycete, d) Ascomycete, e) Basidiomycete 3) Further culturing of the diseased tomato tissues on PDA medium for 5 days induced mycelium producing zoosporangium and zoospores. What class of fungi have you isolated? a) Oomycete, b) Zygomycete, c) Deuteromycete, d) Ascomycete, e) Basidiomycete 4) You have a diseased bell pepper a necrotic circular lesion. Under the dissecting microscope you see mycelium and small structures at the center of the lesions. Under the compound microscope you see cross walls in the mycelium.. What classes of fungi have you isolated? a) Oomycete, b) Zygomycete, c) Deuteromycete, d) Ascomycete, e) Basidiomycete 5) You have a diseased bell pepper a necrotic circular lesion. Under the compound microscope you see structures that look like pycnidia and one-celled conidia are oozing out. What class of fungi have you isolated? a) Oomycete, b) Zygomycete, c) Deuteromycete, d) Ascomycete, e) Basidiomycete 6) Who am I? a) Plasmodiophora brassicae - club root of crucifers b) Polymyxa graminis – root disease cereals c) Spongospora subterranea - powdery scab of potato 7)


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