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by: Kennedy Finister


Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > PSYC 3120 > PSYC 3120 EXAM II STUDY GUIDE
Kennedy Finister
GPA 2.95

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About this Document

chapter 7: preschool years; physical/cognitive development chapter 8: child abuse chapter 9: middle childhood;physical/cognitive development chapter 10: middle childhood; social and personality ...
Developmental Psychology
Elizabeth Brestan Knight
Study Guide
Psychology, developmental psych, psych, Auburn University, psyc 3120
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.




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Date Created: 03/01/16
LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide         VYGOTSKY   • Zone  of  Proximal  Development  (ZPD)   o Level  at  which  a  child  can  almost  but  not  fully  perform  a  task   independently  but  can  do  so  with  assistance  of  someone  more   competent   • Cultural  Tools   o Actual,  physical  items  (pencils,  pens,  computers,  etc)  as  well  as   an  intellectual  &  conceptual  framework  for  solving  problems   • Scaffolding   o The  support  for  learning  and  problem  solving  that  encourages   independence  and  growth     o Not  only  helps  children  solve  specific  problems  but  also  aids  in   the  development  of  their  overall  cognitive  development   • Level  of  independent  functioning   o How  much  the  child  can  do  alone   • Level  of  assisted  functioning     o How  much  the  child  can  do  with  help       PREOPERATIONAL  STAGE   • From  2-­‐7  years  in  which  children’s  use  of  symbolic  thinking  grows,   mental  reasoning  emerges  &  the  use  of  concepts  increases     • Children  become  better  at  representing  events  internally  and  they   grow  less  dependent  on  the  use  of  direct  sensorimotor  activity  to   understand  the  world  around  them   • Symbolic  Function   o The  ability  to  use  mental  symbols  or  word  or  an  object  to  stand   for  or  represent  something  that  is  not  physically  present   • Centration   o The  process  of  concentrating  on  one  limited  aspect  of  a  stimulus   &  ignoring  other  aspects   o They  are  unable  to  see  the  bigger  picture.  They  focus  on  what’s   right  in  front  of  them     o **limitation  of  the  child’s  thinking   • Egocentrism   o  The  child’s  ability  to  see  a  situation  from  another  person’s  point   of  view   o Child  assumes  that  other  people  see,  hear,  &  feel  exactly  the   same  as  the  child  does   LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     • Transformation   o The  process  in  which  one  state  is  changed  to  another   • Animalistic  thinking   o The  belief  that  inanimate  objects  have  life  –like  qualities   § Thoughts,  wishes,  feelings  &  intentions       CONCRETE  OPERATIONAL  PERIOD   • Ages  7-­‐11   • Major  turning  point  in  cognitive  development     • Though  becomes  more  logical,  flexible,  &  organized   • Decentration   o Focus  on  several  aspects     • Reversibility   o The  ability  to  go  thru  steps  and  then  reverse  them       TASKS  OF  CONSERVATION   • Conservation   o The  knowledge  that  quantity  is  unrelated  to  the  arrangement  &   physical  appearance  of  objects   1. Number   a. Rearranging  or  dislocating  elements  doesn’t  change  the  number   in  the  collection   b. Ages  6-­‐7   2. Substance  (mass)   a. Altering  the  shape  of  malleable  substances  (clay  or  water)   doesn’t  change  the  amount  of  substance   b. Ages  7-­‐8   3. Length   a. Length  of  a  line  is  the  same  length  whether  its  straight  or  turned   into  a  shape  like  a  square  or  circle     b. 7-­‐8  years   4. Area   a. Amount  of  surface  area  doesn’t  change  if  object  Is  rotated  or   flipped  upside  down   b. 8-­‐9  years   5. Weight   a. Weight  of  an  object  is  the  same  no  matter  what  scale  its  on  &   whether  the  object  is  laying  down  or  sitting  up  vertically   b. 9-­‐10  years   LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     6. Volume     a. Volume  of  an  object  (in  terms  of  water  displacement)  is  the  same   even  if  you  alter  object  in  the  water’s  shape     b. Ages  14-­‐15       SCHOOLING   • Piaget’s  View   o Emphasized  discovery  learning   § Children  should  be  able  to  do  little  experiments  to  learn   about  the  world   o Sensitivity  to  children’s  readiness  to  learn   § Range  of  abilities   o Acceptance  of  individual  differences   § Sometimes  kids  aren’t  ready  to  go  to  the  next  step   • Vygotsky’s  View   o Believed  everything  is  learned  through  social  interactions   o Children  gradually  grow  with  peer  and  adult  assistance   § Assisted  discovery     § Peer  collaboration       PARENTING  STYLES   • Authoritarian   o “my  way  or  the  high  way”   o cold/harsh   o dictator  like   • Permissive   o don’t  discipline  kids   o give  inconsistent  feedback     o don’t  see  themselves  as    responsible  for  how  their  kids  turn  out   • Authoritative   o Set  limits  but  at  least  tells  them  why   o Relatively  strict  but  emotionally  supportive   o Good  mix  between  authoritarian  &  permissive   • Uninvolved   o Not  present   o Very  detached  from  child   o Nothing  more  than  a  food/shelter  provider       LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     ABUSE   • Cycle  of  violence  hypothesis     o Theory  that  the  abuse  &  neglect  that  children  suffer  predispose   them  as  adults  to  abuse/neglect  their  own  children     • Types   1. Physical   a. Non  accidental  injury  to  a  child  under  the  age  of  18  buy  a   parent  or  caretaker   b. May  include  beating,  shaking,  burns,  bite  marks,   strangulation,  etc   c. Physical  indicators   i. Unexplained  injuries  (fractures/dislocations)   ii. Bruises/welts/burn  marks  all  over  the  child’s  body   instead  of  a  localized  area  &  in  different  stages  of   healing   d. Behavioral  indicators   i. Afraid  of  adults/to  go  home   ii. Reports  injured  from  parents   iii. Gives  unbelievable  explanation  for  injuries   iv. Overly  shy  or  very  aggressive   v. Avoids  physical  contact     2. Sexual   a. Exploitation  of  a  child  or  adolescent  for  the  sexual   gratification  of  another  person   b. Sexual  comments,  fondling,  intercourse,  child  prostitution   &  sex  trafficking     c. Can  be  anyone,  doesn’t  have  to  be  a  parent/caretaker   d. Physical  indicators   i. Somatic  complaints     1. Fancy  term  for  not  feeling  well  physically   (head  or  stomach  ache)   ii. Difficulty  walking  or  sitting   iii. Pain/irritation  of  genitals   iv. STD   v. Pregnancy  in  young  adolescents     vi. Frequent  unexplained  sore  throats,  yeast/urinary   infections     e. Behavioral  Indicators   i. If  child  knows  advanced  sexual  knowledge  or   behavior   ii. Depression  or  suicidal  gestures  (in  older  kids)   LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     iii. Frequent  psychosomatic  complaints   iv. Chronic  running  away   v. Drug  or  alcohol  abuse   vi. Avoidance  or  undressing  or  wearing  extra  layers  o   clothes   vii. Decline  in  school  performance   3. Neglect   a. Chronic  failure  of  a  parent  or  caretaker  to  provide  a  child   under  18  with  basic  needs  such  as  food,  clothing,  shelter,   medical  care,  educational  opportunity,  protection  and   supervision   b. Can  look  very  different  case  to  case,  some  are  easier  to   pick  up  than  others   c. Physical  indicators   i. Height  and  weight  significantly  below  average  age   level     ii. Inappropriate  clothing  for  weather   1. Long  sleeves  in  90  degree  weather   iii. Poor  hygiene,  body  odor,  scaly  skin   iv. Child  abandoned  or  left  with  inadequate   supervision     v. Untreated  illnesses/injuries   vi. Lack  of  safe  warm  sanitary  shelter   d. Behavioral  indicators   i. Begging  or  stealing  food   ii. Falling  asleep  in  class   1. Due  to  the  fact  no  body  is  there  to  make  them   go  to  sleep  at  a  decent  hour   iii. Poor  school  attendance     iv. Reports  no  caretaker  in  the  home   v. Chronic  hunger   vi. Dull,  apathetic  appearance   vii. Running  away  from  home   viii. Assumes  adult  responsibilities   4. Psychological  Maltreatment   a. Psychological/emotional  neglect   i. Failure  of  caregivers  to  meet  child’s  need  for   affection  and  emotional  support     b. Psychological  Abuse   i. Chronic  pattern  of  behaviors  such  as  belittling,   humiliating  and  ridiculing  a  child   LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     c. Physical  indicators   i. Eating  disorders  (especially  in  teens)   ii. Sleep  disturbances   iii. Wetting/soiling  by  school  aged  children   iv. Speech  disorder  (stutter)   v. Failure  to  thrive   vi. Developmental  lag   d. Behavioral  indicators     i. Head  banging/thumb  sucking   ii. Poor  peer  relationships     iii. Overly  compliant,  withdrawn-­‐aggressive   iv. Self  destructive  behavior   v. Chronic  academic  underachievement   vi. Irrational  and  persistent  fear,  dread,  or  hatred       ADHD   • A  learning  disability  marked  by  inattention,  impulsiveness,  a  low   tolerance  for  frustration  &  in  general  a  great  deal  of  inappropriate   behavior   • Prevalence   o Boys  are  2x  more  likely  to  be  diagnosed     o About  9%  of  kids  between  3-­‐17  years  old  are  diagnosed   • Symptoms/co-­‐occurring  problems   o Difficulty  in  finishing  tasks/following  instructions/organizing   work   o Excessive  talking   o Fidgeting,  cant  sit  still       o Impatient     o Tendency  to  jump  into  tasks  before  hearing  all  the  instructions   • Treatment     o Drugs   § Ritalin,  dexadrine,  etc   § Can  lead  to  reduced  apetite/depression   § Sometimes  this  method  doesn’t  even  make  a  difference  in   performance   o Behavior  therapy   § “Conditioning  them”   § Teaching  them  right  or  wrong  on  how  to  behave  in   various  settings  &  offering  rewards     LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     • SUMMER  TREATMENT   o  a  7-­‐week  summer  camp  for  children  with  ADHD  ages  8-­‐12   providing  intensive  behavioral  interventions  within  a  fun-­‐filled   camp  setting.  Children  learn  to  improve  social  skills,  manage   frustration,  and  follow  instructions  while  participating  in  sports   and  classroom  activities.       MENTAL  AGE   • The  typical  intelligence  level  found  for  people  at  a  given  chronological   age       CHRONOLOGICAL  AGE   • The  actual  age  of  the  child  taking  the  intelligence  test       KOHLBERG’S  STAGES  OF  MORAL  DEVELEPMENT   • Mostly  based  on  western  culture   • Geared  more  towards  males   • Stages  are  universal     o Except  the  higher  levels  are  based  strictly  of  government  &  not   all  cultures  have  the  same  type  of  government  so  not  all  stages   are  exactly  universal   • Don’t  reach  the  highest  stage  until  adolescence  but  not  every  reaches  it   • LEVEL  ONE     o Pre-­‐conventional  morality  (self  interest)   § Stage  1:  punishment   • “I  wont  do  it  because  I  do  not  want  to  get  punished”   § Stage  2:  Reward   • “I  wont  do  it  because  I  want  a  reward”   • LEVEL  TWO   o Conventional  Morality  (social  approval)   § Stage  3:  interpersonal  relations   • “I  wont  do  it  because  I  want  people  to  like  me”   § Stage  4:   • “I  wont  do  it  because  It  would  break  the  law”   • LEVEL  THREE   o Post  conventional  morality  (abstract  ideals)   § Stage  5:  social  contract   LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     • “I  wont  do  it  because  I’m  obliged  to”     § Stage  6:  universal  rights   • “I  wont  do  it  because  its  not  right  no  matter  what   others  say”   • HEINZ  DELIMNA   o Heinz’s  wife  was  dying  from  a  particular  type  of  cancer.  Doctors   said  a  new  drug  might  save  her.  The  drug  had  been  discovered   by  a  local  chemist  and  the  Heinz  tried  desperately  to  buy  some,   but  the  chemist  was  charging  ten  times  the  money  it  cost  to   make  the  drug  and  this  was  much  more  than  the  Heinz  could   afford.  Heinz  could  only  raise  half  the  money,  even  after  help   from  family  and  friends.  He  explained  to  the  chemist  that  his   wife  was  dying  and  asked  if  he  could  have  the  drug  cheaper  or   pay  the  rest  of  the  money  later.  The  chemist  refused,  saying  that   he  had  discovered  the  drug  and  was  going  to  make  money  from   it.  The  husband  was  desperate  to  save  his  wife,  so  later  that   night  he  broke  into  the  chemist’s  and  stole  the  drug.       GILIGAN’S  STAGES  OF  MORAL  DEVELOPMENT   • Female  moral  development   • Compassionate  concern  instead  of  social  justice   • STAGE  ONE   o Orientation  toward  individual  survival   § What’s  best  for  themselves  (me  myself  and  I)   § Example:   • A  first  grader  may  insist  on  playing  only  games  of   her  own  choosing  when  playing  with  a  friend     • STAGE  TWO   o Goodness  as  self  sacrifice   § Person  needs  to  put  other’s  needs  before  theirs   § Example:   • Now  older,  the  same  girl  may  believe  that  to  be  a   good  friend,  she  must  play  the  games  her  friend   chooses  even  if  she  herself  doesn’t  like  them     • STAGE  THREE   o Morality  of  nonviolence   § Establishing  balance  between  your  wants  and  others   wants  (compromise)   § Example:   LSD  EXAM  2   study  guide     • The  same  girl  may  realize  that  both  friends  must   enjoy  their  time  together  and  look  for  activities  that   both  she  and  her  friend  can  enjoy       SELF  ESTEEM   • An  individual’s  overall  and  specific  positive  and  negative  self-­‐ evaluation   SELF  CONCEPT   • the  idea  or  mental  image  one  has  of  oneself  and  one's  strengths,  weakn esses,  status,  etc.;  self-­‐image   SELF-­‐EFFICACY   • An  individual's  belief  in  his  or  her  capacity  to  execute  behaviors   necessary  to  produce  specific  performance  attainments     • Reflects  confidence  in  the  ability  to  exert  control  over  one's  own   motivation,  behavior,  and  social  environment.       SELF  CONCEPT  CHARACTERISTICS   • Academic   • Social   • Emotional   • Athletic       DOWNWARD  SOCIAL  COMPARISON   • Protects  children’s  self  esteem   • Children  compare  themselves  to  those  who  are  less  able,  to  ensure  they   will  come  out  on  top  and  thereby  preserve  an  image  of  themselves  as   successful  


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