PSYC 3120 EXAM II STUDY GUIDE
PSYC 3120 EXAM II STUDY GUIDE PSYC 3120
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
LSD EXAM 2 study guide VYGOTSKY • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) o Level at which a child can almost but not fully perform a task independently but can do so with assistance of someone more competent • Cultural Tools o Actual, physical items (pencils, pens, computers, etc) as well as an intellectual & conceptual framework for solving problems • Scaffolding o The support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth o Not only helps children solve specific problems but also aids in the development of their overall cognitive development • Level of independent functioning o How much the child can do alone • Level of assisted functioning o How much the child can do with help PREOPERATIONAL STAGE • From 2-‐7 years in which children’s use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges & the use of concepts increases • Children become better at representing events internally and they grow less dependent on the use of direct sensorimotor activity to understand the world around them • Symbolic Function o The ability to use mental symbols or word or an object to stand for or represent something that is not physically present • Centration o The process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus & ignoring other aspects o They are unable to see the bigger picture. They focus on what’s right in front of them o **limitation of the child’s thinking • Egocentrism o The child’s ability to see a situation from another person’s point of view o Child assumes that other people see, hear, & feel exactly the same as the child does LSD EXAM 2 study guide • Transformation o The process in which one state is changed to another • Animalistic thinking o The belief that inanimate objects have life –like qualities § Thoughts, wishes, feelings & intentions CONCRETE OPERATIONAL PERIOD • Ages 7-‐11 • Major turning point in cognitive development • Though becomes more logical, flexible, & organized • Decentration o Focus on several aspects • Reversibility o The ability to go thru steps and then reverse them TASKS OF CONSERVATION • Conservation o The knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement & physical appearance of objects 1. Number a. Rearranging or dislocating elements doesn’t change the number in the collection b. Ages 6-‐7 2. Substance (mass) a. Altering the shape of malleable substances (clay or water) doesn’t change the amount of substance b. Ages 7-‐8 3. Length a. Length of a line is the same length whether its straight or turned into a shape like a square or circle b. 7-‐8 years 4. Area a. Amount of surface area doesn’t change if object Is rotated or flipped upside down b. 8-‐9 years 5. Weight a. Weight of an object is the same no matter what scale its on & whether the object is laying down or sitting up vertically b. 9-‐10 years LSD EXAM 2 study guide 6. Volume a. Volume of an object (in terms of water displacement) is the same even if you alter object in the water’s shape b. Ages 14-‐15 SCHOOLING • Piaget’s View o Emphasized discovery learning § Children should be able to do little experiments to learn about the world o Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn § Range of abilities o Acceptance of individual differences § Sometimes kids aren’t ready to go to the next step • Vygotsky’s View o Believed everything is learned through social interactions o Children gradually grow with peer and adult assistance § Assisted discovery § Peer collaboration PARENTING STYLES • Authoritarian o “my way or the high way” o cold/harsh o dictator like • Permissive o don’t discipline kids o give inconsistent feedback o don’t see themselves as responsible for how their kids turn out • Authoritative o Set limits but at least tells them why o Relatively strict but emotionally supportive o Good mix between authoritarian & permissive • Uninvolved o Not present o Very detached from child o Nothing more than a food/shelter provider LSD EXAM 2 study guide ABUSE • Cycle of violence hypothesis o Theory that the abuse & neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse/neglect their own children • Types 1. Physical a. Non accidental injury to a child under the age of 18 buy a parent or caretaker b. May include beating, shaking, burns, bite marks, strangulation, etc c. Physical indicators i. Unexplained injuries (fractures/dislocations) ii. Bruises/welts/burn marks all over the child’s body instead of a localized area & in different stages of healing d. Behavioral indicators i. Afraid of adults/to go home ii. Reports injured from parents iii. Gives unbelievable explanation for injuries iv. Overly shy or very aggressive v. Avoids physical contact 2. Sexual a. Exploitation of a child or adolescent for the sexual gratification of another person b. Sexual comments, fondling, intercourse, child prostitution & sex trafficking c. Can be anyone, doesn’t have to be a parent/caretaker d. Physical indicators i. Somatic complaints 1. Fancy term for not feeling well physically (head or stomach ache) ii. Difficulty walking or sitting iii. Pain/irritation of genitals iv. STD v. Pregnancy in young adolescents vi. Frequent unexplained sore throats, yeast/urinary infections e. Behavioral Indicators i. If child knows advanced sexual knowledge or behavior ii. Depression or suicidal gestures (in older kids) LSD EXAM 2 study guide iii. Frequent psychosomatic complaints iv. Chronic running away v. Drug or alcohol abuse vi. Avoidance or undressing or wearing extra layers o clothes vii. Decline in school performance 3. Neglect a. Chronic failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child under 18 with basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, medical care, educational opportunity, protection and supervision b. Can look very different case to case, some are easier to pick up than others c. Physical indicators i. Height and weight significantly below average age level ii. Inappropriate clothing for weather 1. Long sleeves in 90 degree weather iii. Poor hygiene, body odor, scaly skin iv. Child abandoned or left with inadequate supervision v. Untreated illnesses/injuries vi. Lack of safe warm sanitary shelter d. Behavioral indicators i. Begging or stealing food ii. Falling asleep in class 1. Due to the fact no body is there to make them go to sleep at a decent hour iii. Poor school attendance iv. Reports no caretaker in the home v. Chronic hunger vi. Dull, apathetic appearance vii. Running away from home viii. Assumes adult responsibilities 4. Psychological Maltreatment a. Psychological/emotional neglect i. Failure of caregivers to meet child’s need for affection and emotional support b. Psychological Abuse i. Chronic pattern of behaviors such as belittling, humiliating and ridiculing a child LSD EXAM 2 study guide c. Physical indicators i. Eating disorders (especially in teens) ii. Sleep disturbances iii. Wetting/soiling by school aged children iv. Speech disorder (stutter) v. Failure to thrive vi. Developmental lag d. Behavioral indicators i. Head banging/thumb sucking ii. Poor peer relationships iii. Overly compliant, withdrawn-‐aggressive iv. Self destructive behavior v. Chronic academic underachievement vi. Irrational and persistent fear, dread, or hatred ADHD • A learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration & in general a great deal of inappropriate behavior • Prevalence o Boys are 2x more likely to be diagnosed o About 9% of kids between 3-‐17 years old are diagnosed • Symptoms/co-‐occurring problems o Difficulty in finishing tasks/following instructions/organizing work o Excessive talking o Fidgeting, cant sit still o Impatient o Tendency to jump into tasks before hearing all the instructions • Treatment o Drugs § Ritalin, dexadrine, etc § Can lead to reduced apetite/depression § Sometimes this method doesn’t even make a difference in performance o Behavior therapy § “Conditioning them” § Teaching them right or wrong on how to behave in various settings & offering rewards LSD EXAM 2 study guide • SUMMER TREATMENT o a 7-‐week summer camp for children with ADHD ages 8-‐12 providing intensive behavioral interventions within a fun-‐filled camp setting. Children learn to improve social skills, manage frustration, and follow instructions while participating in sports and classroom activities. MENTAL AGE • The typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age CHRONOLOGICAL AGE • The actual age of the child taking the intelligence test KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELEPMENT • Mostly based on western culture • Geared more towards males • Stages are universal o Except the higher levels are based strictly of government & not all cultures have the same type of government so not all stages are exactly universal • Don’t reach the highest stage until adolescence but not every reaches it • LEVEL ONE o Pre-‐conventional morality (self interest) § Stage 1: punishment • “I wont do it because I do not want to get punished” § Stage 2: Reward • “I wont do it because I want a reward” • LEVEL TWO o Conventional Morality (social approval) § Stage 3: interpersonal relations • “I wont do it because I want people to like me” § Stage 4: • “I wont do it because It would break the law” • LEVEL THREE o Post conventional morality (abstract ideals) § Stage 5: social contract LSD EXAM 2 study guide • “I wont do it because I’m obliged to” § Stage 6: universal rights • “I wont do it because its not right no matter what others say” • HEINZ DELIMNA o Heinz’s wife was dying from a particular type of cancer. Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist and the Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug and this was much more than the Heinz could afford. Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it. The husband was desperate to save his wife, so later that night he broke into the chemist’s and stole the drug. GILIGAN’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT • Female moral development • Compassionate concern instead of social justice • STAGE ONE o Orientation toward individual survival § What’s best for themselves (me myself and I) § Example: • A first grader may insist on playing only games of her own choosing when playing with a friend • STAGE TWO o Goodness as self sacrifice § Person needs to put other’s needs before theirs § Example: • Now older, the same girl may believe that to be a good friend, she must play the games her friend chooses even if she herself doesn’t like them • STAGE THREE o Morality of nonviolence § Establishing balance between your wants and others wants (compromise) § Example: LSD EXAM 2 study guide • The same girl may realize that both friends must enjoy their time together and look for activities that both she and her friend can enjoy SELF ESTEEM • An individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-‐ evaluation SELF CONCEPT • the idea or mental image one has of oneself and one's strengths, weakn esses, status, etc.; self-‐image SELF-‐EFFICACY • An individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments • Reflects confidence in the ability to exert control over one's own motivation, behavior, and social environment. SELF CONCEPT CHARACTERISTICS • Academic • Social • Emotional • Athletic DOWNWARD SOCIAL COMPARISON • Protects children’s self esteem • Children compare themselves to those who are less able, to ensure they will come out on top and thereby preserve an image of themselves as successful
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