ENV 1301: Study Guide II
ENV 1301: Study Guide II ENV 1301
Popular in Exploring Environmental Issues
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Environmental Science
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENV 1301 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Larry Lehr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 392 views. For similar materials see Exploring Environmental Issues in Environmental Science at Baylor University.
Reviews for ENV 1301: Study Guide II
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/01/16
Anna Frazier Tuesday, March 1, 2016 ENV 1301 Review Sheet for Test 2 Chapters 5,6,7, You should be able to answer all the questions at the end of each chapter and know the definitions of the bold faced words. **Anything in black is written by Dr. Larry Lehr, anything in red is written by the author of this study guide.** Ch. 5 Environmental Ethics and Environmental Policy (87) 1. Differentiate between three different types of economies (89). • Classical economics: founded byAdam Smith; when people pursue their economic self-interest under these conditions the marketplace will behave as if guided by “an invisible hand” to benefit society as a whole • Neoclassical economics: examines consumer choices and explains market prices in terms of our preferences for units of particular commodities • Environmental economics: we can modify neoclassical economic principles make resource use more efficient and thereby attain sustainability within our current economic system • Ecological economics: sustainability requires more far-reaching changes; every population has a carrying capacity and systems generally operate in self-renewing cycles 2. What contribution didAdam Smith make to the field of economics? • Adam Smith: argued that self-interested behavior can benefit society, as long as is constrained by the rule of law and private property rights in a competitive marketplace 3. What is meant by ‘cost-benefit’analysis and how can it be used in environmental science? • Cost-benefit analysis: compares the estimated cost of a proposed action with the estimated benefits 4. What is meant by ‘external costs’and how does it relate to environmental issues? • External costs: costs of a transaction that affect people other than the buyer or seller 5. What causes economic growth to occur? How sustainable is economic growth? • Economic growth: an increase in an economy production and consumption of goods and services • Economic growth can occur in two ways: (1) by an increase in inputs to the economy (such as more labor or natural resources) or (2) by improvements in the efficiency of production due to better methods or technologies (ideas or equipment that enable us to produce more goods with fewer inputs). • Endless growth cannot be sustained because resources to support growth are limited. 6. How does an ecological economist differ from a neoclassical economist? • Neoclassical economics: examines consumer choices and explains market prices in terms of our preferences for units of particular commodities (supply and demand) • Ecological economics: every population has a carrying capacity and systems generally operate in self-renewing cycles; advocates steady-state economies (economies that neither grow nor shrink, but remain stable) 7. There were 14 ecosystem services listed on page 97. Be able to identify them. Providing food Supplying raw materials Dampening disturbance • • • • Enabling recreation • Storing water supplies • Providing cultural and • Cycling nutrients • Regulating water flow educational opportunities • Regulating climate • Forming soil • Treating waste and filtering • Purifying air and regulating • Providing genetic resources runoff atmosphere • Controlling erosion • Pollinating plants • Providing habitat • Controlling pests 8. What is meant by market failure? • Market failure: when markets do not take into account the positive outside effects on economies (such as ecosystem services) or the negative side effects of economic activity (external costs) 9. Who wrote ‘Tragedy of the Commons? How does it represent a metaphor for management of environmental resources? • Tragedy of the commons: the process by which publicly accessible resources open to unregulated use tend to become damaged and depleted through overuse; coined by Garrett Hardin 10. Describe the three stages of US environmental policy. 103-104 • First period — 1780-1800: accompanied the westward expansion of the nation and were intended mainly to promote settlement and the extraction and use of the continent’s abundant natural resources. • Second period — late 1800: aimed to alleviate some of the environmental impacts of Western expansion, encouraging conservation • Third period — late 1900: alertedAmerica of the problem of pollution 11. Who was Rachel Carson and what contribution did she make to the US environmental movement? • Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring, which awaken to the public to the ecological and health impacts of pesticides and industrial chemicals. The books title refers to Carson's warning that pesticides might kill so many birds that few would be left to sing in Springtime. 12. Differentiate between the three types of policy approaches to environmental issues. 106 • Address the issue through lawsuits in court • People can sue • Limit the issue through legislation and regulation • Command-and-control: a top-down approach to policy, in which a legislative body or a regulating agency sets rules, standards or limits and threatens punishment for violation of those limits • Reduce the issue using market-based strategies • Channel the innovation and economic efficiency of market capitalism in way that benefit the public, such as using financial incentives Chapter 5 - Economy: a social system that converts resources into thereby attain sustainability within our current economic goods and services system - Economics: the study of how people decide to use - Ecological economics: sustainability requires more far- potentially scarce resources to provide goods and services reaching changes; every population has a carrying that are in demand capacity and systems generally operate in self-renewing - Adam Smith: argued that self-interested behavior can cycles benefit society, as long as is constrained by the rule of law - Steady-same economies: economy but are stable and private property rights in a competitive marketplace - Nonmarket values: values not usually included in the - Classical economics: founded byAdam Smith; when price of a good or service (ecosystem services) people pursue their economic self-interest under these - Gross Domestic Product: total monetary value of final conditions the marketplace will behave as if guided by “an goods and services the nation produces each year invisible hand” to benefit society as a whole - Genuine Progress Indicator: an economic indicator that - Neoclassical economics: examines consumer choices and explains market prices in terms of our preferences for attempts to differentiate between desirable and undesirable units of particular commodities economic activity. The GPI accounts for benefits such as volunteerism and for costs such as environmental - Cost-benefit analysis: compares the estimated cost of a degradation and social upheaval proposed action with the estimated benefits Full cost accounting (true cost accounting): aims to • - External costs: costs of a transaction that affect people account for all costs and benefits other than the buyer or seller - Market failure: when markets do not take into account - Economic growth: an increase in an economy production the positive outside effects on economies (such as and consumption of goods and services ecosystem services) or the negative side effects of economic activity (external costs) - Environmental economics: we can modify neoclassical economic principles make resource use more efficient and - Policy: a formal set of general plans and principles intended to Guy decision-making - Public policy: policy made by governments center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining defense - Environmental policy: pertains to our interactions with our environment; generally aims to regulate resource use - World Bank: institution founded in 1944 that serves as or reduce pollution to promote human welfare and protect one of the globe's largest sources of funding for economic natural systems development, including such major projects as dams, - Tragedy of the commons: the process by which publicly irrigation infrastructure, and other undertakings accessible resources open to unregulated use tend to - World Trade Organization: organization based in become damaged and depleted through overuse; Coined Geneva, Switzerland, that represents multinational by Garrett Hardin corporations and permits free trade by reducing obstacles to international commerce and enforcing fairness among - Free rider: a party that fails to invest in controlling pollution or carrying out other environmentally nations and trading practices responsible activities and instead relies on the efforts of - Nongovernmental organizations: nonprofit, mission other parties to do so driven organizations not overseen by any government - Legislation: bills that can become law with the signature - Command-and-control: a top-down approach to policy, of the president in which a legislative body or a regulating agency sets rules, standards or limits and threatens punishment for - National Environmental PolicyAct: created an agency violation of those limits called the Council on Environmental Quality and required got environmental impact statement be prepared for any - Green taxes: a levy on environmentally harmful activities major federal action that might significantly affect and products aimed at providing a market-based incentive environmental quality to correct for market failure • Environmental Impact Statement: results from - Polluter-pays principle: principal specifying that the studies that assess environmental impact that can result party responsible for producing pollution should pay the from development projects undertaken or funded by the costs of cleaning up the pollution or mitigating its impacts federal government - Eco-labeling: the practice of designating on a products - Environmental ProtectionAgency: conducts and label how the product was grown, harvested, or evaluates research, monitors environmental quality, setting manufactured, so that consumers are aware of the and it Enforces standards for pollution levels, assists the processes involved and can judge which brands use more states in meeting the standards, and educates the public sustainable processes - Customary law: international law arising from long- - Emissions trading: the practice of buying and selling standing practices or customs held in common by most government-issued marketable admissions permits to cultures conduct environmentally harmful activities - Conventional law: international law arising him - Cap-and-trade: an emissions trading system in which conventions, or treaties, Into which nations enter government determines an acceptable level of pollution and then issues polluting parties permits to pollute.A - NorthAmerican Free TradeAgreement: eliminated trade barriers such as tariffs on imports and exports, company receives credit for amounts it does not emit and then can sell this credit to other companies making goods cheaper to buy - Sustainable development: economic progress that - United Nations: seeks to maintain international peace and maintains resources for future security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving problems and promoting respect for - Triple bottom line: an approach to sustainability that human rights and fundamental freedoms; and to be a attempts to meet environmental, economic and social goals simultaneously Questions from end of chapter: 1. Name and describe two key contributions that the natural environment makes to our economies. 2. Describe 4 ways in which neoclassical economic approaches can contribute to environmental problems. 3. Compare and contrast the neoclassical economists, environmental economists, and ecological economists, particularly regarding the issue of economic growth. 4. What are ecosystems services? Give several examples. Describe how some economists have tried to assign monetary values to ecosystem services. 5. Describe at least one major goal of and justification for environmental policy. Now articulate 3 problems and environment of policy commonly seeks to address. 6. Summarize how the first, second and third waves of environmental policy and US history differed from one another. Describe two parent priorities in international environmental policy. 7. What did the National Environmental Policy Act accomplish? Briefly describe the origin and mission of the US Environmental Protection Agency. 8. Compare and contrast the 3 major approaches to environmental policy: Lawsuits, commands-and-control and economic policy tools. Describe an advantage and disadvantage of each. 9. Explain how each of the following work: a green tax, a subsidy and emissions permits. 10. How can sustainable development be defined? What is meant by the triple bottom line? Why Is it important to pursue sustainable development? Questions from Mastering that I missed: What event is credited with leading to the passage of the Clean WaterAct? -the Cuyahoga River catching fire Pollution floating in the water of the Cuyahoga River caught fire multiple times in the 1950s and 1960s. What was the main emphasis of the first major era of U.S. environmental policy? -development through management and westward expansion The General Land Ordinances of 1785 and 1787 gave the federal government the right to manage western lands. The environmental justice movement started because __________. -people realized that environmental damage is not equally distributed among all classes and racial groups; minority and low-income communities tend to contain a much larger share of the environmental damage (such as landfills, incinerators, toxic waste sites, etc.) A 1987 study found that the percentage of minorities in areas with toxic waste sites was twice that of areas without. The National Environmental PolicyAct (NEPA) _________. - gave citizens the right to see and comment on proposed government projects through the creation of environmental impact statements NEPA is one of the foremost U.S. environmental laws, signed into law in 1970, and requires an environmental impact statement for any major federal action that might significantly affect environmental quality. In which of the following ways did neoclassical economics contribute to environmental problems? -by encouraging society to view the supply of resources as infinite For this reason, many economists believe in perpetual growth of the economy and believe that a ballooning population is not a problem because more people create more opportunities. "Growth is good" is their nostrum. Which of the following organizations is described accurately? - The World Trade Organization has recently acquired the ability to impose fines on nations that trade unfairly. These actions can then have effects that worsen or improve the environment. The import of the more impure Brazilian gasoline was forced upon the EPA by the WTO. Ch. 6 Population (112) 1. Be able to use the bold faced words in their proper context. 2. What does the equation I=P xAxT represent? • IPAT model: represents how our total impact (I) on the environment results from the interaction among population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T) I = P x A x T 3. What is meant by ‘doubling time’? What is the equation to calculate doubling time? Be able to do the calculation. • The time it takes for a population to double in size. • dt=70/r 4. What is the purpose of demography? • Demography: the application of principles from population ecology to the study of statistical change in human populations 5. Cite the four ways populations change. • Birth rate • Death rate • Immigration • Emigration 6. How does population growth affect ecosystems? • Apopulations environmental impact depends on its density, distribution, and composition • Ahigher population demands more resources 7. The United Nations predicted the trajectory of world population growth. What is the quantitative difference between the high fertility level and the lowest level? What might cause the fertility levels to change? • 22; education of women: delaying childbirth and contraceptive use 8. What is meant by ‘demographic transition’? How is that achieved? • Demographic transition: a model of economic and cultural change first proposed in the 1940s and 1950s by demographer Frank Notestein to explain the declining death rates and birthrates that have occurred in Western nations as they industrialized • Population growth is seen as a temporary phenomenon that occurs as societies move from one stage of development to another • Notestein believed nations moved from a stable pre-industrial state of high birth and death rates to a stable post-industrial state of low birth and death rates. Industrialization causes these rates to fall by first decreasing mortality and then lessening the need for large families. Because death rates fall before birthrates fall, a period of net population growth results. 9. Be able to interpret the histograms on p. 119 and identify the characteristics of those populations that are more susceptible to rapid growth. **Could not find this** 10. Identify the stages of demographic transition. How does each stage impact the environment? Which stage is responsible for the greatest growth? 125 • Pre-industrial stage: both death rates and birth rates are high • Transitional stage: falling death rates and high birth rates = ‡ POPULATION INCREASE ‡ • Industrial stage: falling birth rates • Post-industrial stage: low and stable birth and death rates 11. What is meant by ‘family planning’? • Family planning: the effort to plan the number and spacing of one’s children 12. On page 129, there was a discussion about fertility decline in Brazil (not Bangladesh). What was attributed to this decline? • Brazil accomplished this by providing women equal access to education and opportunities to pursue careers outside the home. The Brazilian government also provides family planning and contraception to its citizens free of charge. • But interestingly enough, Brazilian soap operas promote a vision of an ideal Brazilian family, providing a model for Brazilians to emulate. Chapter 6 - Infant mortality rate: the frequency of children dying in - Rate of natural increase: change due to birth and death infancy rates alone, excluding migration - - Thomas Malthus: if society did not reduce its birth rate, Demographic Transition Model: a model of economic then rising death rates would reduce the population and cultural change first proposed in the 1940’s and through war, disease, and starvation 1950’s by demographer Frank Notestein to explain the declining birth and death rates that have occurred in - Paul Ehrlich: argued that self-interested behavior can Western nations as they industrialized benefit society, as long as is constrained by the rule of law and private property rights in a competitive marketplace - Pre-industrial stage: both death rates and birth rates are - IPAT model: represents how our total impact (I) on the high environment results from the interaction among - Transitional stage: falling death rates population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T) I = P x A x T - Industrial stage: falling birth rates - Demography: the application of principles from - Post-industrial stage: low and stable birth and death rates population ecology to the study of statistical change in - Family planning: the effort to plan the number and human populations spacing of one’s children - Demographers: study population, size, distribution, age - Birth control: the effort to control the number of children structure, sex ratio, and rates of birth, death, immigration, one bears, particularly to reducing the frequency of and emigration of people pregnancy - Age structure diagrams: often called population - Contraception: the deliberate attempt to prevent pyramids, visual tools scientists use to illustrate age pregnancy despite sexual intercourse structure - Reproductive window: the period of a woman’s life - Total fertility rate (TFR): the average number of beginning with sexual maturity and ending with children born to a woman during her reproductive lifetime menopause, in which she may become pregnant - Replacement fertility: the TFR that keeps the size of a population stable Questions from end of chapter: 11. What is the approximate current human global population? How many people are being added to the population each day? 12. Why has the human population continued to grow despite environmental limitations? Give one example of an innovation that increased the carrying capacity for humans. 13. Contrast the views of environmental scientists with those of economists regarding whether population growth is a problem. Name several reasons why populations growth is viewed as a problem. 14. Explain the IPAT model. How can technology increase environmental impact? Provide at least one example. How can technology decrease environmental impact? Provide at least one example. 15. How do the size, density, distribution, age structure, and sex ratio of a population determine the impact of human populations on the environment? 16. What is the TFR? Why is the replacement fertility for humans approximately 2.1? How is Europe’s TFR affecting its rate of natural increase? 17. Why have fertility rates fallen in many countries? 18. How does the demographic transition model explain the increase in population growth rates in recent centuries? How does it explain the recent decrease in population growth rates in many countries? 19. Why are the empowerment of women and the pursuit of gender equality viewed as important to controlling population growth? Describe the aim of family-planning programs. 20. Why do poorer societies have higher population growth rates than wealthier societies? How does poverty affect the environment? How does affluence affect the environment? Questions from Mastering that I missed: Which large country is currently experiencing zero or even negative population growth? - Russia Some countries actually experience zero to negative population growth. Which was Thomas Malthus's argument? -He argued that if there was no control over population growth, then the population would come under check because of war, disease, and starvation. He predicted that unchecked population growth would deplete food resources, resulting in starvation for millions. When an agrarian economy transitions to an industrial economy, what effect does it have on the population? -Population growth rate slows. The population will grow, but more slowly, as the total fertility rate drops. Which of the following has experienced the greatest decline in population growth rate from 1950-2010? -more-developed regions Carefully examine Figure 6.11. Why are diseases such asAIDS, which reduce population density, undermining the ability of developing countries to make the transition to more modern, industrialized societies? - They are causing "demographic fatigue," which leaves these countries without a professional class. AIDS is removing the educators, medical professionals, and government figures faster than they are being trained, leaving a void in these professions. Ch. 7Agriculture (132) 16. What are soil horizons? • Horizon: each layer of soil 17. Which horizon is most important for the production of food? • AHorizon: Topsoil 18. Describe the six characteristics of soil discussed in the powerpoint. • O Horizon: Organic (litter layer) • AHorizon: Topsoil • E Horizon: Eluviated (leaching layer) • B Horizon: Subsoil • C Horizon: Weathered parent material • R Horizon: Rock (parent material) 19. How have modern farming techniques impacted erosional processes? • Farmers have adopted various strategies to conserve soil. • Rotating crops such as soy beans and corn helps restore soil nutrients and reduce impacts of pests • Contour farming reduces erosion on hillsides • Terracing minimizes the erosion in mountainous areas • Intercropping reduces soil loss and maintains soil fertility • Shelterbelts protect against wind erosion • No-till farming keeps the soil covered with plant material at all times with crop residues left at top the fields; the ultimate form of conservation tillage 20. What is desertification? • Desertification: a form of land degradation in which more than 10% of productivity is lost as a result of erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, climate change, water depletion, and other factors. 21. There are photographs on p. 142 depicting appropriate cultivation methods. Be able to discuss which one should be used in a given instance. • In tropical forests, farmers pursue Swidden agriculture by the slash-and-burn method because tropical rain forest soils are nutrient-poor and easily depleted. • On the prairie, less rainfall means less leaching of nutrients from the topsoil and water accumulation of organic matter, forming a thick, dark topsoil layer. Farmers use industrial agriculture on this rich topsoil. 22. What is the primary reason a farmer would use a particular cultivation strategy? • Soil characteristics vary from place to place, and they are deeply affected by climate and other variables. The primary reason a farmer would use a particular cultivation strategy has to do with the nutrient levels of the soil. • Tropical rainforest: heavy rainfall leaches nutrients out of the topsoil and E Horizon. • Temperate grassland: less rainfall and less leaching, which keeps nutrients in the topsoil. 23. What happens when fertilizers are over applied? • Overapplication of inorganic fertilizers causes pollution, contaminating ground water supplies. • Inorganic fertilizers are generally more susceptible to leaching than organic fertilizers and more readily contaminate groundwater supplies. 24. What problems have emerged due to inappropriate irrigation practices? • Waterlogging: occurs when an over irrigation causes the water table to rise to the point that water drowns plant roots, depriving them of access to gases and essentially suffocating them • Excessive irrigation has degraded soils. 25. How does overgrazing affect the soil? • Overgrazing: grazing too many livestock that eat too much of the plant cover, consuming grass faster than it can regrow. 26. What is meant by the ‘green revolution’? • Green Revolution: introduced new technology, crop varieties, and farming practices to the developing world and drastically increased food production in these nations 27. Who was the ‘father of the green revolution’? • Norman Borlaug 28. What did the ‘father of the green revolution’do that was so important? • The high-yielding, disease-resistant wheat that he bred helped boost agricultural productivity in many developing countries. 29. How does resistance to pesticides negatively impact the human population? • Through the process of natural selection, crop pests often evolve resistance to the toxic chemicals we apply to kill them. 30. Discuss pesticide resistance in the context of gene flow? • Because populations exist in huge numbers, a small fraction of individuals maybe by chance already have genes that enable them to metabolize and detoxify a pesticide. These individuals will survive exposure to the pesticide, whereas individuals without these genes will not. If two of the survivors mate, the genes for the pesticide resistance will pass through gene flow. 31. What is IPM? What are the advantages relative to traditional methods of pesticide control? • Integrated pest management (IPM): incorporates numerous techniques, including close monitoring of pest populations, biocontrol approaches, use of synthetic chemicals when needed, habitat alteration, crop rotation, transgenic crops, alternative tillage methods, and mechanical post removal • (In Indonesia,…) Traditional pesticides make pest problems worse by killing the natural enemies of one plant, making the populations of another explode, decreasing yields, costing money for pesticide subsidies, causing pollution. • (In Indonesia,…)After the promotion of IPM, pesticide production fell, imports fell, and the government saved money by eliminating subsidy payments; yields rose, and the approach spread to other nations. 32. In what ways could biotechnology help increase the future of food? How could it impact food production? • Biotech crops have been engineered for insect resistance and herbicide tolerance, ✪ improve efficiency for large-scale industrial farmers who can afford GM seeds. GM foods bring environmental and social benefits and promote sustainable agriculture and several ways: increased crop yields ✪ enhance food security and reduce the need for new farmland, ✪ conserving natural areas. Herbicide-resistant crops ✪ promote no-till farming. Planting insect- resistant GM crops, proponents maintain, also ✪ reduces pesticide applications. 33. What are the negative impacts of GM crops? • Cultivation of these crops tends to result in more herbicide use. Many conventional crops can interbreed with wild relatives. Chapter 7 - Food security: the guarantee of an adequate, safe, - Agriculture: the practice of reasoning crops and livestock nutritious, and reliable food supply and available to all for human use and consumption people at all times - Crop land: land used to raise plants for human use - Undernutrition: receiving fewer calories than the - Rangeland: land used for grazing livestock minimum dietary energy requirement - Traditional agriculture: for thousands of years, the work - Overnutrition: causes unhealthy weight gain, which leads of cultivating, harvesting, storing, and distributing crops to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other health problems was performed by human and animal muscle power, along with hand tools and simple machines - Malnutrition: a shortage of nutrients the body needs, occurs when a person fails to obtain a complete - Polyculture: mixtures of different crops in small plots of farmland complement proteins, essential lipids, vitamins, and minerals - Industrial agriculture: farmers replaced horses and oxen with machinery that provided faster and more powerful means of cultivating, harvesting, transporting, and - Desertification: a form of land degradation in which more processing crops than 10% of productivity is lost as a result of erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, climate - Monocultures: the placing of vast areas with single crops change, water depletion, and other factors in orderly, straight rows - Dustbowl: drought and poor agriculture practices - Seed banks: institutions that preserve some 1–2 million different seed types in locations around the world devastated millions of US farmers in the 1930s in the dustbowl - Green Revolution: introduced new technology, crop - Crop rotation: farmers alternate the type of crop grown in varieties, and farming practices to the developing world a given field from one season or year to the next and drastically increased food production in these nations - Contour farming: plowing furrows sideways across a - Norman Borlaug: father of the green revolution hillside perpendicular to its slope and following the • The effects of industrial agriculture have been mixed natural contours of the land - Sustainable agriculture: agriculture that maintains the - Terracing: transform slopes into series of steps like a healthy soil, clean water, and genetic diversity essential staircase, enabling farmers to cultivate silly land without too long-term crops and livestock production. It is losing huge amounts of soil to water erosion agriculture that can be practiced in the same way far into - Intercropping: planting different types of crops in the future while maintaining high yields. alternating bands - Soil: a complex system consisting of disintegrated rock, - Shelter belts: rows of trees or other tall plants that are organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and planted along the edges of the fields to slow to wind microorganisms - - Parents material: the base geologic material in a Conservation tillage: an array of approaches that reduce the amount of telling relative to conventional farming particular location - - No-till farming: The ultimate form of conservation Bedrock: the continuous mass of solid rock that makes up tillage. Rather than plowing after each harvest, farmers Earth’s crest leave crop residues atop their fields, keeping well covered was plant material at all times. - Weathering: the physical, chemical, and biological processes that convert large rock particles into smaller By increasing organic matter and soil biota while particles • reducing erosion, no-till farming and conservation - Horizon: each layer of soil tillage can improve soil quality and combat global climate change restoring carbon in soils. - Soil profile: the cross-section as a whole, from service to - Overgrazing: grazing too many livestock that eat too bedrock much of the plant cover, which impedes plant regrowth - Leaching: the process whereby solid particles suspended Livestock removes too much plant cover or churn up or dissolved in liquid are transported to another location • the soil with their hooves, soil is exposed and made - Topsoil: consists mostly of inorganic mineral components vulnerable to erosion such as weather substrate, with organic matter and humus from above mixed in - Conservation Reserve Program: established in the 1985 Farm bill, pays farmers to stop cultivating highly erodible • Regional differences in soil traits affect agriculture cropland and instead place it in conservation reserves - Soil degradation: soils have deteriorated in quality and planted with grasses and trees; generates income for decline in productivity farmers, improved water quality, and provides habitat for wildlife. - Erosion: the transfer of material from one place to another by the action of wind or water - Irrigation: the artificial provision of water to support warehouses or pens designed to deliver energy rich food to agriculture animals living an extremely high density • Irrigation boosts productivity but can damage soil - Aquaculture: the cultivation of aquatic organisms for food in controlled environments - Waterlogging: occurs when an over irrigation causes the water table to rise to the point that water drowns plant • In regard to energy efficiency, aquaculture is incredibly roots, depriving them of access to gases and essentially energy-efficient compared to harvesting fish from open suffocating them waters. - Salinization: the buildup of salts in surface soil layers - Genetic engineering: a process whereby scientists directly manipulate an organism's genetic material in the • Drip irrigation systems that deliver water directly to laboratory by adding, deleting, or changing segmented plant roots can increase efficiencies to over 90% unit - Fertilizer: substances that contain essential nutrients for - Genetically modified organisms (GMO’s): organisms plant growth. that have been genetically engineered using recombinant - Inorganic fertilizers: mined or synthetically DNA manufactured nutrient supplements - Recombinant DNA: DNAthat has been patched together - Organic fertilizers: consist of the remains or waste of from the DNAof multiple organisms organisms and include animal manure, crop residues, fresh - Transgenic: an organism that contains DNAfrom another vegetation, and compost species - Pesticides: chemicals to kill insects, plants, rodents, and - Transgenes: the genes that have moved between species fungi to create a GMO - Biocontrol: agricultural scientists increasingly battle pests - and weeds with organisms that eat or infect them. Biotechnology: the material application of biological science to create products derived from organisms - Integrated pest management (IPM): incorporates • In just over a decade, weed resistance to glyphosate numerous techniques, including close monitoring of pest speed across North America populations, bio control approaches, use of synthetic chemicals when needed, habitat alteration, crop rotation, - Precautionary principle: the idea that one should not transgenic crops, alternative tillage methods, and undertake a new action until the ramifications of that mechanical post removal action are well understood - - Pollination: the process by which male sex cells of the Farmers’market: consumers buy meats and fresh fruits plant fertilizer female sex cells of the plant and vegetables in season from local producers - Feedlots: also known as factory farms or a concentrated - Community-supported agriculture (CSA): consumers animal feeding operations, are essentially huge pay farmers in advance for a share of their yield, usually a weekly delivery of produce Questions from end of chapter: 21. Describe patterns in global food security from 1970 to the present. Name two nutritional deficiencies commonly seen in the modern world. 22. Compare and contrast the methods used in traditional and industrial agriculture. How does sustainable agriculture differ from industrial agriculture. 23. How are soil horizons created? List and describe the major horizons in a typical soil profile. How is organic matter distributed in a typical soil profile? 24. Name three human activities that can promote soil erosion. Describe several farming techniques (such as terracing and no- till farming) that can help reduce the risk of erosion. 25. Explain how over irrigation can damage soils and reduce crop yields. 26. How do fertilizers boost crop growth? How can large amounts of fertilizer added to soil also end up in water supplies and the atmosphere? How do sustainable agriculture approaches reduce fertilizer runoff? 27. Explain how pesticide resistance occurs. 28. What are some economic benefits of aquaculture? What are some negative environmental impacts? 29. How is a transgenic organism created? How is genetic engineering different from traditional agricultural breeding? How is it similar? 30. Describe the recent growth of organic food sales and land under organic management in the United States. Questions from Mastering that I missed: Which statement about food production since 1960 is true? - During this time our food production has grown even faster than our population. We have accomplished this goal by utilizing more fossil fuels, water for irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, land, and productive crop varieties. Who are most prone to overnutrition in the United States? -low-incomeAmericans Low-income Americans are most likely to purchase cheap foods that are high in calories but low in nutrients, leading to overnutrition and obesity. The initial degradation of plants by microarthropods, bacteria, and fungi occurs in the __________ soil horizon. - O. The O or organic horizon contains the remains of stems and leaves that are broken down by microarthropods, bacteria, and fungi to release minerals and make humus. Swidden agriculture is necessary in rainforests for all of the following reasons EXCEPT __________. -the soil of rainforests is not suitable for forest growth This is a false statement regarding the soil of the rainforest. If the forest were not suitable for forest growth, then there would be no tropical rainforests. The process of soil quality declining in productivity is called __________. - soil degradation Over time, when soil is not dealt with sustainably it can lose its productivity and decline in quality. Erosion usually begins when __________. -vegetation is removed either naturally or by humans Vegetation protects the soil from direct impacts by rainfall, and the roots hold the soil in place. Which of the following contributed to the Dust Bowl of the 1930s? - The removal of native prairie plants. The plants would have held the soil in place. Strong winds blew the topsoil away, blackening rain and snow as far away as New York City. Which of the following soil conservation strategies prevents erosion by using furrows plowed sideways across a hill, perpendicular to the slope of land? -contour farming Contour farming prevents the formation of gullies, slows runoff, and helps capture soil. The process of soil quality declining in productivity is called __________. - soil degradation Over time, when soil is not dealt with sustainably it can lose its productivity and decline in quality. The use of biocontrol runs the risk of __________. -the control agent negatively impacting other species besides the species needing to be controlled __________ comprises half of the word's genetically modified crops. -soybeans Soybeans contain high levels of protein and are used to feed both humans and animals bred for human consumption. They can be genetically modified with more than one desirable trait, and over 90% of the soybean crop grown in the United States is genetically modified. What is the status of GM products in the United States? - U.S. citizens have largely accepted the GM crops on the market.. There seems to be little concern about GM foods in the United States. People in the United States do not realize that so much of their food has been genetically modified.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'