Sociology Exam 2 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8) Study Guide
Sociology Exam 2 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8) Study Guide Soci 20213
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soci 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Michelle Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
SOCIOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE (Ch. 5, 6, 7, 8) Small groups: facetoface interaction, unifocal (one center of attention), geographically close together, no formal arrangements, one person cannot ruin the group, ex. study group Large groups: formal structure that mediates interaction & different statuses, schooling structure with teachers and students Primary groups: social groups like family or friends, intimate facetoface relationships that influence ones attitudes & ideals Secondary groups: groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships Ingroups: the powerful group, majority Outgroups: stigmatized or less powerful group, minority Social networks and their ties: set of dyad relationships held together by ties between people, connection between two people in a relationship that varies in strength from 1 relationship Ties: connection between 2 people in relationship varying in strength Strength of weak ties: notion that relatively weak ties often turn out to be quite valuable because they yield new information Social Capital: information, knowledge of people/things, & connections that help people enter networks & gain power in them Social construction of deviance: departs from norms, draws social disapproval, elicits negative sanctions (formal or informal), same action can be read many different ways in different places Crime vs. deviance: not all acts of deviance are punishable by law but crimes are Social cohesion: social bonds, how well people relate to each other & get along on a daytoday basis Mechanical solidarity: social cohesion based on homogeneity of individuals (same work, education, religious views, lifestyle) Organic solidarity: social cohesion based on dependence on each other as individuals perform different tasks (farmers food factory workers who produce tractors) Mechanical social sanctions (rules with repressive sanctions) vs. organic social sanctions (rules with restitute sanctions) Formal sanctions (rules/laws prohibiting deviant behavior, getting arrested, employee of the month) vs. informal sanctions (unwritten rules of social life, smiling at someone, high fives) Merton’s strain theory: when there’s a lack of fit between the culture’s norms about success (goals) & the culture’s norms about how to achieve that success (means) Symbolic interactionist approach to deviance: Labeling theory: theory that people subconsciously notice how others see & label them, their reactions to those labels over times forms the basis of their selfidentity Stigma: any attribute that discredits a person or disqualifies someone from “full social acceptance” How crime is measured: Uniform Crime Reports: official data on crime by FBI, law enforcement agencies voluntarily provide this info each month National Crime Victimization Survey: survey of households twice a year on the frequency of crime victimization, focuses on certain crimes like burglary & assault Perceptions of street crime (murder, robbery) vs. whitecollar crime (embezzling, insider trading, tax evasion) Deterrence theory: philosophy that crime results from a rational calculation of costs & benefits of criminal activity Recidivism: person’s relapse into criminal behavior, often after the person receives sanction or undergoes intervention for a previous crime Social stratification (property, power, & prestige): systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes & relationships Ontological equality: everyone is created equal 1) Equality of opportunity: everyone has equal change to achieve wealth, social prestige & power, capitalist view 2) Equality of condition: everyone should have equal starting point (testing accommodations for students with disabilities) 3) Equality of outcome: everyone should end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the “game”, communist view Property (economic context): wealth, income Wealth: assets – debts Income: annual ammmount of money received from work, stocks, investments, etc. Power: ability of people to achieve goals despite opposition from others (more educated people, politicians, government, overly wealth = more power) Prestige: social honor, power to impress or influence others in society 3 Theoretical views on stratification: 1. Functionalism: social inequality is a necessary part of society 2. Conflict Theory: social inequality is exploitative of workers & benefits the few *bourgeoisie) 3. Symbolic Interactionaism: social inequality contributes to our presentation of self Karl Marx: felt society was divided into 2 classes, proletariat (working class) & bourgeoisie (employing class) Erik Olin Wright: concept of contradictory class locations, idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between 2 “pure” classes defined by Marx Social mobility Absolute mobility: does a person have more or less income/earnings/wealth compared to their parents? Relative mobility: how does a person rank on the income/earnings/wealth ladder compared to their parents, why does US seem to have more poverty than other industrialized nations? Open system = as least some social mobility vs. Closed system = very little to no social mobility INTRAgenerational mobility: changes in position that occur within a person’s lifetime or career mobility INTERgenerational mobility: changes in position in the stratification system by different generations of family members Structural mobility: changes in the economic status of a group of people as a result of structural change sin the economy Class system: characterized by somewhat loose social mobility & categories based on roles in the production process rather than individual characteristics, Karl Marx Absolute mobility (does a person have more or less income/wealth than their parents) vs. relative economic mobility (how does a person rank on the income/wealth ladder compared to their parents) Gender binary: classification of gender & sex into 2 distinct & disconnected forms of masculine & feminine, there is actually a significant amount of variation within “male” and “female” groups both in terms of masculine & feminine Social construction of gender: we, as a society, construct the meaning of gender. Does not mean that gender doesn’t matter… it has a profound consequence on the lives of men & women Social construction of sexuality: sociologists study this rather than what is “natural” vs “unnatural” Gendered sexual scripts: gendered, culturally shared beliefs about the appropriate & typical behavior of men & women in sexual encounters & the events leading up to sexual encounters
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