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Biology 1104k Unit 2 Study Guide-- ANIMALS

by: Logan Barnes

Biology 1104k Unit 2 Study Guide-- ANIMALS Bio 1104k

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Bio 1104k > Biology 1104k Unit 2 Study Guide ANIMALS
Logan Barnes
GPA 4.19

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Study Guide for Animals unit in Biology1104k Includes study guide and my notes from the unit
Introductory Biology II
Dr. Chapman
Study Guide
Biology1104k, Bio, Study Guide, test, animals
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Logan Barnes on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1104k at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Chapman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/01/16
Biology Test 2 Study Guide Fungi: What are the major characteristics of fungi? What are hyphae? Mycellium? Fruiting bodies?  Fungi have fungal bodies (slender threads); body is made of mycelium mycella. Hyphae: branching filaments filled with  cytoplasm and nuclei. Fruiting bodies: part of the mushroom that is visible; responsible for spore reproduction and releasing  it. Their cell walls are made of chitin. They use extracellular digestion by absorbing things; digestion takes place outside cells Types of reproduction? When/how are spores involved? Where are spores produced? Sexual: positive and negative; asexual: fragmentation. Spores are produced in fruiting bodies and use wind to sexual produce. What are the major groups of fungi? Be able to recognize examples from the groups and distinguish them. 1. Chytrids: flagella, motile sperm; produce swimming spores, kills off frogs 2. Zygomycetes: bread mold, asexually; reproduces by forming diploid spores 3. Ascomycetes: truffles, fruit mold; penicillin: fungi used to kill off bacteria; form spores in sac­like case 4. Basidiomycetes: shell fungi, stink cores; produce club­shaped reproductive structures How do fungi interact with other species? It can kill other species.  Mutualism, paratism. Fungi have symbiotic relationships – with what other organisms? What are examples? Lichen=fungi+algae. Mycorrhize=fungi+plant roots.  Both are symbiotic What are some examples of ways we use/benefit from fungi? Medicine, like penicillin; truffles, eating blue cheese, yeast.  What are some examples of fungi that cause problems or disease for humans? Athlete’s foot, thrush, mold. Animals Study Guide I: Invertebrates: What are the major characteristics that define an animal? Level of organization: cellular, tissue, organ, organ systems; # of germ layers: diploblastic or triploblastic; body symmetry:  radial or bilateral; presence of a body cavity: coelomate, pseudocoelmate, acoelomate; embryonic development: protostome  (mouth) or deuterostome (anus) Distinguish between the different grades of organization in animals. For example: what is meant by cellular grade of construction and  how is this different from the other grades? If I give you a picture of an animal, you should be able to tell me what kind of body symmetry it has. You should also know  this for the major Phylla. What are germ layers? What is the name given to animals with 2 germ layers? Those with 3 germ layers? Differentiates into specific organ and organ systems as development continues. Diploblastic: endoderm and ectoderm.  Triploblastic: endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. How are protostome and deuterostome clades distinguished  Protostome: mouth first; Deuterostome: anus first What types of body cavities are found in animals? How are they similar and how are they different (generally) – which Phyla has  what? What do you call bilateral animals with no body cavity, a cavity lined with mesoderm and a cavity that is not completely lined  with mesoderm? Coelomate: has both body cavity. Pseudocoelomate: has one body cavity; only one mesoderm. Acoelomate: no body cavity Describe general feeding patterns/habits in animals.  Sessile: passively feeding. Motile: actively searching for food, hunting, predation Describe different life histories in animals. Be able to recognize tradeoffs From an animal’s life cycle, it may lose or obtain certain characteristics; caterpillar > butterfly; tadpole > frog PHYLUM CHART: Phylum Level of Symmetry # of Body Cavity P/D Reproduction Examples Organizatio Germ n Laye rs Porifera Cellular Asymmetrical - - (no tissues) -- Sexually (releas Sponges ed through Osculum) Asexually (budding) Cnidarians Tissue Radial 2 Acelomate -- Sexually/Buddi Jellyfish ng Nematoda Organ Bilateral 3 Pseudocoelma P Roundworms Systems te Arthropoda Organ Bilateral 3 Eucoelomate P Sexual Insects n Systems stuf Platyhelmint Organ Bilateral 3 Acoelomate P Sexual/Asexual Flat worms hes Systems Annelida Organ Bilateral 3 Eucoelomate P Sexual (most Earthworms, Systems are Marine hermaphroditic Worms, ),Asexual Leeches – (fragmentation) segmented worms in general Mollusca Organ Bilateral 3 Eucoelomate P Clams, Systems Mussels, Snails, Scallops Echinoderma Organ Bilateral- 3 Eucoelomate D Sexual/Asexual STARFISH ta Systems larvae, Radial-adults Chordata Organ Bilateral 3 Eucoelomate D Verterbrates Systems +lampreys and lancelets (invertebrate chordates) What are the two body forms in phylum cnidaria? Polyp vs Medusa What is the gelatinous layer that gives jellyfish their jelly called? Mesoglea What are cnidocytes and what are they for? Cnidoblasts; used for stinging, predation, or protection What are some examples of colonial cnidarians? Portugese Man o War Why is segmentation advantageous? Allows for advanced forms of movements, helps segmented worms move, segmented apendages help insects move, etc How do earthworms move? Use septae to attach and reattach to dirt Why are leeches useful in reattachment surgery? They release anti­coagulant that prevents the clotting of blood to continue blood flow to allow limb reattachment What are the major parts of the mollusk body and what structures do they contain? (if we cover this) Muscular foot, mantle, radula What is a hemocoel? How is it related to gas & nutrient exchange? A blood cavity Compare and contrast the different group mollusks: gastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods. g­ live nearly everywhere on earth, have a single external shell or no shell at all b­mollsuks that have 2 shells held together by hinges and strong muscles c­ ocean dwelling mollusk whose foot is adapted to form tentacles around its mouth What are the advantages and disadvantages of having a hard exoskeleton? Advantages—protection, helps keep the organism safer Disadvantages—extremely heavy, hard to move with  What is the exoskeleton of insects made of? Chitin How do arthropods grow – what happens when their “shell” is too small? They molt their exoskeleton What are the examples of arthropods well developed sensory structures? Chemical and tactile receptors, compound eyes, fused gamglia What kind of body symmetry do adult echinoderms have? How about larval echinoderms?  Adults have pentradial symmetry; larval have bilateral symmetry. What kind of skeletal system do echinoderms have? Endoskeleton   Animals Study Guide II: Chordates – Vertebrates: What are the 4 characteristics of chordates? When must these traits be expressed in the life cycle of the animal? Notochord at some point in their development. Post anal tail; pharyngeal gill slits. Dorsal hollow nerve chord. Some lack  backbone (lancelets + tunicates) Do all chordates have a “backbone”?  No; lancelets and tunicates don’t.  Are humans chordates?  How do you know? When are the chordate features present (if at all)? Yes, as humans had gill slits at some point in life span, have nervous chord (vertebrae) Name of the subphylum for the vertebrate chordates? What makes up the “backbone?” Is it the same for all vertebrates? What is the  function of the backbone? Backbones are composed of bone or cartilage and it’s good for support. What are some of the adaptations that have allowed vertebrates to be so successful & invade most habitats?  Paired appendages, increase size, complexity of brain, increses movement, legs. What are the major groups of vertebrates? Lampreys, cartilaginous fish (chondrichthyes, lung fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals. Jawless fishes have what? What do they lack that we see develop in the Chondricthyes? Example organisms? Eel­shaped bodies, smooth­unscaled skin (hagfish and lampreys) They lack jaws and scales. Cartilaginous Fishes are in which class?  Characteristics? Representative species? Cool information you learned? Chondrichthyes class. They’re marine, skeleton made of cartilage, body is protected by a leathery skin embedded with tiny  scales. Sharks and rays are some species. Bony Fishes are in which class? Where are they found? Class Osteichthyes Frogs and Toads are in which class? General characteristics of this class? What do I mean by calling the life they lead a “double life?”  Reproduction? Class Amphibia. 3 chambered heart to circulate blood more efficantly. Lungs and moist skin in the adults (but use gills as  developing juveniles [tadpoles]) Most have 4 limbs. Double life cycle: part on water, part on land. Reproduce sexually using  external fertilization. Reptiles & Birds – class names? Are they closely related? What evidence supports this? How are they adapted to life on land? How do they respire? Differences from amphibians? Reproduction? Key evolutionary development of reptiles and birds = amniotic egg Class reptilian and aves. Adaption on land: evolved to use a small amniotic egg which can be buried in sand or dirt; shell  prevents the embryo from drying out on land: internal membrane, the amnion, encloses the embryo in the watery  environment. Similarities: feathers are deemed as highly specialized reptilian scales. Birds: hollow bones; more suited for  flight. Characteristics of Class Mammalia (hair, sweat glands, mammary glands, etc.) Mammals are divided into three groups: What are they? What are characteristics of these groups? What are example members we  covered? Mammary glands: provide milk for their offspring; females use it to nourish their young. Sweat, scent, sebaceous (oil) glands:  not found in other vertebrates. Mammalian brains are highly developed compared to others: unparalled curiosity and  learning ability, allowing them to alter their behavior based on experience & increases chances of survival. Mammals have  extended parental care after birth: allows some mammals to learn through parental guidance; humans and other primates are exceptional examples. 3 Groups:  Marsupials (kangaroos, koalas) o Embryos deelop in the uterus only for a short period  Young are born at a very immature stage of development  Immediately after birth, a marsupial crawls to a nipple, firmly grasps it, and completes its development  Monotremes (platypus) o Lay eggs rather than giving birth to live young o New hatched young are nourished from milk secreted by mother  Has no nipples  Placental mammals (humans, monkeys) o Placenta are far more complex than those of marsupials o Retain their young in uterus for a much longer period o The offspring complete their embryonic development before they’re born This Unit’s Notes Animals—Ch. Whatever Classification of Animals Animals were traditionally classified on basis of physical appearance &dvlpmental featires o On things like: Grade of body organization Type of body symmetry o Germ Layers o Presence or absence of true body cavity o Patterns of embryonic development Modern molecular techniques have largely confirmed traditional animal classification Levels of organization in animal complexity: o Cellular grade o Tissue grade o Organ grade o Organ system grade Animals are o Multicellular o Heterotrophic o Some stage in life has sexual reproduction o Moving at some point During early development of most animals, distinct layers of cells form (germ layers) o Differentiate into specific organs/organ systems in development process Diploblastic animals—Ectoderm and endodermic layers o Endoderm—has mesoglea (jellylike) in it, hence the squishiness o Cnidarians (jellyfish, coral, etc) o Ctenophores (comb jellies) Triploblastic animals­­the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm o Divided into protosome and deuterostome o Protosome—Mouth forms first  Ex: roundworm o Deuterostome—anus forms first  Ex: human o 3 types of triploblastic animals based on presence or absence of body cavity outside the gut: Coelem: refers to the main body cavity in most multicellular animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and  contain the digestive tract and other organs o  Coelomate—has coelem Etc: humans  Pseudocoelomate—Had body cavity, fluid­filled, only partially lined w/ mesoderm Ex: nematode, roundworm  Acoelomate—no coelem Ex: flatworm  Animals must expend energy to get food o 2 basic life strategies in terms of mobility/food energy expenditure o Sescile—feed passively as filter feeders o Motile—more active feeding Invertebrates—Ch. 23 Annelids  Segmented Worms: earthworms, marine worms, leeches  Organ system level  Bilateral Symmetry  3 Germ layers—triploblastic  Protostome  Eucoelemates  Closed circulatory system – which means? o Closed= Blood is always in vessels, have a heart o Open=Have a heart, but vessels dump blood into an open cavity called hemocoel, which bathes the organs  No respiratory system, they simply use diffusion through their thin skin  Nervous system consists of o Clusters of ganglia in the head (brain) o Paired segmental ganglia o Paired ventral nerve cords  Reproduction—Sexual  Annelids fall into 3 subgroups o Oligochaetes o Polychaetes o Leeches Mollusca  Muscles, Clams, Oysters, Scallops, snails…  Organ system  Bilateral symmetry  3 germ layers—triploblastic  Protostome  Eucoelomate  Have a mantle—secretes a shell  Most have an open circulatory system o Blood percolates through a hemocoel (blood cavity) bathing internal organs directly o Cephalopods don’t have open circ. system  Nervous system is similar to that of annelids  o ganglia connected by ventral nerves o More of the ganglia are concentrated in the head  Reparatory system—gills  Types of mollusks: o Bivalves (2 shells) o Gastropods (stomach foot)—snails/slugs o Cephalopods (head foot)—Octopus, etc Arthropods  Very abundant, diverse  Crabs, spiders, insects, etc  Organ system  Bilateral symmetry  3 germ layers  protostome  eucoloemate  Jointed appendages  Have specialized structure: Exoskeleton/protective layer o Prevents drying out and protects from predators o But exoskeletons can be really fuckin heavy o And you have to molt  Very efficient gas exchange o Terrestrial arthropods have either:  Tracheae (singular, trachea) – network of narrow, branching respiratory tubes  Book lungs (arachnids)  Most have an open circulatory system  Complex nervous system  Phylum Arthoropoda includes the groups: o Insects—most abundant and diverse o Arachnids o Myriopods o Crustaceans  Reproduction—sexual Nematoda  Roundworm  Organ system  Bilateral  3 germ layers—triploblastic  protostome  pseudocoloemate Vertebrate Chordata Bony fish: found in nearly every watery habitat o Include 2 major groups o Ray fined fish and lobe finned Amphibians o Both land and water o Larvae/egg starts in water Major characteristics: o 4 Limbs o Double life cycle o Breathe through lungs and thin skin Reptiles and birds o Reptiles: fully adapted to life on land  Shelled Amniotic egg= key feature Mammals—mammary glands, live virth, hair/fur, sebacoussweat glamds o Brain highly developed, allows learning o 3 groups of mammals  Monotremes—they lay eggs  Marsupials­­ POUCHES  Placental mammals—largest group of mammals


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