Contemporary Issues of Biology (Professor Sawey) Test 3 Study Guide
Contemporary Issues of Biology (Professor Sawey) Test 3 Study Guide BIOL 10003
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Weithas on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Emma Weithas Contemporary Issues in Biology Study Guide Test #3 Disease of the Endocrine System (3/1) Endocrine System & Metabolism -endocrine system: organs and glands pituitary: secretes hormones and target organs respond thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) -metabolism: how fat cells undergo cellular respiration, regulated by thyroid and pancreas Thyroid gland and related diseases -pituitary secretes TSH and sends through blood thyroid secretes thyroxin increases metabolism & controls early development -cretinism: pituitary works but thyroid cant produce thyroxin due to thyroid malfunction, cells are starved leading to less growth and function effects early childhood development, metabolism and ATP= extremely small people -simple goiter: thyroid gland swells bulging out of the neck, pituitary and thyroid work but the thyroxin has no iodine, so the thyroid overworks shooting more and more out more likely to get if far from ocean because of lack of sea salt why all salt now is iodized Pancreas and Diabetes -6 cause of death, 7% of population, 6 mill undiagnosed -Diabetes: disorder of metabolism (way we digest food for growth and energy) problem with insulin -Pancreas (secretes insulin) insulin: allows glucose to move into cells cells use glucose in cellular respiration insulin: like a key, allows cells to open and glucose to enter cells (glucose in blood) -Types of Diabetes: Type 1: (5-10% least common) your pancreas doesn’t produce insulin properly, found when young, autoimmune disease where the body attacks own pancreas and cant make insulin anymore, glucose cant enter cells (id twins don’t both get) Type 2: (weight related) builds up slowly, pancreas works correctly and produces insulin but cells don’t respond normally, taking in too much glucose, overworking and later damaging the pancreas -Effects of Diabetes & high BP: effects the way blood works and the body (toes die) -How to manage: Type 1: take insulin regularly (shots/pump) Type 2: eat healthy, drugs tell cells to respond to insulin -Symptoms: not obvious, need to get blood sugar levels checked to make sure -Risk factors: age, OVERWEIGHT, race Parasites and Disease (3/15) Fleas and the Plague -bubonic plague (Black death) killed hundreds of thousands caused by bacterium fleas: feed on blood of animals, spreads the bacteria, fleas bit rats with bacterium, then bit a human spreading now treated with antibiotics Mosquitos and Malaria -one of the deadliest diseases -caused by protozoan, spread by mosquitos female mosquitos suck blood for protein for eggs -efforts to defeat malaria: drain wetlands, use DDT (killed birds and useful bugs) -plasmodium: protozoa in malaria, destroys red blood cells when mosquito bites, enters you and cumulates in liver, enters red blood cells and multiplies (and if you’re infected and get bitten you infect the mosquito) -symptoms: flu-like -preventions: chloroquine (parasites became resistant) netting to keep out mosquitos sickens 200 mill a year, almost extinct except in Africa use DDT inside, use wormwood to treat West Nile Virus -transmitted by mosquitos, less than 1% grow ill death of birds Ticks and Lyme Disease -ticks feed on blood, anchor mouth below skin, feed to get protein for eggs -blacklegged tick (deer tick) spread Lyme disease -spring and summer (nymph stage- teenager) -caused: corkscrew shaped bacteria -don’t feel the bite b/c anesthetic released, and anchors in hard to reach places on body -symptoms: flu-like, bulls eye rash, arthritis like, attacks nervous system, facial palsy -treatment: prevent ticks, remove w/ tweezers Immune System and Infections (3/17) Immune system: -Cells of immune system: (microbe with protein coat enters body and starts to reproduce) microphage: circulate through the body and eat microbes and alert Helper T cells Helper T cells: recognize microbes protein coat and alert B and T cells by making cytokines B cells: make antibodies to neutralize microbes memory B cells: remain to provide immunity in future Killer T cells: kill microbe and human cells infected with microbes memory T cells: remain for immunity in future -at birth immune system can respond to any infection, but only is initiated when infection occurs - takes around a week to make B &T cells (why you feel sick) Viruses (tiny, not living, rely on host cells for replication) -DNA with protein coating -slip their DNA into host’s nucleus to get copied and reproduce -virus takes over cell, host bursts and releases virus infecting more -Shingles: when virus hides in body, caused by chickenpox virus “hidden” in nerve cells, causes blistering and rashes when reaches skin -the common cold: 200 viruses cause this, always mutating and changing so can’t be cured Bacteria infections -have DNA and ribosomes, can make their own protein no host reproduce with binary fission (our cells do this too) -makes you feel sick because of toxins release and cells killed -Antibiotics: kill bacteria (good and bad), that’s why only take if absolutely needed discovery penicillin was first caused by antibiotics killing good bacteria: yeast infection, pseudomembranous colitis (overgrowth of bacteria only fixed with fecal transplant) E-coli: -in our bodies already, but can mutate to make you sick, caused by the toxin in e-coli, which is harmless to cattle can be in meat or lettuce ect. Review Question: 1. How dos E-coli cause death? -Ecoli (special strain) sticks to intestine walls and produces a toxin, this leads to cramping and blood and dehydration, toxin travels to kidneys (through bloodstream) and causes kidney failure Vaccines and Disease Prevention (3/21) Smallpox -was very common, many died -caused by virus, spread very easily little sores all over body Edward Jenner: milkmaids didn’t get smallpox, exposure to cowpox results in protection to smallpox, smallpox vaccine was one of the first an injection of live virus that causes antibodies and memory cells to form, so later when the real disease comes they fight it off -virus is extinct now -controversy: people keep smallpox in freezers… why!?!?!? Vaccines -booster shots: make the memory cells get to a higher level antigens in vaccines triggers the antibodies some children have allergies and cant be vaccinated state laws require children to be vaccinated Whooping cough -severe coughing causing vomit, need booster every 10 years -children more susceptible, deadly in infants Benefits of Vaccines -save 33,000 lives prevents 14 mill infections, saves $10mill in medical costs Polio -virus attacks nervous system paralysis only 1/200 people infected get paralyzed, the rest are carriers and can spread it -common in children, spiked in summer because spread through fecal matter in pools -salk vaccine: made of dead polio, protects against polio but still can carry -sabin vaccine: live, weakened virus, against and carrying polio -polio is virtually eradicated Review Questions: 1.If someone never had chickenpox or shingles and comes in contact with the blisters, can they get it? -get vaccinated, avoid shingles, if they are contagious yes 2. Rabies caused by salvia (virus) how does rabies vaccine protect the pet? -helps make memory cells to terminate it when exposed to rabies. Aids and Ebola (3/23) What causes Aids? (AIDS=final stages of HIV) -was unknown in the past dominated the homosexual world, 40 mill died -caused by an unknown retrovirus -HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, causes AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome -HIV infects helper T cells, why does it infect your cells? because it needs a host to reproduce -HIV attacks Helper T cells HIV DNA with helper t cells HIV reproduced in helper t nucleus HIV emerge and spread AIDS: no immunity, cancers all over body, skin problems, and body wasting Origin of AIDS in Africa -HIV is originally a mutated monkey virus, most likely contracted from having an open wound and butchering a monkey -spread by heterosexual sex, sex trade in Africa, and unsterilized needles -in Africa a bigger percentage die, but in US more people live with HIV AIDS in the US -@first: passed by homosexual sex, blood transfusions and IVs -now: spread by heterosexual sex as well -contracted though contact with infected blood and semen more men have it than women -Detection: HIV tests se if the body has HIV antibodies fighting the disease Highest for African Americans -HAART: simultaneous use of multiple drugs to block HIV reproduction, doesn’t cure you live with HIV your whole life Ebola -caused by infection of cells with Ebola virus, originated from mutated monkey/bat virus -fever, extreme bleeding, vomiting blood, pain and soreness -in Africa 70% who get infected die -spread in humans by broken skin, BLOOD, and bodily fluid no vaccine for it, Ebola suit needed to handle patients Nervous System & Drug Addiction (3/29) Nervous system: -neuron: nerve cell sensory: on skin, feel, take impulses to brain interneurons: interpret impulses motor neurons: carry impulses to muscles -causes of paralysis: damage to nerve cell: nerve impulses don’t reach muscle tetanus toxin: causes antagonistic muscles to contract at the same time (body cramp nerve gas: prevents neurotransmitters from being removed (stays clogged in synapse) and impulse doesn’t reach muscle botulism toxin: blocks acetylcholine from release at neuromuscular junction, blocks neurotransmitter from release -neuromuscular junction: space between neuron and muscle -muscles shrink and relax, they only pull, never push antagonist muscle, one contracts up the other contracts down Synapse and Neurotransmitters -synapse: gaps between neurons -neurotransmitter: released, chemical released for neurotransmission 50 neurotransmitters dopamine, acitcoline (muscles contract), serotonin (mood, depression) after neurotransmitters stimulates postsynaptic membrane, an enzyme removes it or its transported out -Botox: tiny amounts of botulism injected in skin prevents wrinkles (more skin with age) relaxes muscles Drug Addiction What substance is responsible for most addictions? –Dopamine -Why have dopamine? For reward pathways, like eating or sex (reproduction and survival) -MAOI’s inhibit MAO (substance cleaning up dopamine from synapse) what kind of drugs are they? Antidepressants
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