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NUTR 2360; Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Aisha Dewees

NUTR 2360; Exam 2 Study Guide Nutr 2360

Aisha Dewees
Texas State
GPA 3.14

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About this Document

Mostly completed study guide for exam 2 for Thorton! I will upload the completed version very soon!
Basic Nutrition
Hannah Thornton
Study Guide
study guides, nutrition, exams, Spring 2016
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aisha Dewees on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutr 2360 at Texas State University taught by Hannah Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Basic Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 03/01/16
NUTR Exam 2 Study Guide        Carbohydrates    What is the difference between type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes?  T1: autoimmune; since childhood, body makes no insulin, not a major life change.  T2: developed, beta cells immune to insulin; preventable; life altering; main cause from obesity and  poor diet (T1 & T2 can lead to vision loss, amputations, heart issues and circulation loss, loss of  sensation)  Gestational: caused by baby growing, too much glucose being made; addressed with insulin shots and  at times diet and exercise. (Unaddressed it can cause birth defects; both mother and child at higher  risk for T2)  What are the ideal blood glucose levels, when fasting?  Fasting:   below 99 is Normal; 100‐125 is Pre Diabetic; above 126 is Diabetic    Proteins    What makes proteins unique?  The nitrogen group and side chains  Describe deamination and transamination.  Deamination: the absorbing and recycling of amino acids; excretion via urea and recycling of carbon  skeleton for energy  Transamination: changing one amino group into a carbon; creates carbon skeleton and non‐essential  amino acids  Define essential, nonessential, and conditionally essential amino acids.  Essential: we don’t need to eat them, they are made by the body; are dispensable  Non‐essential: we must get them in diet, they are indispensable  Conditionally essential: high need in infancy and illness; repair process  what is the structure of amino acids?  Contain a carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; a nitrogen (amino) and acid (carboxyl) group; and a  side chain  what are the different protein levels?   ***  describe protein synthesis; include translation, transcription and bonding.  ****  what causes protein denaturation?  3D shape is changed and/or destroyed; bonds are broken down into smaller amino acids; happens in  cooking, heat, and alkaline reactions and or digestion  where does protein begin to digest? what enzymes make this happen in the stomach?    What enzymes are involved in protein digestion in the small intestine? where is come from?    how are proteins absorbed? are whole proteins absorbed?    Are proteins stored? what is input and output? describe the amino acid pool.    What do proteins do in the body? how do they maintain fluid balance? what is it kcal/g (energy)?    Animal protein vs Plant protein    incomplete proteins vs complete proteins    what amino acids are limiting in beans, nuts, and grains?    what nutrients are a concern for vegetarian/vegan diets?    RDA of protein?    Describe nitrogen balance?    Describe protein­energy malnutrition.    What are the effects of too much protein    Lipids    What’s the primary storage of lipids?  Triglycerides and ester bonds  The structure of Triglycerides, DIglycerides, and Monoglycerides  Tri: Glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Di: Glycerol + 2 or more fatty acids  Mono: Glycerol + 1 fatty acid  Define esterification, de­esterification, and re­esterification  E: reactions forming bonds with fatty acids and glycerols  De‐E: removing fatty acids from glycerols  Re‐E: reattaching fatty acids to glycerols  How do fatty acids differ? what makes them stable and define state of matter?    classify fatty acids on chain length, saturation, and hydrogen position. based on images.    Know what saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and trans fats look like. know their  major food sources.      How does hydrogenation affect their structure?    what are the essential fatty acids? be able to identify their molecules and dietary sources.    what are the functions of essential fats in the body?what do they become? how do they  influence the body?    Describe phospholipids. their structure, food source, and functions; where are they made?    What does bile do in lipids? what is the bile and fat called?    what does pancreatic lipase do?    what do triglycerides become before absorption?  Broken down to monoglycerides and free fatty acids  describe lipid digestion, absorption, and transport. know lipoproteins.  ***  what do you call reverse cholesterol transport?  *****  determine modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors of CVD.  Modifiable factors: you can stop smoking, prevent obesity, and increase physical activity, change diet  Non‐Modifiable factors: age gender, race and genetics  what contributes to CVD?  1)    Inflammation: this is from poor diet and high levels of LDL  2)​   High LDL cholesterol forming plaque  3)    Hypertension: damaging blood vessels and increasing chance of atherosclerosis  What is atherosclerosis? describe plaque formation.  When the blood vessels are narrowed decreasing O2 and nutrients; Build up plaque can break free  and block blood flow, creating dead tissue  Plaque occurs from oxidation of LDL; in injury and inflammation, making plaque cells which stick and  build up  what fats contribute to CVD?  Trans Fats and high LDL  what are the normal levels or HDL, LDL  LDL: less than 100mg/dl is normal; 130+ is abnormal  HDL: above 50mg/dl is good; 30 mg/dl or less is low  Cholesterol: less than 200 mg/dl overall is optimal  What is the recommended level of essential fatty acids intakes?  ***    Alcohol    Is alcohol a nutrient? what is its energy yield?  It is not a nutrient, but has a 7 kcal/g nutrient energy  what defines a standard drink?  Beer: 12oz; Wine: 5oz; Liquor: 1.5oz  describe fermentation.  Via malting, complex carbs are broken down into simple sugars: ie potatoes, barley, and rice.  Using yeast, CHO is absorbed in aerobic conditions (o2 use); Yeast ferments and uses anaerobic  conditions (used up 02)  where is alcohol absorbed? where is it done the most? How does food affect this?  20% in the stomach, 80% in the SI; when consuming a high fat meal the alcohol remains in the  stomach longer, this allows it to be absorbed slowly and will not enter the blood stream thus  impairing the brain.  Name the primary pathways for alcohol metabolism? when do they engage, and where do they  occur?  ADH: first ethanol becomes alcoholic dehydrogenase, then Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; lastly  converted to Acetyl‐CoA and turning enzymes into fatty acids. This happens in the liver 90% of the  time  MEOS: also ends in Acetyl‐CoA; however needs NADPH as energy; this processes builds tolerance and  reduced the liver ability to metabolize medication. This happens in the liver.  Acetaldehyde: promotes the dizzy and nausea feeling, as well as flushed appearance when drinking  what enzymes are involved in metabolizing? what happens when it build up?  ****  Describe the short­term effects of feeling drunk.  1)    The pleasure chemicals, dopamine and serotonin are triggered  2)    EtOH binds and excitatory synapses thus slows brain function; speech and motor skills  3)    EtOH binds and inhibits synapses and enhances transduction  Therefore decreased mental capacity occurs and you are happy.  Women and alcohol vs East Asians and alcohol.  East Asians:  have high alcohol dehydrogenase; have low levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase    This results in high levels of acetaldehyde; causing nausea, dizziness, and flush face  Women: have lower levels of alcohol dehydrogenase and 30‐35% alcohol remains in blood  This is based on how men usually have more muscle than women; the more muscle the more  water to hold alcohol from reaching the brain and blood  What are the guidelines for intake?  Ideally: ½ drinks every hour; this allows consumption to even out with liver capacity  Moderate Intake: 1 drink a day for women; 1‐2 drinks a day for men (UL recommendations)  what happens to the liver, describe the health effects?  Steatosis (fatty liver) can cause a beer belly, and happens every time you drink;  Hepatitis (occurs with persistent drinking) causing the liver to be inflamed, and killing cells and can  create a case of jaundice  Cirrhosis (loss of function in the liver): caused by hepatitis and extreme drinking habits (~7 or more  beers a day for 10 yrs); this is incurable and 50% of patients die  How does alcohol affect nutrition status? Which nutrients are impaired?  You can become Protein‐energy Malnutrition: where alcohol over takes the need for food  This inhibits the absorption of thiamine, B12, folate and calcium; you lose more B6 and magnesium;  liver functions are impaired (lack of fat soluble vitamins); loss of iron from GI bleeding  What is the link between alcohol, thiamin, and the brain?  ******  How does alcohol affect pregnancy?  Inhibits nutrient and oxygen delivery to fetus, thus slowing growth and development  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: causing learning, behavioral, and brain abnormalities  As little as 1oz a day can cause this.         


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