Geog 110: World Regional Geography Exam 1 Study Guide
Geog 110: World Regional Geography Exam 1 Study Guide Geog 110
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Tuesday March 1, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Geog 110 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Margaret Gripshover in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Honors World Regional Geography in Geography at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 03/01/16
Kate Belarmino STUDY GUIDE EXAM I: GEOGRAPHY 110 Gripshover DIRECTIONS: Use the study guide to help you prepare for the exam. Do not rely solely on the study guide! Be sure to review all readings, notes and assignments, too. 1. Who is Lydia Pulsipher what and is her claim to fame? Lydia Pulsipher is a cultural geographer, and her “claim to fame” is that she wrote the textbook that we use in our class, World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives. 2. Could you write a definition of geography? Geography has many definitions. The broadest, but possibly best way of defining it is that if you can put it on a map, it is geography. It can also be described, more scientifically, as the study of human and environmental interrelationships as they vary across space and time. It is a spatial science, and a very broad discipline. 3. What is the difference between regional and topical geography? Topical geography has to do with specific/individual physical/cultural elements in the world. Physical and cultural geography are disciplines of topical geography. Regional geography concerns the study of specific areas (or, regions,) of the world, and the characteristics of those particular areas in particular. 4. What are the three types of map scales? The three types of map scales are verbal, graphic, and representative fraction (RF) scales. 5. What are the five essential elements of a map? The five essential elements of a map are a title, neat line (border), scale, Northing system and key legend. 6. What are latitude and longitude and which is most useful for geographers and why? Latitude and longitude are invisible lines around the globe that help people to find the location of things and places. Latitudinal lines go NorthSouth, and longitudinal ones go EastWest. Longitude is more useful for geographers, and is what we use in this class. 7. What is a Mercator projection and how is it used and misused? A Mercator projection is a globe projection that is supposed to be used to project a cylindrical surface. When it is used to project a globe to make a map, it creates a lot of distortion in higher latitude areas. It was used for navigation during the age of exploration, and was misused during the Cold War as propaganda, because it made the USSR look huge, and therefore convinced people they were a greater threat. 8. What is a mental map and what you can learn from them? A mental map is a perceptual map, meaning that it is a cognitive map that shows how we, as individuals, see the world, and how we have experienced certain places. This is what we can learn from mental maps. An example is the exercise we did in class when people said what states they consider to be “Midwest,” and which ones they did not. 9. Why is the “Border” region a good example of a fluid regional boundary? The “border” region, between the U.S. and Mexico, is a good example of a fluid regional boundary because it is impossible to tell just by looking at the land whether you are in Mexico or in the United States. The culture extends beyond both sides of the border, so it is hard to tell one way or another. 10.What are land bridges and how did they change migration patterns? Land bridges are pieces of land that, during the Ice Age, became exposed, connecting different continents that were normally separated by large bodies of water. They changed migration patterns by allowing nomads to walk to and from places that they normally would have needed a boat to travel between. 11.How did we go from being hunters and gatherers to sedentary farmers? We went from being hunters and gatherers when we no longer had to rely on whatever berries or animals we could find on any given day. We learned how to plant certain crops and live off of the land in a more sustainable way, which led to the creation of more cities, and the decline of nomadic living. 12.What was the Agricultural Revolution and what are some of the results? The Agricultural Revolution was a period of time during which, in Mesopotamia, people began to innovate new ways of planting crops, and figured out how to sustain more surplus food. This led to the domestication of certain crops and animals, and increased life expectancies, helped to create more cities, and changed peoples’ lifestyles in general, in a very drastic way. 13.What is independent inventioncould you give an example? Independent invention is when different groups of people invent similar things or have similar ideas in order to solve common problems. One example is the compass. Another is the telephone. 14.What are the differences between material and nonmaterial culture? Material culture includes physical things, such as food, clothing or toys. Nonmaterial culture involves nontangible things such as attitudes, superstitions and beliefs. 15.What are the differences between proselytizing and ethnic religions? Proselytizing religions are ones that are universalizing, in other words, spread in great numbers through (voluntary or involuntary) conversion. One example would be Christianity. Ethnic religions are geographically defined, meaning that most people are born into them, such as Hinduism. 16.Why do the language and religion maps in Chapter 1 have so much in common? Language and religion are both very correlated to location and ethnic culture. People in many areas are born into religions and languages based simply upon where they are in the world. Also, it is difficult for one to pick up another religion if the only one that is popular amongst people who speak your language is the only one you are ever exposed to. 17.What is a lingua franca? A lingua franca is an adapted language that people in areas with no official language (such as SubSaharan Africa) pick up on to get by, and be able to communicate with their neighbors. Even if nobody is fluent in it, most people are able to learn enough of the makeshift language to be able to get along as much as they need to. 18.Why is Slovenian a good example of a cultural marker? Slovenian is a good example of a cultural marker because it is a language that is rarely spoken at all. Slovenian people have adapted and adjusted and now just mostly speak the language of whomever they are around. 19.What is the difference between gender and sex? Gender is socially constructed, like race. Sex is purely biological and physical. 20.Why do we say that “race is only skin deep?” We say that race is only skin deep because, like gender, it is an abstract concept. It is something that is socially constructed. Beyond the pigmentation in our skin, people of different races are generally not biologically or inherently different. 21.How has skin pigmentation responded environment and why? Melanin, the thing that gives our bodies skin color, increases when we are in hot, sunny places (which is why people in Africa are so dark compared to people in, say, Alaska.) People who spend a lot of time in the sun need to absorb a lot of vitamin D, so their skin is darker, to allow for more absorption. Otherwise, people get bone deformation as a result of rickets, which is a result of a Vitamin D deficiency. 22.What are the basic concepts behind continental drift theory? The basic premise of the continental drift theory is that tectonic plates break away and move, which is why we used to have supercontinents, such as Pangea, and now we instead have 7 smaller continents. 23.What is the Pacific Ring of Fire? The Pacific Ring of Fire is the most active tectonic zone in the world. 24.What is the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering? Mechanical weathering is things such as frost action leading to falling rock zones. Chemical weathering includes things such as rain on limestone leading to voids and erosion, which leads to sinkholes. 25.What is karst topography, how is it formed, and where do you find it? Karst topography is found in landscape dominated by limestone. It involves the creation of sinkholes, caves, etc. as a result of limestone being displaced due to chemical weathering, etc. 26.Why do erosion and deposition always go together? Erosion and deposition always go together because weathered material cannot just disappear. It has to go somewhere, so when erosion occurs, deposition must also occur, so that the eroded material can find a new place to go. 27.What are the basic characteristics of A, B, C, D, and E climates? A: Tropical (wetrainforest, and drySavannah,) infertile soil, plants that don’t need soil thrive. B: True Desert (Sahara,) and Step (Sahel,) high land mass and high extremity of climate in the center, because no maritime influence. C: Moderate midlatitudes, mediate climates, rainfall in winter, highest population. D: Short growing seasons, colder, lower population, lack of ability to produce surplus food, food production opens limited. E: Polar characteristics, no growing season, very low population of people, if any. 28.In which climate type would you find most of the world’s population? Why? Most of the world’s population would be found in the C climate type, because it is the easiest one in which humans can thrive. It has the greatest growing potential of any of the climate types, and green is good. 29.What is the difference between frontal and orographic precipitation? Frontal precipitation is when rain occurs due to a low pressure system. Orographic precipitation is caused by geographic places or things (like mountains) causing clouds to rise and then produce rain. 30.What is sustainable development? Sustainable development is the ability to use resources today so that future generations can have a higher standard of living than we do. 31.Do you know your demographic alphabet…BR, DR, NI, FR, LE, IMR? BR: Birth Rate, DR: Death Rate, NI: Natural Increase, FR: Fertility Rate, LE: Life Expectancy, IMR: Infant Mortality Rate. 32.Why are PCGDP and population density pretty useless stats for our studies? PCGDP does not give any indication about individuals’ GDP, just the GDP for the people of the place in question. Population density only tells where people are, not how they are doing. 33.What is a population pyramid? How is it different from a demographic transition chart? A population pyramid shows how many people (usually in thousands or millions,) in each age group (from 0100+, in ranges of 510,) there are living in a given country in a given year, and they can be used to project population growth or decline in an area in the future, too. Demographic Transition charts show birth rate, death rate and population growth over time in stages, which differs from the population pyramids, which simply show the statistics of age and people, with no further information or explanation. 34.Who was Thomas Malthus and what did he have to say about population? Thomas Malthus was the first student of population. He was very concerned about overpopulation, so he came up with a theory about it, known as the Malthusian Theory. This stated that humans reproduce exponentially, and food, arithmetically, and, as a result, people cannot get adequate food, at the rate that we are multiplying. 35.What is meant by “missing females?” “Missing females” are females who, simply put, should be here but are not. The numbers of missing females are high in places such as SubSaharan Africa, where inequality and neglect lead to a much higher mortality rate for females than for males. 36.What is China’s “one child policy,” and has it worked? China’s onechild policy is pretty much exactly what it sounds like. It is a policy that limits Chinese families to having only one child without any sort of repercussions. One cornerstone of the policy has workedand that is that of delayed marriage, but otherwise, the policy has not worked, and China is still improperly distributed with people. 37.What are the differences between formal and informal economies? Formal economies involve explicit conditions and responsibilities, contracts and expectations set officially between workers and employers. Informal economies involve no contracts, but implied or inexplicit expectations between employers and employees. 38.Where is the Rift Valley and how did it form? The Rift Valley is in East Africa and it was formed when tectonic plates moved away from each other and the Earth pulled so that a large trench came to be where the pieces of land used to be connected. 39.What is the ITCZ and how does it affect Africa? The ITCZ is the InterTropical Convergence Zone, which affects the rainfall and general climate in Africa. It migrates over Africa in a seasonal manner, causing occasional rain and other changes in weather. 40.How does climate create disease conditions in Africa? The climate in Africa allows for many different disease conditions. The extreme heat allows for mosquitos and other diseasecarrying animals to thrive and spread Malaria and other diseases. In the rainforests, people often walk around without shoes, due to the wetness of the area, and therefore contract many diseases in this way, too. 41.When, where, and why did the slave trade evolve in Africa? The slave trade evolved in Western Africa in the 1470s as a way for Europeans to find cheap and easy manpower for their own purposes, and for certain African groups of people to get rid of groups of people that they did not like, or considered to be inferior to them. th 42.Why were 19 century Brits surprised by what they found in Zimbabwe? The Brits were surprised because they thought that Zimbabwe would be filled with much more worthwhile resources than it was. 43.What are some of the names given to the west coast of Africa? Some names include the Ivory Coast, the Pepper Coast and the Slave Coast. 44.Why did the Europeans colonize Africa? The Europeans colonized Africa under the guise of “saving” these “poor, ignorant, uncivilized Africans,” but really, they were just greedy, and wanted more land, and the opportunity to acquire more natural resources. 45.Why is King Leopold such a reviled character in African development? King Leopold insisted on colonizing what became the Belgian Congo, even when the people of his country expressed disinterest in the idea. He then forced the people living in Congo to do slave labor (although he did not call it that, but called it “labour reserves,” instead.) Millions of people died because of his forced labor and greed. 46.Who were the Boers and what did they do? The Boers were Dutch people who came in and colonized parts of Africa, until the Brits showed up and began pushing them out. The Boer Wars resulted, and eventually a Republic of South Africa was created. 47.When and why did apartheid develop in South Africa? Apartheid developed officially in South Africa in 1948, because there was already a stigma put in place that prevented white people and “people of color,” and “mixed people” from integrating with each other, as a result of deeprooted racism from white colonizers and black Africans. 48.Why has postcolonial Africa suffered such turmoil? Postcolonial Africa has suffered a lot of turmoil because, when they colonized Africa, the Europeans (French, Dutch, Belgians, English, etc.) split Africa up completely, in ways that did not match up with the territories that were already put into place. After they went in and pretty much just messed everything up for Africans, and then finished, the Europeans had left the African people with all sorts of territory disputes, and identity crises to deal with. 49.Why is understanding carrying capacity important in Africa? Understanding carrying capacity is important in Africa because many places in Africa can simply not sustain large numbers of people. The carrying capacity in many areas is fairly low, and as a result, death rates and birth rates are both higher (the latter in order to make up for the higher rate of the former.) 50.Why are there so many refugees in Africa? There are a lot of refugees in Africa because there is so much civil unrest, and turmoil, and there are often civil wars going on in countries in Africa. 51.Why has the HIV/AIDS epidemic been so devastating in Africa? The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been very devastating because the presidents of some countries in Africa have insisted that HIV/AIDS is an airborne pathogen, rather than an STD, while others have denied that the issue exists in Africa at all. The lack of education, as well as the lack of proper, affordable healthcare, have led to the epidemic being as devastating as it is. 52.How would you describe the basic patterns of religion in Africa? In modern times, the majority of Africa is either Christian, Muslim or practicing traditional religions. Most of the Christians reside in the southern half of the country, with most of the Muslims in the Northern half, and most of the more traditional religions in the Western portions. 53.How did the introduction of Christianity change the lives of African women? The introduction of Christianity changed the lives of African women for the better, for the most part. They were able to experience more equality, security and safety in general than they had before. 54.What is FGM and why is it a controversial practice? FGM is Female Genital Mutilation. It is controversial because it is painful and dangerous, and can lead to the deaths of many girls, as well as babies. It is a traditional practice, but one that is outlawed in most places for its high risk factor, although most places do not enforce these laws against FGM. 55.Why did the World Bank plan for a shoe factory in Tanzania fail? The plan failed because of poor implementation. The plan was not thought through carefully and planned correctly, but was rather more like “wishful thinking” in many ways. 56.Where is desertification a major issue in Africa and why? Desertification is a major issue in much of Africa, but especially in the Sahel. It is a problem because it leads to infertile land, and therefore more starvation and less clean water. 57.How might debt forgiveness to be the key to African prosperity? Debt forgiveness may be the key to African prosperity, because, much as a result of colonization, many countries in Africa owe money to many other places, such as countries in Europe who, at one point, conquered provinces in Africa and forced the people there into practices that they did not agree with (i.e. “labour reserves.) If these debts could be forgiven, perhaps Africa could be allowed to finally thrive.
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