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by: Aurore MacGyver Sr.


Aurore MacGyver Sr.
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aurore MacGyver Sr. on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to OCEAN 102 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/192140/ocean-102-university-of-washington in Oceanography at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Oceanography 102 StricklandNuwer 2009 Note This is intended as a guide only The exam will cover content from all Unit 1 lectures and readings I Diving technology amp vehicles Early diving gear amp its problems SCUBA diving hazards causes effects on the diver and remedies Motivations amp accomplishments of deepsea explorers Technical characteristics amp accomplishments of deepsea vehicles table 1 and general dates when they operated Technical functions of SCUBA gear Societal challenges faced by developers of SCUBA amp deepdiving vehicles Sources of financial support for deepsea exploration reasons for shifts in sources of financial support Steps amp in uences leading to success of the Deepest Dive Technical difficulties occurring on the Deepest Dive causes and solutions Events affecting development of vehicles after the Deepest Dive Advantages amp disadvantages of ROV s tethered amp untethered manned vehicles Uses and differences between the Wasp and Newt diving suits II Midwater habitat and adaptations How midwater is different from other ocean environments amp terrestrial environment How midwater organisms are observed and sampled How midwater organisms are distributed in space Adaptations of midwater organisms for otation invisibility feeding defense and reproduction table 2 Recognize amp identify organisms as examples of midwater adaptations table 2 111 Sea Monsters Past attitudes toward the deep sea amp creatures and reasons for them Reasons for changes in attitudes toward ocean amp marine creatures during 20Lh Century Changes in knowledge amp attitudes about giant squid orca whales amp sharks Revised January 14 2009 Study Guide 1 Midwater Exploration Individuals Major achievements sources of motivation and prior experiencequalifications of the following individuals Allyn Vine Auguste Piccard Bill Hamner Ernst Haeckel Jacques Cousteau Jacques Piccard Robert Ballard Victor Hensen William Beebe Vocabulary Words Hbomb Marine snow Medusa narcosis Pheromone Cnidaria Fernez Thermocline Thresher Oceanography 102 StricklandNuwer 2009 Sample Questions 1 What was a major problem with early diving bells a The ringing of the bell was deafening for the divers b The trapped air could become stale ie low in oxygen c The air hose could get tangled or break d The bell could collapse under pressure e The pressure could cause the air in the bell to expand explosively 2 Observations made from the bathysphere shifted thinking about life in the ocean What did scientists think about organisms in the ocean after seeing the results from the bathysphere dive a Organisms and marine snow have patchy distribution and are found in layers b Bioluminescent organisms are found only in the deepest ocean Large animals live only at the surface Nets could appropriately sample sea life such as jellyfish Deep living animals are all slow moving 8amp8 3 Which statement below about nitrogen narcosis is m The malady has no lingering after effects The only remedy is to gradually reduce the pressure until the nitrogen disappears The effects are described as rapture of the deep Replacement of nitrogen by helium in the SCUBA tanks prevents the effect Nitrogen gas dissolved in the blood acts like an anesthetic gas 58 ea e v 4 Which statement below about the limitations of the bathysphere is m a The tether could become twisted or tangled b It depended on the surface for electrical power c The tether yanked the sphere up and down in rough seas d It was dependent on the surface for its air supply e It had no propellers for horizontal mobility Answers 11 2a 31 4d 51 6d 78 8a Revised January 14 2009 Study Guide 1 Midwater Exploration 5 Which statement below about the advantages of Alvin over earlier deep sea vehicles is false a It had an external arm with interchangeable attachments b It was the rst vehicle to use a spherical metal pressure vessel with windows c It could be lifted on and off the ship fully loaded d It used a new non flammable non crushable otation material called syntactic foam It had better steering and propulsion because of better propellers D V 6 Successful deep sea exploration programs after World War II depended on all of the following factors except Connections to political supporters Ability to transport people amp vehicles to deep water sites Innovations in technology Having a tether long and strong enough to reach the deep sea floor e Ability to obtain financial support 7 All of the following are ways that organisms are adapted to pressure at great depths except a The lungs of deep diving whales compress to a fraction of their surface volume b They are mostly fluid so that internal and external pressures are in balance c Fishes living at mid depths have uid filled swim bladders d Very deep living fishes have no swim bladder e Very deep living animals are armored for protection against extreme pressures 858 8 Which sea monster below is known to have harmed humans in its natural habitat Sperm whale Killer whale Pacific giant octopus Giant squid e Megamouth shark 858 Oceanography 102 StricklandNuwer 2009 Study Guide 1 Midwater Exploration Table 1 Deepsea vehicles Improvements over Previous Vehicles I imit tinns quot 39 Vehicle Name of Mobility Utility Utility Mobility explorers general years f operati Bathysphere Beebe amp 3500 ft cable amp Phone amp electric cable Negatively buoyant Vertical tethered Bathysphere I manned dive Bart0n1930 34 winch oxygen tanks No depth gauge Heaving amp tangling gt400 1 observation of Benthoscope Barton window with spotlight Cold amp uncomfortable weight deep water life NBC 1949 No maneuverability broadcast 1934 7 3028 halfmile down Benthosphere Manned dive to 4500 ft FNRS2 Explorers years FNRS3 Explorers years Soucoupe Explorers years Trieste Explorers years Alvin Explorers years Johnson SeaLink Explorers years First row is provided as an example Revised January 14 2009 Table 2 Midwater animals and adaptations BehaviorAdaptation Animal Group Body Structure FlotationMobility Feeding Defense Reproduction include common or nickname Pteropods Copepod Ctenophores Medusae Siphonophores Salps Fish Be able to identify these animal groups from image


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