INTRO OCEANOGRAPHY OCEAN 200
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Oceanography 200 Spring 2008 ArmbrustStrickland Study Guide Final Exam Overview Case Studv The Indian Ocean Region 70 points Geology 12 points General sea floor categories amp features Types of shelves amp plate boundaries amp their locations Plates amp plate motions processes driving plate motions plate boundary interactions Movement of continents since breakup of Pangaea amp likely future movements Origins amp distribution of mountain ranges earthquakes volcanoes amp tsunamis Hydrothermal vents amp Lost City type vents Atmospheric amp Oceanic Circulation 18 points General annual mean pattern of atmospheric pressure precipitation and winds Seasonal changes in atmospheric pressure precipitation and winds and explanation Describe atmospherics amp oceanic characteristics of Pacific ENSO cycle Relate Pacific ENSO cycle to effects on eastern Indian Ocean region General annual mean pattern of surface ocean currents in Indian amp Southern Oceans Seasonal changes in surface ocean currents Role of Indian amp Southern Oceans in global thermohaline circulation Locations of upwelling amp explanation Tidal conditions in Indian Ocean region Cause of cyclones Waves amp Shorelines 10 points Cause properties amp propagation of wind waves amp tsunamis Calculate given formulas Changes in waves entering shallow water amp explanation Processes by which waves shape shoreline effects of artificial structures Cyclones storm surges amp impacts on shore Chemistg 12 points General depth profiles of dissolved oxygen carbon dioxide chlorophyll amp nutrients amp explanations Distribution of dissolved oxygen at 400 meters depth and relation to ocean circulation Potential impacts of ocean fertilization on depth profiles of dissolved oxygen Pattern of surface nutrient concentrations amp explanation Likely changes in oxygen amp carbon dioxide chemistry with global climate change amp increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide Biology 18 points Distribution of low moderate high amp very high primary productivity amp explanations Seasonal pattern of primary productivity amp explanations Identities amp characteristics of typical phytoplankton in areas of differing productivity amp explanations Identities amp characteristics of typical zooplankton amp fish in areas of differing productivity amp explanations Differences in food web structure amp efficiency and heterotrophic productivity in areas of differing productivity amp explanations Technology for measuring phytoplankton biomass amp productivity Revised June 5 2008 HNLC areas in Indian amp Southern Ocean amp explanation Purpose amp design of ocean fertilization of the ocean in this region Definition amp factors affecting success of ocean fertilization Biology of vents amp sediments Puget Sound amp Dissolved Oxygen 30 points General geographic basins of Puget Sound Geologic origin of Puget Sound General definition amp salinity structure of estuaries General salinity values of Puget Sound Explain gradient in surface salinity from head to mouth of estuary Explain net vs instantaneous tidal currents in layers of estuary Define amp explain significance of entrainment amp tidal pumping Identify amp explain from salinity amp net current profile diagram 4 types of estuaries Differences in haline stratification amp net circulation in 4 types of estuaries Characteristics of shoreline that make it essential habitat for fish Types of human shoreline alterations amp impacts on habitat amp fish General condition of Puget Sound salmon shellfish orca whales sea birds Values of dissolved oxygen representing oxygen stress amp hypoxia Describe amp explain general open ocean depth profile of oxygen carbon dioxide nitrate Carbon source for respiration in absence of oxygen General global pattern of oxygen 400 meter depth and explanation Predicted change in open ocean oxygen with warming amp increased atmospheric carbon dioxide Recent observed changes in distribution of low oxygen water Explanation for natural low oxygen conditions in Hood Canal Potential impacts of human activities on low oxygen conditions in Hood Canal Corals amp Coral Reefs 30 points 4 examples of benefits of coral reefs Symbiosis in reef building corals amp benefits to both partners Balance between growth amp erosion of coral reefs Structure amp biological classification of coral polyps Coral life cycle Chemical formulas for production of calcium carbonate in seawater Light temperature nutrient amp chemical limits on depth amp latitudes of distribution of coral reefs Factors controlling calcium carbonate solubility Explain geographic differences in depth of lysocline Roles of seaweeds amp calcareous algae on reef Other nutrition source for corals Predicted changes in carbonate chemistry for reefs with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide Mechanism amp causes of coral bleaching predictions for future extent of bleaching General global condition of coral reefs 4 types of human threats to coral reefs General trends of human impacts for case study in Line Islands evidence from large amp small fish Explain origin of 3 types of coral reefs Case studies of causes amp impacts of Diadema and Parrotfish depletion Bottom up vs top down factors regulating coral reefs 4 major differences between reef building amp non reef building corals 3 examples of human impacts on non reef building corals The Invisible Present Barrier reef Cnidarians Fringing reef Hypoxic Marine reserves Pathogens Salt wedge estuary Sill Tidal pumping Well mixed estuary New Vocabulary Anoxic Breakwaters Dead zone Groins Invasive species Oxygen Minimum Zone Phase shift Sea walls Suboxic Trophic redundancy Zooxanthellae Atoll Carbonate compensation depth Fjord Halocline Isohaline Partially mixed estuary Recruitment Shifting Baselines Symbiosis Turbidity Oceanography 200 Spring 2008 V Inclass activity 5 pts l I Olympla 39 a V Estuary Study Sheet 1 1 pt Using the map at left select from the locations labeled AE to identify the 4 major basins in Puget Sound using the map below Main Basin D Whidbey Basin C South Sound E Hood Canal A 2 4 pts For each of the 4 categories of estuary listed below match the most suitable location on the map A E and explain what about the basin shape and circulation at that location in Puget Sound make it t into that category Type of estuary Letter on map Explanation Salt wedge C To be a salt wedge a basin must have a high input of fresh water and weak tidal mixing 23 of the freshwater entering Puget Sound enters the Whidbey Basin Tidal mixing is weakened because the incoming tide must turn 180 to enter the basin Fjord A fjord is essentially a salt wedge with a sill at its mouth that reduces tidal intrusion of deep water Hood Canal is long narrow and deep with several rivers and a sill at its mouth This results in strong vertical stratification and very weak tidal exchange and low oxygen in deep water Partially mixed For a basin to be partially mixed it must have roughly equal influences of fresh water input and tidal mixing The Main Basin is fed by several rivers and is open to tidal currents from Admiralty Inlet so the two drivers have roughly equivalent influence Well mixed To be well mixed a basin must have a low input of fresh water and strong tidal mixing Admiralty Inlet has no significant river input It is narrow and directly exposed to incoming tides from the ocean and is underlain by a series of shallow sills This combination of factors creates strong mixing Oceanography 200 Spring 2008 ArmbrustStrickland Study Guide Midterm 2 Tides Basic tidal terminology crest trough length height range period day ebb ood slack datum 3 types of tides by period amp where they are observed diurnal semidiurnal mixed semidiurnal Interactions of gravity amp centrifugal forces causing tides Tides on an idealized landless Earth amp explanation Relative magnitude of moon amp sun in uences on tides amp explanation Why the tidal day is 24 hours 50 minutes rather than 24 hours Interaction of moon amp sun to give spring amp neap tides Variation of tidal range between solstice amp equinox Origin of semidiurnal mixed tides Plankton Biology Definition of plankton two types of plankton Definition of autotroph amp heterotroph energy amp carbon source for each Differences in biochemical process location types of organisms for photosynthesis amp chemosynthesis General chemical formula for photosynthesis Factors affecting quantity amp wavelength of light at different depths Role of chlorophyll a amp other pigments in photosynthesis Phytoplankton pigments amp relationship to light vs depth amp location Two most common methods for measuring phytoplankton biomass Biomass and total production of photosynthesizers in the oceans vs on land General nutrient vs depth profile amp explanation Definition amp significance of Redfield Ratio Nutrient sources to surface layer amp variation with season amp location General aerobic respiration formula Oxidizing agents for anaerobic respiration Type of organisms that conduct anaerobic respiration Depth profiles of anaerobic respiration in water column amp sedimentamp explanation Importance of biological pump for atmospheric CO2 Relationship of organic carbon cycle amp organisms to nutrient cycle Factors that can limit growth of phytoplankton Definition of standing stock and how standing stock can be measured Gross primary productivity and net primary productivity with units Two ways that rate of photosynthesis can be measured Depth profile of photosynthesis amp respiration amp explanation General characteristics of 4 types of phytoplankton Calculation of surface area to volume ratio of phytoplankton and its significance Differences in organisms mobility adaptations related to the viscosity effects of their size Relationship between photosynthesis oxygen and nutrient concentrations over depth and season General nutrient abundance in nearshore vs open ocean water reason for the difference amp effect of this difference on size amp production of autotrophs Draw amp explain general diagram of pathways of carbon in ocean water column Explain dominant phytoplankton groups in different ocean environments Relationship of plankton size to ocean conditions amp food chain amp relationship to otation amp productivity Revised May 19 2008 General values for primary productivity in different types of ocean locations Draw amp explain general pyramid diagrams of food chains in different types of ocean locations Calculate production at trophic levels of food chain in different types of ocean locations Identify bottom up amp top down effects in food chains General types of zooplankton How zooplankton are studied Vertical migration by zooplankton amp explanation Role of viruses in ocean Fish amp Mammals Three major groups of fish classification of bony fish by shape General tonnage of global fish catch amp trend in recent years General proportions of fisheries that are underexploited fully exploited overexploited Anchovies amp salmon Trophic level life span relationship to Ni o amp PDO Vulnerability of long lived highly migratory apex predators e g sharks Homeotherms vs poikilotherms amp temperature adaptations of nekton Main provision of Marine Mammal Protection Act Two main hazards to marine mammals today Gray whale life cycle history of harvest amp recovery effects of climate in Bering Sea Toothed whales effects of sonar Sea otters habitat amp diet history of harvest amp recovery role as keystone predator in kelp forest Waves Generating amp restoring forces for waves Basic wave terminology crest trough length height period Pattern of surface water motion in a deep water wave Change in water motion with depth in a deep water wave Calculate deep water wave speed length period given formulas Calculate wave breaking Factors controlling wave height Calculate shallow water wave speed given formula Wave dispersion amp explanation Changes in wave height length period speed approaching shore amp explanation Changes in wave direction amp energy approaching shore amp explanation Causes of tsunami behavior in open ocean vs near shore Calculate amp explain tsunami speed length period given formula How tsunamis are monitored Origin of hurricanescyclonestyphoons Causes amp effects of storm surges Ocean Fertilization General pattern of change in atmospheric CO2 and temperature over last 800000 years Theoretical relationship of ices ages to iron in the ocean Change in atmospheric CO2 over last 250 years and causes Relationship of changes in atmospheric CO2 to glacial interglacial cycles Pathways amp geographic locations of CO2 exchange between atmosphere amp ocean Location amp explanation of 3 NHLC areas Relationship of vertical nutrient profile to biological pump Mechanisms for proposed manipulation of biological pump to draw down atmospheric CO2 Natural sources of iron to the coastal amp open oceans Why iron fertilization is very efficient compared to fertilization with other nutrients Measurements that are made in an open ocean fertilization experiment and why 2 results necessary for ocean fertilization to succeed at lowering atmospheric CO2 Responses to iron fertilization by different types of phytoplankton Bottom up vs top down factors regulating effects of iron fertilization Explain seasonal pattern of phytoplankton amp zooplankton biomass in temperatecoastal vs open ocean ecosystems How carbon export is measured Success rate of productivity amp carbon export from iron fertilization experiments Logistical limitations of large scale iron fertilization for global carbon sequestration Potential negative impacts of iron fertilization Vocabulary biological pump carnivores chemoautotroph chlorophyll a cioliates compensation depth copepods diffraction eukarya amp prokarya fluorescence fucoxanthin herbivores holoplankton krill meroplankton microbial Loop mixed layer mixotroph momentum nanoplankton nitrate phosphate phycoerythrin picoplankton Redfield ratio reflection refraction rip currents solubility pump viscosity Oceanography 200 Spring 2008 ArmbrustStrickland Study Guide Exam 1 Geography of Earth amp Oceans Latitude amp longitude Properties of Water Structure of water molecule polarity hydrogen bonds effects on water as a solvent and on freezing Latent heat of fusion amp vaporization amp physical explanation Effects of latent heat on heat transport between ocean amp atmosphere amp within atmosphere Definition of density density of ice vs water Physical meaning of temperature amp heat Heat capacity of water amp why water requires a lot of heat gain or loss to change temperature Effects of heating amp cooling on density of water and physical explanation Difference in albedo of ice snow vs water and effects on Earth temperature Properties of Seawater Definitions of salinity conservative amp non conservative seawater constituents density sigma t Average ocean salinity amp how it is measured 3 technology systemss for monitoring ocean salinity and other properties 6 most abundant constituents of seawater amp Principle of Constant Proportions Effects of freezing on seawater Effects of temperature amp salinity on density T S diagram Processes that increase amp decrease salinity amp temperature and where they occur Generalized depth profiles of temperature salinity density amp ocean stratification amp stability Generalized depth profiles of O2 amp CO2 and processes determining these profiles Forms of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater and their buffering effect on pH of seawater Water Properties and Climate Change 2 main causes of global sea level rise 2 main causes of local sea level rise Physical properties of water that affect sea level rise Icebergs amp sea ice Differences in sources and effects of freezing amp melting on sea level How heat content of upper ocean amp Arctic sea ice extent have changed since about 1970s Invasion of fossil fuel C02 in the oceans and effects on pH The Sea Floor amp Plate Tectonics General differences in rock type amp density of oceanic vs continental crust Mantle convection process driving sea floor spreading amp plate motion Tectonic plates amp relationship to deep amp shallow earthquakes 3 types of plate boundaries their relative plate motion amp extent of quake amp volcano activity Subduction crust density trenches amp sediments Differences between hot spot and islands arc volcano chains Characteristics amp examples of 2 types of continental margins Origins amp general locations of canyons continental rises seamounts abyssal plains amp hills Origin amp results of turbidity currents General locations amp origins of hydrothermal vents amp Lost City Geochemical processes creating hydrothermal vents amp Lost City Atmospheric Circulation Layers of the atmosphere amp their general properties Revised April 21 2008 2 reasons for uneven distribution of solar energy striking Earth s surface Convection atmospheric pressure and precipitation patterns on an idealized Earth with no rotation amp no land Coriolis effect amp how it changes air motions on an idealized Earth with rotation amp no land Heat capacity of land vs water and effects on continents on global amp seasonal wind patterns Effects of mountains on wind amp precipitation Ocean Water Column Structure amp Thermohaline Circulation General geographic differences in surface temperature amp density amp causes General seasonal changes in depth profiles of temperature amp density Temperature amp salinity conditions that create convection in the oceans Regions of upwelling amp downwelling convergence amp divergence in ocean convection Global conveyor belt and its relationship to climat change Normal vs Ni o conditions geographic patterns of atmospheric pressure winds precipitation water temperature thermocline currents upwelling in the equatorial Pacific 2 monitoring systems for El Ni o detection Ocean Surface Currents Processes explaining wind driven surface curre Sea surface elevation currents convergence J by trade winds amp westerlies nt Ekman Spiral amp net transport 1quot amp I n driven Effects of winds on sea surface elevation amp depth of pycnocline Effect of continents in creating gyres Balance of pressure and Coriolis in geostrophic flow Explain processes driving major currents of N amp S Pacific N amp S Atlantic gyres Tides Basic tidal terminology crest trough height range period day ebb flood slack datum 3 types of tides by period amp where they are observed diurnal semidiurnal mixed semidiurnal Equilibrium tidal theory interactions of gravity amp centrifugal forces causing tides Relative magnitude of moon amp sun influences on tides amp explanation Why the tidal day is 24 hours 50 minutes Why generic tides should be semidiurnal Interaction of moon amp sun to give spring amp neap tides Variation of tidal range between solstice amp equinox Origin of semidiurnal mixed tides Albedo Convection Geostrophic flow Heat capacity Land amp sea breeze N Atlantic Deep Water Plate tectonics Prevailing Westerlies S Pacific High Thermohaline circulation Antarctic Bottom Water Downwelling Gyres Indonesian Low Lithosphere Ocean conveyor belt Polar easterlies Pycnocline Subtropical jet Trade winds Asthenosphere ENSO Halocline Intertropical convergence zone Mixed layer Orographic effect Polar jet stream ROV s and AUV s Thermocline Upwelling
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