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by: Melanie Maino


Melanie Maino

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This is a study guide for our upcoming test.
Women and Crime
Marion Cockey
Study Guide
Women, crime, Wuornos, Feminism
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRMJ348 at Towson University taught by Marion Cockey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in Criminal Justice at Towson University.

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Date Created: 03/02/16
STUDY GUIDE WEEK  ONE  AND  TWO  NOTES   • Six  Major  Themes…   • 1-­‐  gender,  race,  class,  sexual  orientation,  age…view  of  inmates   • 2-­‐  effects  of  oppressions▯  gender,  class,  ethnicity,  sexuality,  age   • 3-­‐  social  construction  of  knowledge  role  of  women  influences  by  men   o ex.  Merton’s  Theory  (50’s)  “genderless  classless”  theory  of  equal  opportunity   for  education   • 4-­‐  emphasis  on  social  context,  patriarchal  society   • 5-­‐  globalization,  women  part  of  larger  interaction,  international  perspective   • 6-­‐  empowerment…how  to  make  changes?   o Theme  since  the  70’s   o Recognizes  women  have  lacked  power   o Lean  in  language   o Personal  level   o Local  community   o National/international  level   • Social  construction  of  knowledge-­‐  gender  expectations   o Ex.  must  be  5’10”  to  be  state  trooper   • Multiple  marginality~intersectionality-­‐  how  race,  class,  gender,  age  intertwine  in   society   o Where  and  how  people  are  effected  by  their  status  in  society   ▯ Interdisciplinary   • Characteristics  of  Patriarchy   o Grana  2002   ▯ Violence-­‐  fear  of  violence…keeps  people  “in  their  place”   ▯ Power-­‐  lies  with  men   ▯ Control-­‐  natural  part  of  patriarchy…males  will  be  in  control  of  others   ▯ Linearity-­‐  straight  line  thinking…women  are  not  straight  line   thinkers…women  are  “too  emotional”  for  rational  thought   ▯ Polarization-­‐  always  right  and  wrong…superior  vs  inferior…win  and   lose  no  in  between   ▯ Stereotyping   ▯ Ideology-­‐  belief  system   • Key  Terms  Chapter  1   o Sex  refers  to  the  biological  characteristics  of  male  and  female,  while    gender   refers  to  the  socially  created  identities  of  masculine  and  feminine     o The  feminist  movement  of  1960s  and  1970s  (known  as  second-­wave   feminism)  has  had  a  significant  impact  on  discussions  about  female   participation  in  crime   o Gendered  Justice:  or  “injustice”;  experiences  of  women  have  been  reduced   to  either  a  cursory  glance  or  have  been  completely  absent.   o Glass  Ceiling:  unseen  but  breakable  barrier  that  has  kept  minorities  and   women  from  rising  up  in  their  work   o National  Crime  Victimization  Survey  (NCVS):  only  47.3%  of  women   surveyed  by  the  NCVS  in  2007  reported  their  criminal  victimization  to  the   police   o Property  Crimes  and  substance  abuse:  men  are  significantly  more  likely  to   be  involved  in  homicide  cases  (burglary,  larceny,  theft,  motor  vehicle  theft,   arson,  shoplifting,  and  vandalism)   o Generally  speaking,  research  indicates  that  sex/gender  gap  in  crimes  is   greater  in  cases  of  serious  and  violent  crime  and  is  less  likely  to  be   demonstrated  in  lower-­‐level  offenses   o While  some  jurisdictions  around  the  world  have  legalized  or   decriminalized  prostitution,  others  continue  to  assert  that  prostitution  is   harmful  to  women   o Another  crime  category  that  is  dominated  by  girls  is  status  offenses  which  is   an  act  that  is  defines  as  a  crime  based  not  only  on  the  actions  of  the  offender   but  also  his  or  her  age   o Women  who  work  in  the  Criminal  Justice  System…   ▯ Experiences  of  women  as  police  and  correctional  officers,  victim   advocates,  probation  and  parole  case  managers,  and  lawyers  and   judges  provide  valuable  insight  on  how  sex  and  gender  differences   affect  women   ▯ Women  continue  to  face  a  number  of  sex-­‐  and  gender-­‐based   challenges  directly  related  to  their  status  as  women,  such  as  on-­‐the-­‐ job  sexual  harassment,  work-­family  balance,  and  maternity  and   motherhood   WEEK  THREE  NOTES   • 3  waves  of  feminism   o 1848  Seneca  Falls,  NY  there  was  a  convention  of  women  demanding  the  right   to  vote  and  also  brought  awareness  to  prohibition  laws   o 1919  the  19  Amendment  called  for  the  right  for  females  to  vote   o ^  first  wave  of  feminism   o Equal  pay  Act  1963   o Feminine  Mystique   o Title  VII:  women  should  be  involved  in  sports  in  equal  numbers.  This  was   under  the  Civil  Rights  Act.   o Reproductive  Rights   o ^second  wave  of  feminism   st nd o 1  and  2  wave  were  made  up  of  white  women  in  the  middle  class   o 80’s  and  90’s  involved  other  women  started  to  break  the  mold.   o Unilateral  movement  (ALL  people)   o Involved  women  of  color,  gays,  lesbian,  etc.   o Encouraged  men  to  be  feminists   o ^third  wave  of  feminism   • Types  of  Feminism   o Liberal  Feminism/  Egalitarianism   ▯ N.O.W-­‐  national  organization  of  women   ▯ The  most  conservative  form  (1  and  2  wave)   ▯ They  try  and  work  with  men  and  work  within  the  structure  that  we   already  have  in  our  society   ▯ Right  to  choose  and  affirmative  action  will  solve  all  the  issues   o Socialist  Feminism   ▯ Concerned  with  class  and  gender   o Marxist  Feminism   ▯ Work  and  economy  is  their  focus   ▯ All  oppression  stems  from  work   ▯ Some  times  can  be  radical   o Radical  Feminism   ▯ Centered  on  notions  to  remove  sexual  violence     ▯ Every  society  has  oppressed  individuals   ▯ Masculine  power  and  privilege   o Third  Wave  Feminism   ▯ Calls  for  the  end  of  ALL  oppression   ▯ Involves  women  of  color   • Post-­‐Modernization   o Accepts  social  construction  of  knowledge  and  attempts  to  break  down  and   rebuild  it.   o Multiple  truths  and  realities   • Backlash     o Women  becoming  more  like  men  therefore,  there  are  more  criminals   o Date  rape  is  said  to  not  be  a  problem   • Qualitative  Methods:  (lived  experiences)  this  method  can  involve  interviews   • Epistemologies:  the  study  of  knowing   o Empiricism:  quantitative  research  (scientific  method  has  value)   o Standpoint  and  theory  research:  what  we  as  interviewers  is  our  standpoint   and  how  it  effects  our  interactions   o Post  modern  approach:  multiple  truths;  builds  perspectives  to  create  a   collective  work   • Key Terms Chapter Two o UCR and NIBRS often fail to identify much of female victimization, as crimes of rape, sexual assault, and intimate partner abuse go largely underreported. o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): represents one of the largest datasets on crime in the is data from the UCR that are typically reported to the greater society through news media outlets and that form the basis for headline stories that proclaim the rising and falling rates of crime ▯ But the reporting of UCR data as the true extent of crime is flawed for the majority of the crime categories (with the exception of homicide) o Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI): is in charge of collections and publishing the arrest data from over 17,000 police agencies in the U.S. o Index Crimes: part 1 and 2 offenses; include eight different offenses: aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft o National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS): made in 1988 in an effort to develop a better understanding of the extent of offending o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): represents the largest victimization study conducted in the United States o Dark figure of crime: the gap between reported and unreported crime…NIBRS tries to fill the gap ▯ Victimization studies, such as National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), help illuminate the dark figure of crime by collectiong data on crimes that are not reported to the police o Net widening: overcharging females of “simple assault” has created a new category of “violent” women, even though there were limited changes in behavior o National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS): consists of a random sample of 8,000 women over the age of 18; responds to victimization. o National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control WEEK FOUR NOTES • Widening  the  net…should  benefit  but  instead  causes  more  people  into  the  system   o Diversion  programs  occurred  because  it  was  said  if  we  developed  programs   as  such  we  would  be  able  to  keep  juveniles  out  of  the  reformatory,  leave   them  in  their  communities,  and  treat  them  there.   o Boot  strapping:  start  out  with  a  minor  offense  and  next  thing  you  know  you   are  in  the  reformatory   • A  technical  violation  inferred  that  you  had  to  commit  another  crime  to  really  upset   your  probation  or  parole  officers   o Ex.  missing  your  appointment  inferred  that  you  are  going  to  “piss  dirty”   o Ex.  not  allowed  to  live  with  anyone  else  who  has  prior  offenses   • Feminist’s  views  of  epistemologies…   • Blurred  boundaries  between  victimization  and  criminalization   • Jody  Miller…sets  up  research  projects  with  men  and  women  (older  juvenile  and   young  adults);  compares  both;  uses  feminist  centered  research  and  comparing  it  to   males  and  females   • Cultural  Criminology:  media  and  its  effect  on  crime   • Qualitative  Methods:  lived  experiences…  a  method  that  feminists  tend  to  use  more…   • Narratives  are  used  a  lot…this  is  referred  to  as  the  “lived  life”  asking  participants   about  lived  experiences…this  allows  you  to  eventually  identify  themes  if  used   enough  and  can  eventually  lead  to  more  qualitative  studies   o Cons:  often  times  as  a  researcher  you  will  find  somebody  who  wants  to  talk   to  you,  and  is  interested  in  telling  their  story.  That  person  is  referred  to  as  a   “key  informant”….Snowball  sampling…usually  end  up  with  a  fairly  small   sample  and  a  fairly  homogenous  sample.  To  address  this  you  can  try  and  find   a  diverse  group  of  “key  informants”  and  then  you  snowball  sample  with  each   of  those  leaving  you  with  a  diverse  sample.   • Typically  feminists  have  an  agenda…they  are  looking  to  explore  a  politically   motivated  topic.   • We  keep  passing  gender  neutral  laws  and  thinking  that  we  are  doing  a  good  thing   when  in  reality  gender  neutral  laws  are  negative  to  women  in  various  ways   o South  Carolina  (Anti  Drug  Use  While  Pregnant)  wanted  to  make  sure  they   didn’t  use  gender  specific  language…  ex.  “during  a  pregnancy  he/she  may”…   o Insurance  companies  stated  that  they  will  not  insure  a  person  who  is  the   victim  of  domestic  violence  (in  gender  neutral  language)  but  women  are  the   majority  in  these  cases…looks  gender  neutral  but  does  not  have  that  affect   • Asset  Confiscation…is  the  government  can  prove  that  you  bought  your  house,  for   example,  with  drug  money,  they  can  confiscate  it.   o Male/Female  living  together…male  selling  drugs…government  comes  in  and   determines  that  everything  is  bought  with  drug  money…anything  SHE  has   that  was  bought  with  drug  money  is  taken.  Left  with  no  place  to  live.  You  may   not  even  be  prosecuted  but  you  have  lost  everything.     o Judges  may  blame  women  for  not  being  able  to  control  their  husbands     • Key Terms Chapter 3 o Violence Against Women Act: aims to provide coordinated response of law enforcement, courts, and ancillary services for victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, and dating violence. o Victim-assistance programs have emerged as a key response to the secondary victimization often experienced by victims who come forward to the criminal justice system o Gendered socialization and vulnerability to specific crime types (such as rape) may explain the gendered fear of crime o Thirteen categories of von Hentig’s categories of victims ▯ Young ▯ Female ▯ Old ▯ Mentally defective ▯ Immigrants ▯ Minorities ▯ Dull normal’s ▯ Depressed ▯ Acquisitive ▯ Wanton: individual who is particularly vulnerable to stressors at various stages during his or her life cycle ▯ Lonesome/ heartbroken ▯ Tormentor ▯ blocked o Core rights of victims: ▯ The right to attend criminal justice proceedings ▯ The right to apply for compensation ▯ The right to be heard and participate in criminal justice proceedings ▯ The right to be informed of proceedings and events in the criminal justice process, of legal rights and remedies, and of available services ▯ The right to protection from intimidation and harassment ▯ The right to restitution from the offender ▯ The right to prompt return of personal property seized evidence ▯ The right to a speedy trial ▯ The right to enforcement of these rights o The shadow of sexual assault thesis suggests that women experience a greater fear of crime in general, because they believe that any crime could ultimately become a sexually based victimization ▯ This element- that a simple property crime could devolve into forcible rape by a stranger (stranger rape)- may contribute to the fear of crime among women o Symbolic Assailant: a strange man, often of minority ethnicity, who lurks in dark alleys and behind bushes o Mendelsohn’s six categories of victims: the degree to which victims have the power to make decisions that can alter their likelihood of victimization ▯ Innocent victim: no responsibility for the crime attributed to victim (ex. institutionalized victims and the mentally ill) ▯ Victim with minor guilt: victim precipitates crime with carelessness/ ignorance (ex. victim lost in the “wrong part of town or “wrong place at the wrong time”) ▯ Voluntary victim: victim and offender equally responsible for crime (ex. victim pays prostitute for sex, then prostitute robs victim” ▯ Victim who is more guilty than the offender: victim who provokes or induces another to commit crime (ex. burning bed syndrome: victim is killed by the domestic partner he abused for years) ▯ Victim who alone is guilty: victim who is solely responsible for their own victimization (ex. an attacker who is killed in self-defense, suicide bomber killed by detonation of explosives) ▯ Imaginary victim: victim mistakenly believes they have been victimized (ex. mentally ill person who reports imagines victimization as real event) o Just World Hypothesis: gives a sense of peace to many individuals…imagining a world where crime victims must have done something foolish, dangerous, or careless allows members of society to distinguish themselves from this identity of victimhood ▯ This hypothesis incorrectly… - 1) assumes that people are able to change the environment in which they live - 2) implies that only innocent victims are true victims - 3) creates a false sense of security about the risks of crime and victimization o Strong correlation between men’s rape myth rape acceptance and self-reported rape activity o Routine activities theory suggests that the likelihood of a criminal act occurs with the convergence of three essential components: (1) someone who is interested in pursuing a criminal action (offender) (2) a potential victim (target) available to be victimized (3) the absence of someone or something (guardian) that would deter the offender from making contact with the available victim o Lifestyle theory seeks to relate to the patterns of one’s everyday activities to the potential for victimization o General Strain Theory (Agnew 1992): theory of crime which has evolved over nearly two decades of empirical study. Agnew hypothesized that delinquency and crime occur as a result of strain, which can stem from three factors ▯ 1) first type occurs after failure to reach positively valued goals - ex. failure to go to college ▯ 2) second type is the loss of positively valued stimuli - ex. death of parent of loved one ▯ 3) the presence of negative stimuli - ex. witnessing or being victimized by crime o Feminist pathways perspective suggests a cycle of criminal justice involvement for women that begins with victimization • Chapter 4 Key Terms o Masked Criminality of Women (Otto Pollak) ▯ Suggested that women gain power by deceiving men through sexual playacting, faked sexual responses, and menstruation o Travis Hirschi’s social bond theory (1969)- is one such example of a proposed gender-neutral theory that failed to consider the lives of girls and women ▯ Four main criteria, or bonds, that prevent people from acting on potential criminological impulses or desired - 1) attachment - 2) commitment - 3) involvement - 4) belief o Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory…focused on the influence of these relationships in encouraging delinquent behavior o Social Control Theory: provides an explanation for how behavior conforms to that which is generally expected in society o Power Control Theory: was one of the few theories to incorporate gender as a central theme in understanding criminal behavior o Robert Sampson and John Laub’s (1993) life course theory: it suggests that the events of one’s life (from birth to death) can provide insight as to why one might engage in crime and highlights the importance of adolescence as a crucial time in the development of youthful (and ultimately adult) offending behaviors • Chapter 8 key terms o Age-of-consent campaign was raised to the age of 18 (from 16) in 1920 o Arrest data and self-report data present contradictory images on the nature and prevalence of female violence o While arrests for violent offenses involving girls have increased, self-report data amongst girls indicates a decrease in the levels of violence o Programs face significant barriers in implementing services for girls o Parens patriae: the government’s justification for regulating adolescents and their behaviors under the mantra “in the best interests of the child” o 1825 the New York House of Refuge was one of the first reformatories for juvenile delinquents and was designed to keep youth offenders separate from the adult population o Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974: called for the decriminalization of status offenses in any state that received federal funds o Bootstrapping: the process of bootstrapping involved cases where a girl currently on probation or parole for a criminal offense is the prosecuted formally for a probation violation as a result of committing a status offense such as running away from home of truancy o 1992 reauthorization of the JJDPAct acknowledged the need to provide gender- specific services to address the unique needs of female offenders • Chapter 9 key terms o For women, the primary pathways to addiction tend to revolve around early exposure to alcohol and other drugs, early victimization and recurring trauma, social marginalization and economic pressures, and mental health o Property Crime refers to a relatively broad category of crime that involved the illegal acquisition of money, goods, or valuables without the use of force or fear to obtain the property. o Gender entrapment illustrates how women can be led into criminal activities as a result “culturally expected gender roles, the violence in their intimate relationships, and their social position in the broader society” • Chapter 10 Terms o Independent female gang: an entity separate from the male gang o Liberation hypothesis: influenced by the emancipation/ liberation theories of the 1970s, suggests that the increase of female participation in gangs is related to an increase in opportunities to participate in other traditionally male domains of crime o Social Injury Hypothesis posits that girls in gangs experience higher levels of risk, danger, and injury compared to their male counterparts o The structure of the girl gang ranges from being a mixed-gender gang to functioning as an independent unit


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