Popular in Women and Crime
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRMJ348 at Towson University taught by Marion Cockey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in Criminal Justice at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
STUDY GUIDE WEEK ONE AND TWO NOTES • Six Major Themes… • 1-‐ gender, race, class, sexual orientation, age…view of inmates • 2-‐ effects of oppressions▯ gender, class, ethnicity, sexuality, age • 3-‐ social construction of knowledge role of women influences by men o ex. Merton’s Theory (50’s) “genderless classless” theory of equal opportunity for education • 4-‐ emphasis on social context, patriarchal society • 5-‐ globalization, women part of larger interaction, international perspective • 6-‐ empowerment…how to make changes? o Theme since the 70’s o Recognizes women have lacked power o Lean in language o Personal level o Local community o National/international level • Social construction of knowledge-‐ gender expectations o Ex. must be 5’10” to be state trooper • Multiple marginality~intersectionality-‐ how race, class, gender, age intertwine in society o Where and how people are effected by their status in society ▯ Interdisciplinary • Characteristics of Patriarchy o Grana 2002 ▯ Violence-‐ fear of violence…keeps people “in their place” ▯ Power-‐ lies with men ▯ Control-‐ natural part of patriarchy…males will be in control of others ▯ Linearity-‐ straight line thinking…women are not straight line thinkers…women are “too emotional” for rational thought ▯ Polarization-‐ always right and wrong…superior vs inferior…win and lose no in between ▯ Stereotyping ▯ Ideology-‐ belief system • Key Terms Chapter 1 o Sex refers to the biological characteristics of male and female, while gender refers to the socially created identities of masculine and feminine o The feminist movement of 1960s and 1970s (known as second-wave feminism) has had a significant impact on discussions about female participation in crime o Gendered Justice: or “injustice”; experiences of women have been reduced to either a cursory glance or have been completely absent. o Glass Ceiling: unseen but breakable barrier that has kept minorities and women from rising up in their work o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): only 47.3% of women surveyed by the NCVS in 2007 reported their criminal victimization to the police o Property Crimes and substance abuse: men are significantly more likely to be involved in homicide cases (burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, arson, shoplifting, and vandalism) o Generally speaking, research indicates that sex/gender gap in crimes is greater in cases of serious and violent crime and is less likely to be demonstrated in lower-‐level offenses o While some jurisdictions around the world have legalized or decriminalized prostitution, others continue to assert that prostitution is harmful to women o Another crime category that is dominated by girls is status offenses which is an act that is defines as a crime based not only on the actions of the offender but also his or her age o Women who work in the Criminal Justice System… ▯ Experiences of women as police and correctional officers, victim advocates, probation and parole case managers, and lawyers and judges provide valuable insight on how sex and gender differences affect women ▯ Women continue to face a number of sex-‐ and gender-‐based challenges directly related to their status as women, such as on-‐the-‐ job sexual harassment, work-family balance, and maternity and motherhood WEEK THREE NOTES • 3 waves of feminism o 1848 Seneca Falls, NY there was a convention of women demanding the right to vote and also brought awareness to prohibition laws o 1919 the 19 Amendment called for the right for females to vote o ^ first wave of feminism o Equal pay Act 1963 o Feminine Mystique o Title VII: women should be involved in sports in equal numbers. This was under the Civil Rights Act. o Reproductive Rights o ^second wave of feminism st nd o 1 and 2 wave were made up of white women in the middle class o 80’s and 90’s involved other women started to break the mold. o Unilateral movement (ALL people) o Involved women of color, gays, lesbian, etc. o Encouraged men to be feminists o ^third wave of feminism • Types of Feminism o Liberal Feminism/ Egalitarianism ▯ N.O.W-‐ national organization of women ▯ The most conservative form (1 and 2 wave) ▯ They try and work with men and work within the structure that we already have in our society ▯ Right to choose and affirmative action will solve all the issues o Socialist Feminism ▯ Concerned with class and gender o Marxist Feminism ▯ Work and economy is their focus ▯ All oppression stems from work ▯ Some times can be radical o Radical Feminism ▯ Centered on notions to remove sexual violence ▯ Every society has oppressed individuals ▯ Masculine power and privilege o Third Wave Feminism ▯ Calls for the end of ALL oppression ▯ Involves women of color • Post-‐Modernization o Accepts social construction of knowledge and attempts to break down and rebuild it. o Multiple truths and realities • Backlash o Women becoming more like men therefore, there are more criminals o Date rape is said to not be a problem • Qualitative Methods: (lived experiences) this method can involve interviews • Epistemologies: the study of knowing o Empiricism: quantitative research (scientific method has value) o Standpoint and theory research: what we as interviewers is our standpoint and how it effects our interactions o Post modern approach: multiple truths; builds perspectives to create a collective work • Key Terms Chapter Two o UCR and NIBRS often fail to identify much of female victimization, as crimes of rape, sexual assault, and intimate partner abuse go largely underreported. o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): represents one of the largest datasets on crime in the U.S...it is data from the UCR that are typically reported to the greater society through news media outlets and that form the basis for headline stories that proclaim the rising and falling rates of crime ▯ But the reporting of UCR data as the true extent of crime is flawed for the majority of the crime categories (with the exception of homicide) o Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI): is in charge of collections and publishing the arrest data from over 17,000 police agencies in the U.S. o Index Crimes: part 1 and 2 offenses; include eight different offenses: aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft o National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS): made in 1988 in an effort to develop a better understanding of the extent of offending o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): represents the largest victimization study conducted in the United States o Dark figure of crime: the gap between reported and unreported crime…NIBRS tries to fill the gap ▯ Victimization studies, such as National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), help illuminate the dark figure of crime by collectiong data on crimes that are not reported to the police o Net widening: overcharging females of “simple assault” has created a new category of “violent” women, even though there were limited changes in behavior o National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS): consists of a random sample of 8,000 women over the age of 18; responds to victimization. o National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control WEEK FOUR NOTES • Widening the net…should benefit but instead causes more people into the system o Diversion programs occurred because it was said if we developed programs as such we would be able to keep juveniles out of the reformatory, leave them in their communities, and treat them there. o Boot strapping: start out with a minor offense and next thing you know you are in the reformatory • A technical violation inferred that you had to commit another crime to really upset your probation or parole officers o Ex. missing your appointment inferred that you are going to “piss dirty” o Ex. not allowed to live with anyone else who has prior offenses • Feminist’s views of epistemologies… • Blurred boundaries between victimization and criminalization • Jody Miller…sets up research projects with men and women (older juvenile and young adults); compares both; uses feminist centered research and comparing it to males and females • Cultural Criminology: media and its effect on crime • Qualitative Methods: lived experiences… a method that feminists tend to use more… • Narratives are used a lot…this is referred to as the “lived life” asking participants about lived experiences…this allows you to eventually identify themes if used enough and can eventually lead to more qualitative studies o Cons: often times as a researcher you will find somebody who wants to talk to you, and is interested in telling their story. That person is referred to as a “key informant”….Snowball sampling…usually end up with a fairly small sample and a fairly homogenous sample. To address this you can try and find a diverse group of “key informants” and then you snowball sample with each of those leaving you with a diverse sample. • Typically feminists have an agenda…they are looking to explore a politically motivated topic. • We keep passing gender neutral laws and thinking that we are doing a good thing when in reality gender neutral laws are negative to women in various ways o South Carolina (Anti Drug Use While Pregnant) wanted to make sure they didn’t use gender specific language… ex. “during a pregnancy he/she may”… o Insurance companies stated that they will not insure a person who is the victim of domestic violence (in gender neutral language) but women are the majority in these cases…looks gender neutral but does not have that affect • Asset Confiscation…is the government can prove that you bought your house, for example, with drug money, they can confiscate it. o Male/Female living together…male selling drugs…government comes in and determines that everything is bought with drug money…anything SHE has that was bought with drug money is taken. Left with no place to live. You may not even be prosecuted but you have lost everything. o Judges may blame women for not being able to control their husbands • Key Terms Chapter 3 o Violence Against Women Act: aims to provide coordinated response of law enforcement, courts, and ancillary services for victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, stalking, and dating violence. o Victim-assistance programs have emerged as a key response to the secondary victimization often experienced by victims who come forward to the criminal justice system o Gendered socialization and vulnerability to specific crime types (such as rape) may explain the gendered fear of crime o Thirteen categories of von Hentig’s categories of victims ▯ Young ▯ Female ▯ Old ▯ Mentally defective ▯ Immigrants ▯ Minorities ▯ Dull normal’s ▯ Depressed ▯ Acquisitive ▯ Wanton: individual who is particularly vulnerable to stressors at various stages during his or her life cycle ▯ Lonesome/ heartbroken ▯ Tormentor ▯ blocked o Core rights of victims: ▯ The right to attend criminal justice proceedings ▯ The right to apply for compensation ▯ The right to be heard and participate in criminal justice proceedings ▯ The right to be informed of proceedings and events in the criminal justice process, of legal rights and remedies, and of available services ▯ The right to protection from intimidation and harassment ▯ The right to restitution from the offender ▯ The right to prompt return of personal property seized evidence ▯ The right to a speedy trial ▯ The right to enforcement of these rights o The shadow of sexual assault thesis suggests that women experience a greater fear of crime in general, because they believe that any crime could ultimately become a sexually based victimization ▯ This element- that a simple property crime could devolve into forcible rape by a stranger (stranger rape)- may contribute to the fear of crime among women o Symbolic Assailant: a strange man, often of minority ethnicity, who lurks in dark alleys and behind bushes o Mendelsohn’s six categories of victims: the degree to which victims have the power to make decisions that can alter their likelihood of victimization ▯ Innocent victim: no responsibility for the crime attributed to victim (ex. institutionalized victims and the mentally ill) ▯ Victim with minor guilt: victim precipitates crime with carelessness/ ignorance (ex. victim lost in the “wrong part of town or “wrong place at the wrong time”) ▯ Voluntary victim: victim and offender equally responsible for crime (ex. victim pays prostitute for sex, then prostitute robs victim” ▯ Victim who is more guilty than the offender: victim who provokes or induces another to commit crime (ex. burning bed syndrome: victim is killed by the domestic partner he abused for years) ▯ Victim who alone is guilty: victim who is solely responsible for their own victimization (ex. an attacker who is killed in self-defense, suicide bomber killed by detonation of explosives) ▯ Imaginary victim: victim mistakenly believes they have been victimized (ex. mentally ill person who reports imagines victimization as real event) o Just World Hypothesis: gives a sense of peace to many individuals…imagining a world where crime victims must have done something foolish, dangerous, or careless allows members of society to distinguish themselves from this identity of victimhood ▯ This hypothesis incorrectly… - 1) assumes that people are able to change the environment in which they live - 2) implies that only innocent victims are true victims - 3) creates a false sense of security about the risks of crime and victimization o Strong correlation between men’s rape myth rape acceptance and self-reported rape activity o Routine activities theory suggests that the likelihood of a criminal act occurs with the convergence of three essential components: (1) someone who is interested in pursuing a criminal action (offender) (2) a potential victim (target) available to be victimized (3) the absence of someone or something (guardian) that would deter the offender from making contact with the available victim o Lifestyle theory seeks to relate to the patterns of one’s everyday activities to the potential for victimization o General Strain Theory (Agnew 1992): theory of crime which has evolved over nearly two decades of empirical study. Agnew hypothesized that delinquency and crime occur as a result of strain, which can stem from three factors ▯ 1) first type occurs after failure to reach positively valued goals - ex. failure to go to college ▯ 2) second type is the loss of positively valued stimuli - ex. death of parent of loved one ▯ 3) the presence of negative stimuli - ex. witnessing or being victimized by crime o Feminist pathways perspective suggests a cycle of criminal justice involvement for women that begins with victimization • Chapter 4 Key Terms o Masked Criminality of Women (Otto Pollak) ▯ Suggested that women gain power by deceiving men through sexual playacting, faked sexual responses, and menstruation o Travis Hirschi’s social bond theory (1969)- is one such example of a proposed gender-neutral theory that failed to consider the lives of girls and women ▯ Four main criteria, or bonds, that prevent people from acting on potential criminological impulses or desired - 1) attachment - 2) commitment - 3) involvement - 4) belief o Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory…focused on the influence of these relationships in encouraging delinquent behavior o Social Control Theory: provides an explanation for how behavior conforms to that which is generally expected in society o Power Control Theory: was one of the few theories to incorporate gender as a central theme in understanding criminal behavior o Robert Sampson and John Laub’s (1993) life course theory: it suggests that the events of one’s life (from birth to death) can provide insight as to why one might engage in crime and highlights the importance of adolescence as a crucial time in the development of youthful (and ultimately adult) offending behaviors • Chapter 8 key terms o Age-of-consent campaign was raised to the age of 18 (from 16) in 1920 o Arrest data and self-report data present contradictory images on the nature and prevalence of female violence o While arrests for violent offenses involving girls have increased, self-report data amongst girls indicates a decrease in the levels of violence o Programs face significant barriers in implementing services for girls o Parens patriae: the government’s justification for regulating adolescents and their behaviors under the mantra “in the best interests of the child” o 1825 the New York House of Refuge was one of the first reformatories for juvenile delinquents and was designed to keep youth offenders separate from the adult population o Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974: called for the decriminalization of status offenses in any state that received federal funds o Bootstrapping: the process of bootstrapping involved cases where a girl currently on probation or parole for a criminal offense is the prosecuted formally for a probation violation as a result of committing a status offense such as running away from home of truancy o 1992 reauthorization of the JJDPAct acknowledged the need to provide gender- specific services to address the unique needs of female offenders • Chapter 9 key terms o For women, the primary pathways to addiction tend to revolve around early exposure to alcohol and other drugs, early victimization and recurring trauma, social marginalization and economic pressures, and mental health o Property Crime refers to a relatively broad category of crime that involved the illegal acquisition of money, goods, or valuables without the use of force or fear to obtain the property. o Gender entrapment illustrates how women can be led into criminal activities as a result “culturally expected gender roles, the violence in their intimate relationships, and their social position in the broader society” • Chapter 10 Terms o Independent female gang: an entity separate from the male gang o Liberation hypothesis: influenced by the emancipation/ liberation theories of the 1970s, suggests that the increase of female participation in gangs is related to an increase in opportunities to participate in other traditionally male domains of crime o Social Injury Hypothesis posits that girls in gangs experience higher levels of risk, danger, and injury compared to their male counterparts o The structure of the girl gang ranges from being a mixed-gender gang to functioning as an independent unit
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