ENVIRONMNTL FOUNDATN ENVIR 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bessie Towne on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENVIR 100 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/192163/envir-100-university-of-washington in Program On The Environment at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
A Fast Introduction to Environmental Ethics 101508 Today s reading had 26 72 2 A page that was too blurry to read 2 A missing page 3 A page of Andrea WOOdy advertising in the Department of Philosophy middle 39 October 2008 I 1 Singer cr1t1c1zes econom1sts The Landscape speci callyagnczr 2 35 Discounting the future N Ignoring aesthetic V alues l Anthropocentri sm humane centered ness Identifying Values Constructing Arguments Developing Ethical Frameworks Ethical Reasoning Ethical reasoning is the means by which moral agents determine morally acceptable actions giving due consideration to all those deserving of moral concern We ask 1 What should we do 2 Why should it be done justi cation 3 How should it be done policy Salmon Species of the Paci c Northwest What Salmon extinction should be prevented N Why Because extinction of any species is undesirable l How Pull down dams along the Columbia and Snake Rivers 101508 Salmon Species of the Paci c Northwest 1 What Salmon extinction should be prevented 2 Why Because extinction of any species is undesirable Why Because 3 How Pull down dams along the Columbia and Snake Rivers Salmon Species of the Paci c Northwest 1 What Salmon extinction should be prevented 2 Why Because extinction of any species is undesirable Why Because 3 How Pull down dams along the Columbia and Snake Rivers But pulling down dams is undesirable too Salmon Species of the Paci c Northwest Revisedreaso 39 I What Salmon extinction should be prevented Different sorts of claims 0 Empirical claims 7 describe states of affairs in the world 7 can be true or false 7 To know whether agiven claim is true or false we need 2 Why Extinction is undesirable and should to know certain things about the world not be allowed unless prevention will cause other more signi cant harms Normative Claims 7 describe what ought or ought not to be the case or what 3 How Develop technology for sh laddersquot ought or oughmouo be done to mitigate the effects of the dams cmcem values Values Values 0 Intrinsic 0 Instrumental 0 Intrinsic 0 Instrumental The intrinsic value Something has The intrinsic value Something has of something is instrumental value if of something is instrumental value if the value it has and only if it is a the value it has and only if it is a solely in virtue of me s to so n solely in virtue of means to something its intrinsic nature that is intrinsically its intrinsic nature that is intrinsically valuable valuable Igt substitutes 101508 Sustainability 0 Obligation Equivalence of some sort An obligation to conduct ourselves so that we leave to the future the option or capacity to be as well off as we arequotRobert Solow 0 Worry Resource depletion BUT Instrumental values always allow substitutes 0 Instrumental optimism quotThere is no necessity either in logic or in historical trends to suggest that e supply of any given resource is nitequot39 Julian Simon Ethical Frameworks Rights Theories Individuals possess certain prerogatives to act choose or be in particular states and it is the duty of moral agents to accord or not interfere with these prerogatives Moral Principle Act in accordance with the rights of others 0 the primary concept is the quotrightquot 0 stress is on what is permissible duties are entailed to insure quotpermissibilityquot Utilitarian Theories Utility a measure of Whatever one takes to be intrinsically good eg pleasure happiness or Wellbeing Total Net Utility for a given act the sum individual utilities for the collective under considemtion Moral Principle Act so as to maximize Total Net Utility In other Words do that which brings the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals Moral Considerability Who counts Why Traditional ethical frameworks are anthropocentric Humans are the creatures deserving of moral consideration Challenges 0 issues of distribution and justice 0 the individual vs the social 0 responsibilities to future generations Climate Change 0 Distributional equity and Global justice Must all countries adopt the same restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions 0 Obligations to future generations How can we have obligations to persons that do not exist 0 Uncertainty risk How do we handle uncertainty in our empirical knowledge and in the o t likely u comes of our actions 101508 Moral Considerability Who counts Why But if we ask whyquot Possible grounding 0 ig cognitive functionrational capacities 0 sentience experiential 0 having interests 0 being alive Traditional ethical frameworks are anthropocentric Moral Considerability Who or what counts Why When we look for the dividing line it is not at all clear that only humans will be worthy of moral consideration nonianthropocentricism Moral Considerability Who or what counts Why When we look for the dividing line it is not at all clear that only humans will be worthy of moral consideration nonianthropocentricism Are species morally considerable Are mountains ecosystems Moral Considerability Who or what counts Why When we look for the dividing line it is not at all clear that only humans will be worthy of moral consideration nonianthropocentricism Are species morally considerable Are mountains ecosystems Individualism vs Holism Peter Singer s Position 0 utilitarian 0 nonianthropocentric 0 individualist Grounding s tience pain and pleasure as the measure of utility BUT this excludes nonisentient living things and thus presumably any holistic entities Sticky issues gradations of intrinsic value interests versus sentience Aldo Leopold39s Land Ethic The Moral Princigle A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity stability and beauty of the biotic community t is wrong when it tends otherwise uilt upon a newly acquired ecological understanding of the biological world The Land Pyramid All ethics so far evolved rest upon a single premise that the individual is a member ofa community of interdependent pans The land ethic simply enlarges the boundary of the mmunityquot than mere economic value I mean value in the philosophical sense quot Deep Ecology Two Basic Norms l SelfiRealization 0 identi cation 0 selfiiniSelf 2 Biocentric Equality All living things have equal right to live and ourish All livings things are equal in intrinsic value careful quotlivingquot is used very broadly here Summary of central concepts Values intrinsic instrumental Claims empirical normative Moral considerability Anthropocentrism vs nonianthropocentrism Individualism vs Holism Ethical frameworks Rights theory Utilitarianism Land Ethic Deep Ecology
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