end of chapter 10 notes
end of chapter 10 notes 1300-03
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
2/24/16 Chapter 10: Different Types of Criminal Activity Violent Crime: first 4 offenses in part 1 UCR Homicide: any time that somebody loses their life at the hands of someone else Murder: deliberately decided to kill a person and carried it out Accidental homicide: no culpability related to the offender (accidently hitting someone with your car) Self-defense: killed in a situation where a person was trying to protect himself or herself - Problem for courts: the jury has to buy the fact that you were really in some type of danger - If they didn’t have a weapon on them you can be severely charged - Jury decides what you SHOULD have done Non-Negligent Homicide: you didn’t think about it, you just react (spontaneous), situation where there were precautions you should have but didn’t take Criminal Homicides Murder 1: top charge you can have, talking about a situation where it was premeditated, and whether or not there was the intent to actually kill someone Murder 2: undermine idea that it was deliberated or/and that the intent was to kill - the deliberation was usually to harm, not kill - how much time is necessary to reflect deliberation (jury has to decide this) Negligent Homicide/Manslaughter: Voluntary: killing result of an emotion reaction (pissed off), crimes of passion, tend to emerge from people who are very close to each other (assumed to be a spontaneous reaction, no intent for murder) Involuntary: more common kind of crime; someone acted out of recklessness and as a result of their behavior someone died, usually motor vehicle accidents (drunk driving) Felony Murder: when someone commits a felony and someone else dies in the course of it 2/26/16 Data from Text: Attributes of Offenders 1. homicide rates: largely intraracial (white against white, black against black) 2. same with aggravated assaults and forcible rapes ^ 3. 90% of offenders who are charged with murder are males (usually also killing other females) 4. when females murder, they kill males 5. the youth: ages of 15-24 commit a little under 50% of crime (but this is a huge category) 6. region of US that murder is most common in: south - subculture of violence - in the south people are more accepting of using violence to solve interpersonal disputes 7. urban large environments have a high violent crime rate 8. victim/offender relationships, they usually know each other: 1/3 of those people are people who are close to you (family, husband, etc.), 1/3 are friends or acquaintances, 1/3 is unknown (random people) 9. weapon used in most murders: guns (2/3 of the time), second most used: knife (1 in every 5) 10. homicide has been dropping consistently over the past few decades (like all the other offenses) Why does the US have the highest homicide rate? 1. largest income disparity between the wealthy and poor; 2. large availability of more dangerous (?) guns; 3. large consumption of alcohol - Disproportionate amount of blacks involved in homicide (poor=frustration) -Murder is the least likely crime to be committed again from a previous murder offender -Women less involved in homicide, less likely to use guns -Women mostly kill men (abusive relationships, self-defense, gang- related) Mass Murder - Not considered until you kill 4 or more people at one time (FBI) - Most likely to engage: males - People involved in this are in a subordinate position in society (they feel they have been slighted by people) - Primary weapon: firearms - Number based (not motive based) - Higher female causality rate (not by a lot though) - Relatively well educated Serial killing behavior motivations: 1. Hedonistic Lust killers: sexual kick out of killing people, sex with corpses 2. Thrill Killers: excitement, joy from killing 3. Comfort Killers: killing for money or resources (hit-men, heritage, or property), material advancement 4. Mission Killers: people who think they are on a mission, don’t like the “bad guys” (certain groups/categories of people) 5. Visionary Killers: people who kill because they are responding to illusions or hallucinations, think they are hearing from God or just any voice in their head (psychotic, schizophrenic) -Behaviors come before people receive labels* Robbers: when you take or threat to take something from someone else with force -tend to be young (under age of 25) -90% men -tend to be black (56%) -shows up in UCR part 1 offenses -most likely to involves offenders and victims to be strangers 1. Professional: well educated/trained, plan ahead for their stealing, avoid getting caught, typically bigger types of thefts 2. Opportunist (most common): found a circumstance where they could rob someone, didn’t really plan it out before 3. Addict: stealing material resources from people in order to feed their own drug addiction 4. Alcoholic: also addicts, but robbers that are trying to get enough money to keep their alcohol supply going -most people involved in robbery don’t experience injury -if you were involved in a gun robbery you are less likely to sustain an aggravated injury because people are more likely to just give up their stuff Hate Crimes -motivated by hatred for a group of people (race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.) -not always violent (can be property) -these crimes are underreported -not clearly documented -if it determined to be motivated by hate, you get treated more harshly by legal systems -half of hate crimes are white on black crimes nd -anti-rdy offenses are documented more than religious offenses (2 and 3 most common) Types of Abuse -Child Abuse: taking advantage of the weak, reports vary greatly 1. Physical—primary concern because its most direct and victimizing, brutalized, severe injuries, broken bones, (death), more common in socioeconomically disadvantaged families, deprivation and commission of aggressive acts 2. Sexual--^^ 3. Emotional 4. Neglect (most common) Elderly - Responsibility of caretakers, frustration, leads to picking on the elderly - Anxiety of being taking care of - Those that take care of the elderly get annoyed easily - Nursing home or keep them at home? - Who takes them (between the siblings) - Family distress How to reduce violence: - If you started to have relatively more equal distribution of resources, less deprivation (this is questionable, unlikely to happen) R&L chapter 2 - Comes back to perspective introduced by Quinney - Social Reality Theory: crime in the US, what is considered to be a crime is just a social definition, from responses - Why are things that are considered criminal reflecting “objective harms” - Why are certain crimes responded to differently (reflect distortions) - Street crime: malicious intent and direct 1 on 1 crime - Crime doesn’t have to be deliberate, you can have negligent crime - Corporate crime; consequences to individuals are known to be destructive even though they are quite legal (why is that the case?) -
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