FUND OF GRAMMAR
FUND OF GRAMMAR LING 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kurtis Spencer I on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to LING 100 at University of Washington taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/192183/ling-100-university-of-washington in Linguistics at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
The following study guide lists types of adjuncts explored in Chapters 12 and 13 and gives examples of complements which look similar but are structurally di erent The adjunct examples always come before the complement examples Once again the fact that something is not in this study guide does not mean that you are not responsible for knowing it This study guide is a study aid not the authoritative text for the class and its main purpose is to give examples of difficult distinctions The key concept to study for the test is Adjunct versus Complement Adjuncts are not required The head does not select Adjuncts Adjuncts are adjoined to Phrases they are not sisters of heads Complements are sisters of heads Pay close attention to the structure and discussion on page 287 Adjuncts cannot come between a head and a complement Adjuncts to VPs Generally Adjuncts to verb phrases can move to the beginning of the sentence Complements of the verb generally can t This is the basis of the movement test to tell the difference between verbs and adjuncts Prepositional Phrases This is a prepositional phrase which is adjoined to a VP and is not selected for by the verb It looks similar to Prepositional Phrase complements pay attention to the distinction between 1 which is an adjunct PP and 2 which is a complement PP 1 John saw Rover in the garage 2 John put Rover in the garage If a prepositional phrase has a clause S as its object the phrase is called a subordinating prepositional phrase See page 288 The bolded phrase in c is an example 3 John ate breakfast before he went to school Adverb Phrases Generally Adverb phrases are more often adjuncts than complements There are essentially two different kinds of case where this is not true which are demonstrated in 6 and 7 Examples 4 and 5 are adjuncts whereas 6 and 7 are complements The examples in 6 and 7 are complements because they would either be ungrammatical or meaningless without the Adverb Phrase 4 He plays soccer beautifully 5 He wrote the a1ticle carefully 6 The car handles beautifully 7 He worded the article carefully There is also such a thing as an Adverbial Noun Phrase These are nouns which are functioning as adverbs Some examples are today yesterday downtown home and outside 8 is an adjunct 9 is a complement 8 They took a walk downtown 9 They put the new sculpture downtown Participial Phrases Participial Phrases a kind of VP can be either a part ofa clause and sister of the NP subject or they can be adjuncts to the VP of the main sentence See page 291 Example 10 is a participial phrase adjunct whereas example 11 is a participial phrase complement of the sort we explored in chapters 10 and 11 10 He found the woman congratulating himself 11 He found the woman congratulating herself Adjectives We have basically seen two cases of Adj ective Phrases as complements objective complements like 14 and subjective complements like 15 These are di erent from APs as adjuncts to the VP like 12 and 13 which function in a way very similar to Participial Phrases Like all adjuncts to VP they can be moved to the beginning of the sentence 12 He mumbled gibberish completely delirious 13 He laughed happy to be home 14 The fever made him completely delirious 15 He was happy to be home Infmitival Clauses We ve already seen what Infmitival Clauses look like when they re Complements An example is given in 18 There are also Infmitival Clause adjuncts which indicate purpose When adjoined to a VP they can always be paraphrased as in order to Verb An example of an Infmitival Clause adjunct is given in 16 It can be paraphrased by 17 However an Infmitival Clause Complement cannot be paraphrased by in order to so 19 is ungrammatical 16 He went home to get some rest 17 He went home in order to get some rest 18 He wants his house to have south facing windows 19 He wants his house in order to have south facing windows Participial Clauses We have already seen Participial Clauses as complements They differ from Participial Phrases because they have a subject and are therefore a clause The key is to distinguish Participial Clause adjuncts as in 20 from complements as in 21 20 He left his sts clenched with anger 21 He had his sts clenched with anger Adjuncts to NPs Determining the di erence between adjuncts to NPs and complements of nouns is more tricky than for VPs because we cannot use movement to the beginning of the sentence as a test We can still use ordering because adjuncts never come between heads and their complements Appositives Appositives are relatively simple to identify They take the form of two NPs side by side ful lling the same role in the sentence subject object etc with one the appositive NP restating the other An example is given in 22 They are similar in surface structure to objective complements as in 23 22 They met George the president 23 They made George the president Prepositional Phrases Prepositional Phrases can be both adjuncts and complements to nouns Adjuncts add additional information whereas complements are vital to the meaning of the noun they modify The tricky part is that nouns are still grammatical without their complements The thing to focus on is that if they lack their complement they do not mean the same thing Examples of PPs serving as adjuncts are given in 24 and 25 The PPs in 26 and 27 are complements 24 A student from Kansas 25 A university in Washington 26 A student of Biology 27 The University of Washington Relative Clauses Relative clauses are always adjuncts Arelative clause follows a noun and contains a relative pronoun which can be elided which refers back to the NP that the relative clause modifies The tricky part is that they come in two sorts Restrictive and Nonrestrictive There are many subtle di erences between Restrictive and Nonrestrictive clauses For illustration compare 28 which contains a restrictive relative clause and 29 which contains anonrestrictive relative clause 28 The play which I saw yesterday was boring 29 Waiting for Godot which I saw yesterday was boring Generally Restrictive Relative Clauses restrict the set of the noun they modify to some more specific subset Thus in 28 the set of things which could be referred to as the play is restricted to the subset of plays which I saw yesterday This does not happen in 29 there is only one Waiting for Godot and which I saw yesterday is additional information it does not restrict the set of waiting for Godot This is why it is referred to as non restrictive Some key di erences between restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses Nonrestrictive clauses are marked by commas Only nonrestrictive clauses can modify Proper Nouns Nonrestrictive Clauses must follow restrictive clauses Nonrestrictive clauses must be tensed cannot be infinitival that can only be used as a relative pronoun in restrictive clauses in both restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses the relative pronoun can be elided left out if it is an object but not if its a subject Thus 30 is grammatical if who is left out but 31 is not 30 The man who we saw yesterday said hi 31 The man who saw us yesterday said hi Tensed Relative Clauses vs Clausal complements Clausal complements of nouns are very di erent from tensed relative clauses Clausal complements tell what the noun they modify is and do not contain a relative pronoun Compare 32 which contains a relative clause where that is a relative pronoun and 33 which contains a clausal complement where that is a complementizer 32 The claim that John put forth 33 The claim that John is a French citizen One general point English has three words that That can be a demonstrative as in Did you see that movie It can be a relative pronoun as in 32 and it can be a complementizer as in 33 If it is a complementizer it has not undergone whmovement because it is not a proform Infinitival Relative Clauses All IRCs are restrictive relative clauses They also express purpose An example is given in 34 34 That s the right way to do it There are cases where a sentence is ambigious between an infinitival complement of a verb and an infinitival adjunct of an NP The bolded element in 35 could be an infinitival adjunct of the NP the woman were it s a person atranslator who is being waited for or it could be a part of an infinitival complement of the verb wait and what s being waited for is not the translator herself but the process of translation If it s an adjunct 35 can be paraphrased by 36 If it s an infinitival complement 35 can be paraphrased by 37 35 We are waiting for the woman to translate the speech 36 We are waiting for her 37 We are waiting for it Infmitival Whcomplement of verb This is cases where the verb selects for a clause which shows wh movement One such example is wonder An example is given in 38 I wonder who did it Tensed relative clauses can be turned into reduced relative clauses by omitting the relative pronoun and the verb to be Thus 39 contains a tensed relative clause and 40 contains a reduced relative clause with the same meaning 39 I met a man who was eating a hamburger 40 I met a man eating a hamburger
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