New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Industrial Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2

by: Courtney Luber

Industrial Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2 Psyc 3640

Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > Psyc 3640 > Industrial Psychology Study Guide Exam 2
Courtney Luber

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a detailed study guide of information to prepare for exam 2
Industrial Psychology
Eric S McKibben
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Industrial Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.


Reviews for Industrial Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/02/16
Industrial Psychology Study Guide Exam 2 People  Campbell o Model of Job Performance o 3 direct determinants of job performance  Declarative knowledge (DK)  The facts that we learn  Procedural knowledge & skill (PKS)  Knowing how to do things  Motivation (M) o 8 basic performance components  3 are essential for every job  Core task proficiency  Demonstrated effort  Maintenance of personal discipline Concepts  General mental ability (“g”) o Measured by many different tests such as WWI intelligence tests o broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience o ↑ job complexity = ↑ predictive value of general intelligence tests o Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, & learn from experience  Cognitive ability testing o Mental abilities o Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonyms for one another o Cognitive ability and mental ability often refer to specific abilities such as memory or reasoning; intelligence refers to general intellectual capacity  Perceptual-motor abilities o Physical attributes that combine the senses (i.e. seeing, hearing, smell) and motion (i.e. coordination, dexterity)  Problems with “g” testing o Cant test all jobs with “g” o Different jobs require different types of knowledge; not all require a high “g”  Psychomotor abilities o Also called sensorimotor or motor abilities o Physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity and reaction time o Fleishman’s psychomotor abilities:  Arm-hand steadiness—i.e. surgeon can cut a steady line in tissue  Manual dexterity—i.e. assembling an iphone with tiny screws  Finger dexterity—“ “  Control precision  Response orientation  Rate control  Reaction time  Wrist-finger speed  Five factor model of personality o Conscientiousness—responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented  Best predictor of performance o Extraversion—sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic  Introvert, ambivert, extrovert are the main labels on the continuum, but there are not only 3 types o Agreeableness—good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly  i.e. public speaker, retail would both need to score high in agreeableness o Emotional stability (neuroticism used in acronym)—secure, calm, poised, relaxed  Neuroticism—experience negative emotions o Openness to experience—curious, imaginative, independent, creative  i.e. when would you want someone who isn’t open to experience? Priest o OCEAN—acronym o CANOE—acronym  Integrity (testing) o Overt Integrity Test  Asks questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.)  Difficult to get truthful responses from this  i.e. there is nothing wrong with telling a lie if no one suffers any harm (True of False?) o Personality Based Integrity Test (Covert)  Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, and social responsibility)  High conscientiousness, high agreeableness, low neuroticism found to be more truthful  i.e. do you like taking risks? Would your friends describe you as impulsive?  When does personality predict performance best? o Personality—behavioral tendencies that are relatively stable across time and situations o When the job requires certain behavioral tendencies o i.e. sales positions require people to be outgoing and energetic  Declarative knowledge o knowing “that”; definitions of things; gain through lectures, books, papers, seminars, etc.  Procedural knowledge o knowing “how”; gain this through the process of engaging in something  Tacit knowledge o “street smarts”; common sense; something we never really learned; most jobs require much more than tacit knowledge  KSAOs o adults have variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time o KSAO=knowledge, skill, ability, other characteristics o Knowledge  Collection of discrete, related facts & information about a particular domain o Skill (e.g., computer or interpersonal skills)  Practiced act o Ability  Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior o Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc.  Test norming o Norming & norm groups used to interpret & give meaning to a test score o Primary norm we use to compare test scores is the mean  Wonderlic o Classifies you with a score—this score tells you which jobs you will be capable of doing o Offensive lineman—left tackle has highest IQ on football team o Measures general mental ability o Similar to an IQ score  Bennett Mechanical o Measures a very specific ability o i.e. how you manipulate images in your mind o i.e. Perdue pegboard dexterity test  Screen-in vs. screen-out testing o Screen-in tests → Identify normal personality  May be administered as pre-employment tests  Always administered fairly early  Measure things like the Big 5  Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI o Screen-out tests → Identify psychopathology  Some people have forms of psychopathologydon’t want this for certain jobs such as the FBI, other jobs where they would have access to a gun  Generally used for positions of public trust  May only be administered after offer of employment  Best known example is the MMPI  Structured interviews o Candidates asked same/similar questions o Planned out questions with a reason o Tend to cover job knowledge, abilities, skills, personality, & person-org. fit  Situational interview o places the interviewee in a future situation and is asked to tell the interviewer what they would do  Behavioral descriptive interview (BDI) o tries to predict future behavior by asking about past behavior  Reliability and validity of interviews o 0.3 validity coefficient for unstructured interviews o 0.5 validity coefficient for structured interviews o Structured interviews tend to be much more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews  Incremental validity o Value in terms of increased validity of adding a particular predictor to an existing selection system  Performance o Actions or behaviors relevant to the organization’s goals; measured in terms of each individual’s proficiency  Effectiveness o Evaluation of the results of performance; often controlled by factors beyond the actions of an individual  Productivity o Ratio of effectiveness (output) to the cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input)  Criterion contamination o When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure  Criterion deficiency o When actual criterion is missing information that is part of behavior one is trying to measure  Ultimate criterion o Ideal measure of all relevant aspects of job performance  Examples/Types of OCB o Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)  Behavior that goes beyond what is expected o Altruism: Helpful behaviors directed toward individuals or groups within the organization; OCBI; directed toward individuals o Generalized compliance: Behavior that is helpful to the broader organization; directed toward organization; OCBO  i.e. wearing a Clemson shirt in public o Common to most jobs o Individual differences tied to personality (some personalities are more inclined to help others than others are) o Activities not part of job description o Supports organizational environment o i.e. help friend with their job; talk positively about job o can end up becoming criterion contamination  Examples/Types of CWB o Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)  Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both  i.e. cyber bullying, sexual harassment  Goals of job analysis o Job Analysis: process that determines “essence” of a collection of tasks falling within scope of particular job title o Job AnalysisIdentification of KSAOsDevelopment of Assessment Devices o Uses: performance assessment, job description, training, workforce reduction, selection, recruiting, criterion development, promotion, compensation  Task-oriented and worker-oriented job analysis o Task-oriented: Begins with statement of actual tasks & what is accomplished by those tasks o Worker-oriented: Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks  Critical incidents o Desire to make one’s job look more difficult o Attempts to provide answers that SME (subject matter expert; someone who is doing the job) thinks job analyst wants o Carelessness  Methods/procedures for conducting a job analysis o Observation o Interviews: Incumbent, Supervisor o Critical incidents & work diaries o Questionnaires/surveys o Performing the job  Cognitive task analysis o Methods for decomposing job & task performance into discrete, measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental processes & knowledge content o Think-aloud protocol  Approach that investigates thought processes of experts who achieve high levels of performance o Time consuming & requires a good deal of expertise to do well o Consider the following to determine whether cognitive task analysis may be worthwhile:  Persistent performance problems  Costly errors or accidents  Training difficult to transfer to job behavior  Takes a long time to achieve high levels of performance  Reasons for performance measurement o Uses for performance information  Criterion data  Employee development  Motivation/satisfaction  Rewards  Promotion  Layoff  Relationship between types of performance measurement o Objective—usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output o Personnel—measure typically kept in a personnel file such as absences, tardiness, rate of advancement, disciplinary actions, etc. o Judgmental—evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individual’s work behavior; judgment most often made by supervisors o All measure job performance of an individual  Objective measures o Usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output  Performance management o Emphasizes link between individual behavior & organizational strategies & goals by defining performance in the context of those goals o 3 Components of Performance Management  Definition of performance  Actual measurement process  Communication between supervisor & subordinate about individual behavior & organ. expectations  Distributive, procedural, interpersonal justice o Distributive justice  Fairness of outcomes related to decisions  You get something as a result of your behavior; i.e. promotion, bonus, fired o Procedural justice  Fairness of process by which ratings are assigned & a decision is made o Interpersonal justice  Respectfulness & personal tone of communications surrounding evaluation  Types of rating formats o Graphic rating scales (most common)  Graphically display performance scores running from high to low o Checklist  List of behaviors presented to rater who places a check next to items that best (or least) describe the ratee o Weighted checklist  Included items have assigned values or weights o Forced-Choice Format  Requires the rater to choose two statements out of four that could describe the ratee o Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)  Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area  Components of overall performance rating o Influenced by 3 factors  Task performance  Contextual performance  Counter-productive performance  Graphical rating scale o Graphically display performance scores running from high to low o Most common  Behaviorally anchored rating scale o Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area  Behavioral observation scale o Asks the rater to consider how frequently an employee has been seen to act in a particular way  Types of errors raters make o Central tendency error  Raters choose mid-point on scale to describe performance when more extreme point is more appropriate o Leniency-severity error  Raters are unusually easy or harsh in their ratings o Halo error  Same rating is assigned to an individual on a series of dimensions, causing the ratings all to be similar; lack of identification of strengths and weaknesses  A “halo” surrounds the ratings  Psychometric training o Makes raters aware of common rating errors in hopes of reducing such errors  Frame of reference training o Based on assumption that rater needs context for providing rating  Basic steps  Provide information about multidimensional nature of performance  Ensure raters understand meaning of scale anchors  Engage in practice rating exercises of standard performance  Provide feedback on practice exercise


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.