Industrial Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2
Industrial Psychology Study Guide: Exam 2 Psyc 3640
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Industrial Psychology Study Guide Exam 2 People Campbell o Model of Job Performance o 3 direct determinants of job performance Declarative knowledge (DK) The facts that we learn Procedural knowledge & skill (PKS) Knowing how to do things Motivation (M) o 8 basic performance components 3 are essential for every job Core task proficiency Demonstrated effort Maintenance of personal discipline Concepts General mental ability (“g”) o Measured by many different tests such as WWI intelligence tests o broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience o ↑ job complexity = ↑ predictive value of general intelligence tests o Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, & learn from experience Cognitive ability testing o Mental abilities o Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonyms for one another o Cognitive ability and mental ability often refer to specific abilities such as memory or reasoning; intelligence refers to general intellectual capacity Perceptual-motor abilities o Physical attributes that combine the senses (i.e. seeing, hearing, smell) and motion (i.e. coordination, dexterity) Problems with “g” testing o Cant test all jobs with “g” o Different jobs require different types of knowledge; not all require a high “g” Psychomotor abilities o Also called sensorimotor or motor abilities o Physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity and reaction time o Fleishman’s psychomotor abilities: Arm-hand steadiness—i.e. surgeon can cut a steady line in tissue Manual dexterity—i.e. assembling an iphone with tiny screws Finger dexterity—“ “ Control precision Response orientation Rate control Reaction time Wrist-finger speed Five factor model of personality o Conscientiousness—responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented Best predictor of performance o Extraversion—sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic Introvert, ambivert, extrovert are the main labels on the continuum, but there are not only 3 types o Agreeableness—good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly i.e. public speaker, retail would both need to score high in agreeableness o Emotional stability (neuroticism used in acronym)—secure, calm, poised, relaxed Neuroticism—experience negative emotions o Openness to experience—curious, imaginative, independent, creative i.e. when would you want someone who isn’t open to experience? Priest o OCEAN—acronym o CANOE—acronym Integrity (testing) o Overt Integrity Test Asks questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.) Difficult to get truthful responses from this i.e. there is nothing wrong with telling a lie if no one suffers any harm (True of False?) o Personality Based Integrity Test (Covert) Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, and social responsibility) High conscientiousness, high agreeableness, low neuroticism found to be more truthful i.e. do you like taking risks? Would your friends describe you as impulsive? When does personality predict performance best? o Personality—behavioral tendencies that are relatively stable across time and situations o When the job requires certain behavioral tendencies o i.e. sales positions require people to be outgoing and energetic Declarative knowledge o knowing “that”; definitions of things; gain through lectures, books, papers, seminars, etc. Procedural knowledge o knowing “how”; gain this through the process of engaging in something Tacit knowledge o “street smarts”; common sense; something we never really learned; most jobs require much more than tacit knowledge KSAOs o adults have variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time o KSAO=knowledge, skill, ability, other characteristics o Knowledge Collection of discrete, related facts & information about a particular domain o Skill (e.g., computer or interpersonal skills) Practiced act o Ability Stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior o Other characteristics: interests, personality, etc. Test norming o Norming & norm groups used to interpret & give meaning to a test score o Primary norm we use to compare test scores is the mean Wonderlic o Classifies you with a score—this score tells you which jobs you will be capable of doing o Offensive lineman—left tackle has highest IQ on football team o Measures general mental ability o Similar to an IQ score Bennett Mechanical o Measures a very specific ability o i.e. how you manipulate images in your mind o i.e. Perdue pegboard dexterity test Screen-in vs. screen-out testing o Screen-in tests → Identify normal personality May be administered as pre-employment tests Always administered fairly early Measure things like the Big 5 Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI o Screen-out tests → Identify psychopathology Some people have forms of psychopathologydon’t want this for certain jobs such as the FBI, other jobs where they would have access to a gun Generally used for positions of public trust May only be administered after offer of employment Best known example is the MMPI Structured interviews o Candidates asked same/similar questions o Planned out questions with a reason o Tend to cover job knowledge, abilities, skills, personality, & person-org. fit Situational interview o places the interviewee in a future situation and is asked to tell the interviewer what they would do Behavioral descriptive interview (BDI) o tries to predict future behavior by asking about past behavior Reliability and validity of interviews o 0.3 validity coefficient for unstructured interviews o 0.5 validity coefficient for structured interviews o Structured interviews tend to be much more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews Incremental validity o Value in terms of increased validity of adding a particular predictor to an existing selection system Performance o Actions or behaviors relevant to the organization’s goals; measured in terms of each individual’s proficiency Effectiveness o Evaluation of the results of performance; often controlled by factors beyond the actions of an individual Productivity o Ratio of effectiveness (output) to the cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input) Criterion contamination o When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure Criterion deficiency o When actual criterion is missing information that is part of behavior one is trying to measure Ultimate criterion o Ideal measure of all relevant aspects of job performance Examples/Types of OCB o Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Behavior that goes beyond what is expected o Altruism: Helpful behaviors directed toward individuals or groups within the organization; OCBI; directed toward individuals o Generalized compliance: Behavior that is helpful to the broader organization; directed toward organization; OCBO i.e. wearing a Clemson shirt in public o Common to most jobs o Individual differences tied to personality (some personalities are more inclined to help others than others are) o Activities not part of job description o Supports organizational environment o i.e. help friend with their job; talk positively about job o can end up becoming criterion contamination Examples/Types of CWB o Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both i.e. cyber bullying, sexual harassment Goals of job analysis o Job Analysis: process that determines “essence” of a collection of tasks falling within scope of particular job title o Job AnalysisIdentification of KSAOsDevelopment of Assessment Devices o Uses: performance assessment, job description, training, workforce reduction, selection, recruiting, criterion development, promotion, compensation Task-oriented and worker-oriented job analysis o Task-oriented: Begins with statement of actual tasks & what is accomplished by those tasks o Worker-oriented: Focuses on attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish tasks Critical incidents o Desire to make one’s job look more difficult o Attempts to provide answers that SME (subject matter expert; someone who is doing the job) thinks job analyst wants o Carelessness Methods/procedures for conducting a job analysis o Observation o Interviews: Incumbent, Supervisor o Critical incidents & work diaries o Questionnaires/surveys o Performing the job Cognitive task analysis o Methods for decomposing job & task performance into discrete, measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental processes & knowledge content o Think-aloud protocol Approach that investigates thought processes of experts who achieve high levels of performance o Time consuming & requires a good deal of expertise to do well o Consider the following to determine whether cognitive task analysis may be worthwhile: Persistent performance problems Costly errors or accidents Training difficult to transfer to job behavior Takes a long time to achieve high levels of performance Reasons for performance measurement o Uses for performance information Criterion data Employee development Motivation/satisfaction Rewards Promotion Layoff Relationship between types of performance measurement o Objective—usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output o Personnel—measure typically kept in a personnel file such as absences, tardiness, rate of advancement, disciplinary actions, etc. o Judgmental—evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individual’s work behavior; judgment most often made by supervisors o All measure job performance of an individual Objective measures o Usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output Performance management o Emphasizes link between individual behavior & organizational strategies & goals by defining performance in the context of those goals o 3 Components of Performance Management Definition of performance Actual measurement process Communication between supervisor & subordinate about individual behavior & organ. expectations Distributive, procedural, interpersonal justice o Distributive justice Fairness of outcomes related to decisions You get something as a result of your behavior; i.e. promotion, bonus, fired o Procedural justice Fairness of process by which ratings are assigned & a decision is made o Interpersonal justice Respectfulness & personal tone of communications surrounding evaluation Types of rating formats o Graphic rating scales (most common) Graphically display performance scores running from high to low o Checklist List of behaviors presented to rater who places a check next to items that best (or least) describe the ratee o Weighted checklist Included items have assigned values or weights o Forced-Choice Format Requires the rater to choose two statements out of four that could describe the ratee o Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area Components of overall performance rating o Influenced by 3 factors Task performance Contextual performance Counter-productive performance Graphical rating scale o Graphically display performance scores running from high to low o Most common Behaviorally anchored rating scale o Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area Behavioral observation scale o Asks the rater to consider how frequently an employee has been seen to act in a particular way Types of errors raters make o Central tendency error Raters choose mid-point on scale to describe performance when more extreme point is more appropriate o Leniency-severity error Raters are unusually easy or harsh in their ratings o Halo error Same rating is assigned to an individual on a series of dimensions, causing the ratings all to be similar; lack of identification of strengths and weaknesses A “halo” surrounds the ratings Psychometric training o Makes raters aware of common rating errors in hopes of reducing such errors Frame of reference training o Based on assumption that rater needs context for providing rating Basic steps Provide information about multidimensional nature of performance Ensure raters understand meaning of scale anchors Engage in practice rating exercises of standard performance Provide feedback on practice exercise
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