Bundle of notes for exam
Bundle of notes for exam History 146
Popular in History of the United States after the Civil War
CHEM 100 002
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Popular in History
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 146 at Towson University taught by L. Mims in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see History of the United States after the Civil War in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Why Study History? Notes (Typed) What is History? o History = collective memory o History is possibilities, probabilities, and complete surprises together o History is an informed guess. What isn’t history? o History is not an eternal unchanging truth o History is not an exact prediction of future evens What do we need to know of history? o Patterns o Turning Points o Current governing Institutions took shape 100/1000 Years ago o Collective memory and personal memory change over time for the same reasons What does history/memory do? o History makes us wiser (public) and more human (personal) o Personal memory makes us human o Collective memory makes us social Why is collective memory (History) important? o Without collective memory we do not have our best guide for public action with outsiders o Democratic citizenship (ex. U.S.) needs collective memory What are the three levels of general history? o Family/local history usually oral primary school o National history where political power is high school/college o Global history increased communication means increased importance of foreign encounters Why study history? o Human action is never the same twice( Lightning) BUT can be similar o Studying vanished ideas puts our ideas into a different perspective o Reading things similar to our own experiences creates shared humanity o Studying alien religions creates a broader sense of humanity Chapter 8 Lytle Notes How did slave owners describe the Northerners or Yankee to slaves? o “Got long horns on their heads, and tushes [pointed teeth] in their mouths, and eyes sticking out like a cow? (pg. 171)” Why would slaves stay with their masters? o Fear of the unknown o A sense of loyalty (similar to Stockholm’s) How was the reaction? o The first most general reactions among ex-slaves was fear, this was soon followed by joy, particularly at finding their masters as prisoners they were to guard. Ex. “bottom rail top dis time. (pg. 173)” What does the term “bottom rail” Mean? o Well to be put simply the bottom rail is the lowest and during these times slaves occupied the lowest position in society, essentially next to cattle. Why is it difficult to tell the stories of the slaves? o Through the white perspective Slaves often lied to their owners Ex. Page 175. Slave Squires Jackson was caught reading by his master and turned the paper upside down and essentially played dumb to full his master Slave owners typically thought they were doing the work of god or doing the “heathens” a service by enslaving them because “a negro cannot take care of themselves” Primary examples found on page 184 in the interview with Susan Hamlin and the white interviewer presumably from the welfare office. o Through the black perspective They were denied the right to be taught to read and write throughout slave years Depending on who was conducting the interview their answers would change They tended to rely on whites even after abolition due to their still not so good social standing and answered questions in such ways that would not offend the whites If they were alive to tell the tale after many had learned to read or write they were likely to have been very young during slavery and their memories then were distorted. Bias after abolition could still be seen o Blacks were denied property o Blacks were denied voting rights o Blacks were segregated from whites o Blacks still essentially subordinate to whites by being forced to address them as Ma’am or Mister Important organization: Federal Writers Bureau (FWB) Chapter 16 Schultz Notes Reconstruction: o The federal governments methods to solve problems from the war Why was reconstruction difficult? o 1. The difficulty of integrating rebel states back into the union o 2. The social questions about how to integrate 4mil ex slaves How did things changed after the civil war? o Laws supporting internal improvements, outlawing slaver, etc. Were passed post-civil war o Females who were ex slaves were removed from field work o Black churches multiplied in number Ku Klux Klan (KKK) o A false military force formed to resist the integration of blacks and preserve white supremacy Freedmen’s Bureau o A government agency designed to create a new social order Created to go against the KKK Provided Food Medical Care Education And access to the justice system Ten % Plan (1863) o A plan by Lincoln that allowed amnesty to any southerner who claimed loyalty to the union and the emancipation of slaves Only 10% of the state’s voters were needed for the state to re- enter the union and form a local government Wade-Davis Bill o Similar to the 10% plan except 50% of the population needed to take the oath to return to the union Iron Clad Oath o An oath to testify that you had never voluntarily aided or abetted the rebellion This had to be taken in order to vote or serve in constitutional conventions Johnson’s plan for reconstruction o 1. Scrapping the “40-acres and a mule” plan from the Freedmen’s Bureau o 2. Creating a difficult oath that southerners could take to receive pardon Unless they appealed directly to Johnson Black Codes o Similar to slave codes designed to govern the behavior of freedmen and women Radical Republicans o A political party particularly against slavery o They had a lot of power They used their power to 1. Expand the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau To pass the civil rights act Civil rights act o The bill that granted all citizens mandatory rights. Designed to counteract the black codes Congressional Reconstruction o When radical republicans held more power than the president and passed the 14 and 15 amendment, and the military reconstruction act th 14 amendment o The extension of the Bill of Rights to all people born in America o Gave former slaves and their children the right to due process th 15 amendment o Allowed any MAN to vote Military reconstruction Act o All former rebel states (except Tennessee) were turned into military districts o A commander controlled the state government o Soldiers enforced the law Carpetbagger o A Northern born white that moved to the south post-civil war o Symbolized corruption and lowliness o To show that these whites were trying to capitalize on the misfortunes of the southerners Scalawag o A southern born member of the Republican party o Typically had been poor farmers Success of southern republicans o 1. They constructed the first public school system in the south o 2. They developed antidiscrimination measures o 3. They strengthened the rights and privileges of agricultural workers o 4. Began internal improvements, Ex. Railroad systems Convict leasing o The leasing of prisoners to private companies and landowners to make up for lost slave work o Blacks were targeted o Blacks in prisons sky rocketed Why did reconstructions collapse o 1. An increasing lack of interest in the plight of the black population o 2. Southern resistance to reconstruction The Civil Rights Act (1875) o Racial discrimination in public areas was forbidden o Was not very effective Civil Rights Cases (1863) o Stated that everything besides discrimination in juries was unconstitutional The Panic of 1873 o Financial crisis o Northern attention became focused on the crisis not civil rights Mississippi Plan ( 1875) o A plan that called for as much necessary violence that was necessary to put Mississippi back in control by the Democracy Redeemers o The southern democrats that used violence to gain political and social control The compromise of 1877 o A compromise in which republicans promised not to dispute the democratic gubernatorial victories and withdrawal federal troops o In return they had to accept Hayes’ presidential victory and respect the rights of black citizens Don’t take notes on a laptop article Notes (typed) Study done by: Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer The Test Group 1: Written Group 2: Typed They had a stronger Took more notes than the hand understanding of the material written group They were able to synthesize the The notes were nearly verbatim to information better the lecture However they had a lower retention rate of the lecture These results did not change when the participants were tested one week after lecture vs. within an hour of the lecture. Why these results? Writing by hand forces you to summarize and process the information Seeing your own handwriting can act as a memory cue reminding you of context and content Technology does not always foster learning (More isn’t always better) Chapter 18 Tenements o Crowded slum houses in urban areas that housed immigrants The populist movement? The labor movement? Gild: To provide a thin coat of gold over a much cheaper metal, used as a description of the industrial age of American history Coney Island o Public amusement park opened in NY featuring roller coasters, water slides, and fun houses(1895) Middle class citizens used railroads to get to work so they could move to the suburbs and out of the cities. Further changes in wealth National League o The first professional baseball league begun in the year 1876 with 8 teams American League o The second professional baseball league begun in the year 1901 World Series o Baseball competition between the National League and American League Greenhorns o European immigrants to America o Awkward uncultivated behaviors o They typically came with very little education, work skills, and knowledge of English o They ended up as the bottom rung of the industrial hierarchy Ellis Island o The immigrant gateway to NYC from 1892-1954 The New South o Economic relations with the North were encouraged including loans o Specific Components The creation of an industrialized south The quick creation of a racial caste system o Their industries Railroads Let to the industrial expansion Attracted wealthy northern investment Iron Expanded due to the railroads Cotton and Textiles Abundance of cheap labor Typical fourteen hour day Wide availability of cotton Tobacco Invention of the automatic cigarette roller Industrial failures Steel out grew iron production African Americans were still unable to be employed in industrial employment The second Mississippi Plan o Plans designed to prevent African Americans from voting including the poll tax, literacy tests, and property qualifications Jim Crow Laws o Laws that mandated racial segregation in public facilities Louisiana Separate Car act o Law that stated that blacks and whites had to ride in separate train cars o Plessey vs. Fergusson Claimed that segregation was constitutional as long as the accommodations are separate but equal Hierarchy of races o A theory that some racial groups were more superior than others o Used “Scientific” evidence to support that white people of British descent were at the top of the hierarchy. Atlanta Compromise o A speech by Booker T Washington in 1895, it encouraged black economic development, and calming the fears of racial intermingling, as he said blacks and whites should remain separate but work together. Niagara Movement o An attempted political organization that said blacks should fight for their rights rather than accept abuse and separation (W.E.B Du Bois) Juneteenth o The date and celebration of the day slaves were freed in Texas Tuskegee Institute o A college for African Americans in Alabama Homestead Act o An act that 160 acres of land to settlers who occupied the land for five years Sodbusters o American pioneers who settled in the Great Plains Bonanza Farms o Giant farms in the Great Plains covering thousands of acres Dawes General Allotment Act o Federal Law decided that lands held by native American tribes would be divided among families and that after 25 years and only after Native Americans could receive the titles to their land and become official citizens “Ghost Dance” o A ritual for the Plains Indians o Lasted 5 days and was believed to raise them above the ground while the land below them was replaced with new land Wounded Knee Massacre o A conflict between the U.S Army and the Sioux that left 39 U.S soldiers dead and 146 Sioux dead Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 o An act that banned the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years and kept current Chinese Americans from becoming citizens. Populist party o Advocates for agricultural workers Gold Standard o An economic plan using gold as the primary form of currency and taking paper moneey and silver out of circulation Munn v. Illinois o A supreme Court case that declared states could regulate nusinesses within their borders if they operated on public interest. Sub treasury Plan o An economic plan created by the Farmers Alliance that said crops would be stored in government-owned warehouses and used as collateral for low-cost government loans to struggling farmers Remonetize o To turn something back into an acceptable currency Chapter 17 Schultz Industrial Revolution (1865-1915) o The transition of how goods were made and sold o Transition from human/animal power to mechanical power o Raw resources to manufactured materials There were 3 waves of reformers o 1. The Labor Movement The most radical Focused on the working class Questioned Americas commitment to capitalism and democracy o 2. The Populists o 3. The Progressives Social Changes o 1. Farming to factories and retail Increased city growth o 2. Less family business more corporations Central Industries o Railroad Spanned the majority of the nation Made the movement of goods easy, cheap, and reliable Big 4 Captains of the railroad industry Controlled most of the western railroads They sometimes cut prices below their own costs o Steel Made railroads possible Sir Henry Bessemer invented a way to convert large quantities of iron to steel using hot air Mass production took off with Andrew Carnegie in 1872 He used cheap labor Used Vertical integration o A system where a business controls all aspects of its industry from raw material to finished product to ensure they do not have to share profits Allowed for sky scrapers to be built Allowed the elevator to be built o Petroleum Machine lubricant Benjamin Silliman discovered that kerosene (by product of raw petroleum) could be used as an illuminant Rockefeller Used Horizontal integration o Worked with or took over other companies to control competition, decrease the cost, and increase profits His Standard Oil company controlled 90% of all petroleum in the country . Inventions o Thomas Edison Invented the light bulb Led to the creation of electric plants Invented the motion picture camera Phonograph Microphones o Alexander Graham Bell The telephone Enabled the flow of communication to speed up enabling businesses o Elisha Otis The mechanized elevator o The typed writer Created office jobs open to women Innovative financing o Businesses were allowed to merge o Sell stock o Corporations increased in number o Businesses were funded by government programs o The establishment of the management hierarchy This allowed corporations to spread across the nation Created a class of managers that would figure prominently into the middle class ( 297) Pages 297 to 300 The National Market: Creating Consumer Demand o Replaceable parts and the railroad system made goods more available to American citizens o Advertising changed to large articles in newspapers and catalogues Helped create a consumer culture o Large chain stores had the advantage of being able to lower their wholesale prices (BJ’s) o Frank W. Woolworth devised another type of chain passed of the idea of selling inexpensive goods at cheap prices “Nickel and dime stores” ( Dollar Store) o Aaron Montgomery Ward set up a mail order business o Many businessmen did harmful practices to ensure they controlled all the competition o Environmental Damages Drilling for petroleum damaged the soil Mechanized mining harmed the land Burning coal gave off damaging gases Railroads cut through typically untouched lands o Top environmental preservationist John Muir the founder of the American Environmental Organization, Sierra Club, and influenced the preservation of the mountain lands between California and Montana o Working conditions Increased hours Dangerous conditions Child labor Basic needs typically ignored o Triangle Shirtwaist Company A New York City garment factory that burned down in 1911 Changed working conditions because the fire escape door had been bolted shut to prevent female workers from taking breaks Women jumped out windows to avoid the flames o Sweatshop Crowded factory in an urban setting where workers typically are exploited o Devotion to the needs of business It permitted a decline in attention to the treatment of African Americans It harmed the image of politicians, painting them as blatant and corrupt. Social Darwinism o The theory that natural selection has extended to the business realm o Tycoons believed themselves to be justified in their overbearing behavior because they had shown themselves to be the most successful competitors Credit Mobilier Company o A contruction company set up by the directors of the Union Pacific to build their transcontinental railroad Tweed Ring o Friends and cronies of New York’s corrupt “boss” William M Tweed Tammany Hall o A political organization in which members regarded politics as an opportunity to get rich o This although being incredibly corrupt appealed to immigrants specifically o “Bosses” established loyalty by watching over neighborhoods and taking care of short-term emergencies Ex. If a family’s home burned down and they were made homeless a boss may go to the scene, find them a temporary home, and give them financial support for immediate necessities, then ensure they get back on their feet This was not particularly out of care or respective for the family or individuals they assisted but more about assuring the politicians or bosses would have voters. Chapter 9 Lytle Notes Title: “ The mirror with a memory” o Why? Its about photography! How it can portray things without bias or style Jacob Riis: A housing project/ community in the center of Manhattan named after this man o Who was he? An immigrant A Journalist/reporter He wrote in the style of Charles Dickens A social Reformer: Particularly against slums and tenements A Photographer (Used as a tool): “If the plight of the poor was out of sight it would be out of mind” Is this the part I’m supposed to believe? Can photographs tell more about history than personal accounts? Chapter 19 History Social Gospel o An early 20 century protestant movement advocating for widespread reforms to curb the abuses of the industrial revolution Settlement houses o Safe homes in poor areas where reformers could study the local conditions and where residents could hold meetings and receive health care Hull House o The second but most renowned settlement house in the US. Founded in Chicago its residents lobbied the government to pass better construction and safety laws Galveston Hurricane o A devastating hurricane that killed 8,000+ people in Galveston Texas. Spurred Demands that the government be more responsive to people’s needs Initiative o A legislative device designed to allow citizens more control over state law; they could advocate a specific idea and introduce it on the ballot Referendum o A legislative device designed to allow citizens more control over the state’s law, they could petition in order to advance an idea and introduce it to the ballot Primary o A preliminary election designed to let voters choose which political candidate will run for office Recall o A device through which citizens can dismiss state officers, governors, and judges who they have determined that they have violated the popular interest (Done using a petition) Sherman Antitrust Act o Passed in 1890 the federal government’s first attempt to break up monopolies Trustbuster o A nickname for those in government advocating antitrust laws National Forest Service o Government agency created by Theodore Roosevelt to preserve land and protect local animal species Progressive Party o Political party created by Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 to win back the Presidency from Taft The New Freedom o Woodrow Wilson’s platform message pledging to use government power to destroy big businesses and give smaller ones greater ability to compete Federal Trade Commission o A government agency charged with investigating unfair business practices Muckrakers o Investigative writers who esposed bad conditions in American factories, political corruption in city machines, and the financial deceit of corporations Pure food and Drug Act o Passed in 1906 this act along with the Meat Inspection Act gave the federal government responsibility for ensuring that meat would reach its customers freash and disease-free Scientific Management o Pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor, the detailed study of the best ways to schedule, organize, and standardize work tasks. Progressive Education Association o Formed in 1919 this national association supported and avocated for education reforms that taught children to make good moral and political choices Eugenics o An early-twentieth century movement centered on the belief that it was possible to improve the human species by discouraging or outlawing reproduction by various people thought to have undesirable traits Lecture 2-18-16 Progressivism o Middle class Women Educated o White Protestant o They believed in Scientific management and practiced eugenics o The movement was fueled by Industrialization Overcrowding Urbanization Triangle fire Riis photography o Focused on a wide variety of social problems o There is no unified set of goals o They believe that all issues can addressed Humanely Responsively Moral Solutions o They formed interest groups to rally the government
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