Notes for Quiz 1
Notes for Quiz 1 Soc Sci 120
Popular in Transnational Gangs
Popular in Social Sciences
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Edward Avakian on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc Sci 120 at University of California - Irvine taught by Al Valdez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see Transnational Gangs in Social Sciences at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
SocSci 120 1 lecture st 01/05/2016 ▯ “Trans gangs” ▯ #288 Scantron Trans gangs Quizzes Thursdays Weeks 3, 5, 7, 10 ▯ ▯ Bikers are the only gang that started in America and spread ▯ ▯ Transnational gangs Many types of transnational gangs Biker Prison Asian Haitian Blood gang out of New Zealand/Australia ▯ ▯ 2 things happening exporting gang culture worldwide exporting small percentage of gang members to where they go ▯ ▯ Violence is language of trans. Gangs ▯ Torture Level of hyperviolence to scare people ▯ ▯ True or false Is it illegal to be a gang member? o No, it is not illegal (Amendment 1) ▯ ▯ In El Salvador and Guatemala It is illegal to be in a gang ▯ ▯ Stereotyping Putting a label on an entire group based on the activity of the few Secretary of State John Kerry’s remarks about not being smart and being sent to Iraq Stereotypes all military members as not being intelligent ▯ ▯ We do it to other people ▯ ▯ Transnational gangs A group of three or more Common identifier, sign or symbol or color Association Involved in criminal activity between countries (dope sales, armed sales, money laundering, ID theft, trafficking) *They do not have to claim turf, not be involved in violent crimes *America has less than 5% population; as a country we consume over 50% of the drugs ▯ increased mobility of goods, services, labor, technology and capital throughout the world = globalization the name for a process of increasing connectivity and interdependence of the world’s markets and business = Investors World globalization ▯ Globalization is a term that really describes a process To fully understand the impact of this process you also have to consider the use of technology ▯ Technology appears to facilitate globalization Some gang sets or cliques have established their gangs and their criminal enterprises in other countries ▯ ▯ The use of violence sends a message ▯ ▯ Generational gangs Not traditional generational gangs 1 = turf gangs nd 2 rd = market-oriented drug gangs 3 = mix of political / mercenary elements ▯ ▯ Three factors determine evolutionary potential: Politicization Globalization Sophistication (organization) ▯ ▯ 1 st Turf gangs Turf Protection Tend to stay local ▯ 2 nd Drug gangs Market protection Starts to expand geographically ▯ 3 rd Mercenary gangs, power and financial acquisition ▯ ▯ Plata or plomo = silver or lead ▯ Corruption is the biggest problem in Mexico; cartels have no budget ▯ ▯ Robin Hood effect When the community (non-criminal) identifies with the criminal community and protects them When cartels provide citizens with electricity and water and etc., they get conveniences ▯ ▯ First generation gangs No leader Fight for turf ▯ Second generation gangs Engaged in business Entrepreneurial and drug-centered Protect markets and use violence to control their competition Operate in a broader spatial or geographic area ▯ Third generation gangs Evolved political aims Operate or aspire to operate globally Use sophistication to garner power, aid financial acquisition and engage in mercenary-type activities More power equal to or more than nation-states Pose significant national security threats ▯ th nd ▯ MS 13, 18 street (2 generation) ▯ ▯ El Chapo (Chapo Guzman) ▯ ▯ Soc Sci 120 2 nd lecture 01/07/2016 ▯ When linked with or working for transnational criminal organizations: The gangs’ activities further reduce police and military authorities’ abilities to maintain stability Challenge the sovereignty of the states within and between which they move ▯ Because of their transnational status these gang cliques have resources not normally available to other US based street gangs. Money, contacts, and connections When you have no budget, you can purchase whatever you want ▯ ▯ Cartels are involved in other markets as well Human trafficking Pirated goods Extortion and kidnapping ▯ ▯ Corruption is the biggest problem in Mexico ▯ ▯ Why did some gangs become transnational? Was it an intentional execution of a business plan? Was it by accident? Or was it the result of seized opportunity to expand? Is this expansion market driven? ▯ The American gang phenomenon is now encountered in foreign countries American style gang crime is seen and violence has become a tool Some countries are ill equipped to handle increasing violent acts ▯ ▯ South Africans as young as 9 are recruited ▯ ▯ The violence unleashed by thousands of youth gangs, or ‘maras’ in Central America is a result of globalization and the poverty and marginalization that grip this region ▯ ▯ Extortion is one of the biggest crimes gangs use ▯ ▯ Sombre negra = black shadow ▯ Street gangs have been reported throughout Central America since the 1950s MS-13 and 18 street reported in the academic literature in the 1990s US deportation laws change in 1996 Again post in 2001 (911) ▯ ▯ Deportation is not the primarily cause of gangs appearing in Mexico and Central America ▯ ▯ From ICE, Over 8000 illegal immigrant gang members have been arrested and deported from the US ▯ ▯ Over half of the deportees were deported back to Mexico (59%) ▯ 17% to El Salvador ▯ 5% to Honduras ▯ 3% to Guatemala ▯ According to the research over 75% went to Mexico or El Salvador ▯ ▯ Total subjects returned were over 314k; less than 2% of the illegal immigrant population in America are involved in gangs ▯ ▯ US gang population is less than 1% of general population ▯ ▯ Less than 1% of military have active gang members in it ▯ ▯ CHALLENGE Search internet and look for old black and white world war 2 movie that was released between 1940 and 1945 where you find an African American, Asian, or Mexican as the hero in the movie ▯ ▯ Poverty may fuel migration; people move for quality of life issues ▯ ▯ Poverty and violence motivate migration ▯ ▯ Poverty and migration are quality of life issues ▯ ▯ 50% of Central America’s 36 million people live in poverty ▯ ▯ Media is the greatest propaganda tool in the world ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ SocSci 120 3 lecture rd 01/12/2016 ▯ Gangs in Honduras ▯ Prison conditions in poverty stricken countries Need authorization from a gang member to go inside a prison in Honthras 18 street in prison in the El Salvador has a vertical leadership structure (gang leaders, support leaders, subordinate groups) = well organized in prison In the army, squads are led by squad leaders; on the streets, gangs have shot callers The shot callers in America are the ones most prone to violence = not true with prison gangs in Central America Street gangs follow orders from what is going on in the prison gangs People have average or above average intelligence San Pedro Sula = one of the most active cities in El Salvador o Gangs operate the city th o MS13 owns half; 18 street owns half o If we were to have a problem, we would call the gang leader to settle the problem o Everyone gets taxed o “No Man’s Land” = anything can happen o our street gangs operate as de facto government entities Leader’s nickname is “bullet”; in 18 street gang; eighteen tattooed on his chest and head; 666 tattooed on his hand o Lived in Honduras but moved to LA then back to Honduras o Went to prison for 12 years for killing a man during a wedding with one bullet o Doesn’t recommend the gangster lifestyle, but doesn’t apologize spreading 18 street to Honduras “Hollywood 18 street” = tattoos and baggy clothing; attitude o Homies came from Hollywood and influenced Honduras Prisons in Honduras have no security level (only America has different security level prisons) Murder a week; no investigation; don’t have vicinities to stop a riot if it were to break out Technology can influence globalization The use of the Internet and wireless telecommunication systems have facilitated gang globalization even though most gang members do not have a clue of the globalization process This is also true for those few gangs that operate transnational gangs All of our main gangs in America have an internet website Sureño = southern California gang (blue) Northeño = northern California gang (red) = sign is 14 (letter N) 4 major motorcycle gang Bandido Hell’s Angels ▯ ▯ Skinheads are only gang in America to put up website ▯ ▯ Skinnet.coom White supremacist website ▯ ▯ Red and white suspenders = white supremacist racism It is not illegal to be a gang member in the United States Not going to be used against you for any job or graduate school unless you get convicted in any crime ▯ It is illegal in El Salvador and Honduras to be a gang member ▯ ▯ Poverty may fuel migration of people to America to live because there are jobs and opportunity here ▯ YouTube, MySpace = ways to promote gang activity People do things to survive You get beat for however many seconds to join the gang You don’t get anything in life for free 1 person shooter games for kids; racist sites; website to influence teens; propaganda tool Skinheads were the first gang to use the internet Globalization is a process Technology makes it go faster ▯ ▯ SocSci 120 4 lecture th 01/14/2016 ▯ Summary Facts: Globalization is a process Technology makes it go faster The internet and cell phone have had the biggest impact on gang globalization and globalization of the gang culture ▯ Facts Poverty and violence play a role in globalization They are primary reason why people move When people move they bring their culture with them Deportation [is the catalyst that] may aid in the culture movement o Deportation is not the primary cause ▯ The blood and crips were not the first gangs to adopt the colors blue and red There is no standard definition of a transnational gang and this makes the issue harder to analyze Street gang members can come from anywhere (any socioeconomic class, anywhere) In addition to the Internet web sites, the gang culture is exported through the written media Violence changes you (the more you experience it, it doesn’t have any meaning to you at all) ▯ ▯ SocSci 120 5 lecture th 01/19/2016 ▯ Africa Video: Jestor 19 years of sexual abuse in jail; he’s not gay because he’s fucking, not receiving ▯ Violence is the universally understood language of transnational gangs ▯ ▯ How do you define violence? Violence is the expression of physical force; can be ranging between an altercation between individuals or genocide For 14-24 age group, the leading cause of death is homicide and the weapon of choice is some type of gun Black people, death in our age group is 6x higher ▯ ▯ White supremacists are very visually oriented Major influence to join is music o Hardcore and metal ▯ ▯ Skinheads movement started in England in the 1960s ▯ ▯ The internet and music are two powerful tools that gangs use ▯ ▯ Migration is fueled for QOL (Quality of Life) issues ▯ ▯ Meme/perceptions Invisible Gorilla – perceptual blindness ▯ ▯ Felson suggests The word “gang” has many meanings: drug gangs, prison gangs, organized crime, juvenile gangs, outlaw motorcycle, etc. Different gangs use the same name o There are four different definitions for Sureños Gangs are unstable; they often change o In Vegas, members of bloods and crips band together to do a crime then disband Many gangs get too much credit for being dangerous It is often difficult to find the gang’s structure Gang leadership may change with activities The “Big Bang Theory” can exaggerate the size and danger of juvenile gangs and origin of gangs o LA was not the origin of gangs o Gangs began in New York o Irish immigrants were the first street gangs in America o State of Illinois has the majority of gang members in our country ▯ ▯ Top 10 youth gang myths All youth gangs are highly organized Local youth gangs are often connected to big city gangs Our gangs came from somewhere else Many adolescents are recruited by adults to join gangs A “wanna-be” is a “gonna-be” Once gangs move in, they are here to stay All gang members are Black or Hispanic/Latino males Gangs, drugs, guns; “Just follow the money” A new wave of gang activity is spreading cross the US “Gang members are not smart. They are high-school drop outs” ▯ ▯ A majority of the gang members in America are adults Many states have a criminal code that defines a criminal street gang for the purposes of prosecuting a criminal case All gangs fit a sociological definition of a gang BUT DO NOT fit the criminal code definition All gangs do not fir the Penal Code definition Some people believe so and we now have to deal with a false positive Meme Any unit of cultural information, such as a practice or idea that gets transmitted verbally or by repeated action ▯ ▯ The meme vehicles have been music, the entertainment industry, media and technology like the Internet and cellular telephone ▯ ▯ Some people join a gang because they think they are going to be cool or because they think they will survive in the gang because there is safety in numbers ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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