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Notes for Quiz 2

by: Edward Avakian

Notes for Quiz 2 Soc Sci 120

Edward Avakian
GPA 3.62

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Lectures 6-8 that will be on Quiz 2
Transnational Gangs
Al Valdez
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Edward Avakian on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc Sci 120 at University of California - Irvine taught by Al Valdez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Transnational Gangs in Social Sciences at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
SocSci 120 6 lectureth 01/26/2016 ▯ eLecture for Thursday ▯  Drugs bring gangs together ; ties to terror  Drug trafficking can and in some instances has fueled terror  International gangs = super gangs  Many of super gangs have international roots o El Salvador o Guatemala o Honduras  Mara Salvatrucha 13 (MS-13) o Born in a war torn country o Military background o Exposed to drug trafficking and violence  There may be ties between Middle Eastern terrorist groups and transnational gangs  Five areas where trans gangs operate globally: o Drug trafficking o Arms trafficking o Intellectual property o Human trafficking o Money laundering  These may be the real reasons why Latin America has seen an explosion in gang growth…  Drug cartels have direct connection with o street (taggers, gangs) o prison (EME, BA) o OMG <Outlaw Motorcycle Gang> (Hell’s Angels (HA), Bandidos, Mongols)  America has less than 5% of world’s population but consumes 50% of the world’s drugs  Primary source of income is through drug sales  Barrio Azteca = major prison gang in Texas  Mexican Mafia = working with cartels in many states  The drugs come from a point of origin; cocaine comes from South America  Meth and marijuana come from Mexico  All cocaine is made in Central America = false  Mexicans do not make cocaine, they only transport it  Heroin = Middle East  Plano Colombio = spent $7 billion to disrupt 4 major cartels in Colombia o 4 cartels were more violent than the cartels in Mexico o Fractionalizing = process of cutting leader off from cartel; when you do this, the cartel breaks off into multiple small cartels o If we divided US to half, the eastern half favors cocaine, western half favors methamphetamine  Primary source of income is through drug sales/trafficking  LA is the only city that serves as a major distributor of all the drugs on the market  California is one of the most active drug smuggling and production areas in the US  California is responsible for the movement of large quantities of meth, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and other dangerous drugs into California  Because of this, Southern California, primarily Los Angeles has become a national level hub for drug distribution  Central Nervous system drugs beat you up  Methamphetamine poses the most significant drug threat to California as far as CNS (central nervous system) stimulants  West coast = Meth #1  Most popular illegal drug in America = marijuana  Most popular CNS stimulant in western hemisphere = methamphetamine  Most popular legal drug in America = alcohol  Meth high is almost instantaneous = described as having a 15- minute orgasm o Most powerful physical experience you can have (orgasm)  Dopamine = when you take drugs, it overloads your brain with dopamine  Over time, your body builds up a tolerance  If you take a CNS stimulant dosage (meth) the first time, you get the same high the second and third time = FALSE o YOU DO NOT feel the same high; your body builds up a tolerance, thus having to increase dosage  Withdrawals = body’s thirst for getting more dopamine = headaches, throwing up, diarrhea, severe cramps, etc.  Pre-addictive personality = we all have it o Caffeine is a drug o You don’t know what you’ll get addicted to o Some people get addicted to coffee  We take drugs in many forms  Cocaine hydrochloride (Cocaine HCL) is water soluble  Crack cocaine is not water soluble, you have to smoke it  Gram for gram, nicotine is more addictive to your brain than heroin is  Addiction is a disease of the brain  In LA county, over half the murders are gang related  If Mafia put you on the green light list, you were marked for death  Code for death = give you “hard candy” o “hard candy” = shanks covered in feces  OMG = Outlaw motorcycle gangs  Motorcycle gangs began after World War 2  Less than 99% of people who own motorcycles are not part of those gangs  1% of people who own motorcycles are associated with the OMG  Gangs are also proliferating in rural and suburban areas of the country as gang members flee increasing…  25% of drugs that came into America came from the California border  Tunnels are a way to smuggle drugs across the border  You are called a mule whenever a human is transporting drugs ▯ ▯ SocSci 120 7 lecture (eLecture) 01/26/2016 “Welcome to a tax free varrio” = you don’t pay the Mexican Mafia or EME tax so drugs are cheaper Street gangs that do not pay are green lighted (a term that means you can get punishment or hurt) Big city gangs, sometimes the members and culture are going to rural areas of the country Amish youth got involved with cocaine and Outlaw Motorcycle Gang (OMG) Infrastructure (transportation routes) is important to cartels to bring in drugs California/Mexican border lets under 10% of the total border Some prison and street gangs now deal directly with Mexican drug cartels Tunnels; one tunnel took $1Million to build and it paid itself off in a week 2 tons of marijuana in tunnel Local guys = needs to protect profit and drugs Alley Boys = about 50 members = making $1million a week in sales of meth and cocaine and marijuana Cartels would surgically implant drugs inside puppies then sacrifice the puppies to get the drugs out Street gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) and prison gangs are the primary distributors of illegal drugs on the streets of the United States A 13-year-old British girl was charged with smuggling about $1.3 million worth of heroin from Pakistan Mexicans manufacture 90% of all meth used in the US Meth is still manufactured in the United States The main ingredient in Sudafed is a chemical called ephedrine, the base ingredient for methamphetamine  If you buy mass quantities of Sudafed, you can extract the ephedrine and make meth; you need a driver’s license to buy Sudafed ▯ ▯ The majority of illegal meth labs in the US are on the eastern half of the US ▯ ▯ LA is the ONLY city in the United States that serves as a national-level distribution hub for ALL five major drugs of abuse; cocaine, heroin, marijuana, methamphetamine and MDMA and also PCP ▯ ▯ LA is the primary production center for PCP ▯ ▯ House cleaning – finding the fellow gang member who murdered and killing him since he’s on the greenlight ▯ ▯ Personal hard candy – death ▯ ▯ Mexican Mafia is one of the most influential mid-level and retail distributors in the southern California area. ▯ ▯ Eme (Mexican Mafia) controls all the Sureños. ▯ ▯ Eme will punish individuals and gangs for not following their rules. ▯ ▯ US Sureños provide a natural drug distribution network ▯ ▯ Drug addiction is a disease of the brain ▯ ▯ DEA research suggests that the US contains less than 5% of the world’s population, but as a nation, we consume over 50% of the world’s illegal drugs ▯ ▯ Crack is not water-soluble cocaine ▯ ▯ Cocaine HCL (hydrochloride) is water-soluble ▯ ▯ Sullivan and Bunker (SAB) level three gang are Mexican drug trafficking organizations ▯ ▯ Since there is no nationally accepted definition that describes what a street gang is in the US, there are no accurate reports that can estimate US gang populations ▯ ▯ There is no internationally accepted definition of what a transnational gang is ▯ ▯ Transnational gangs can be street, prison, or foreign based ▯ ▯ Jamaican gangs are imported from Jamaica ▯ ▯ MS13 was formed here in the continental US, not in El Salvador ▯ ▯ Jamaican gangs are known as Jamaican posses; they are formed in Jamaica and imported to the US ▯ ▯ 10-10-80 theory = entire US population; 10% of gang population is dealt with law enforcement; academics deals with 80%; 10% are not contacted by either ▯ ▯ 10% of gang population accounts for disproportional amount of gang crime ▯ ▯ Drug trafficking is one of five major criminal activities ▯ ▯ Submarines are built specifically to smuggle drugs; one was called Bigfoot ▯ ▯ 90% of all illegal drugs come through the southern border ▯ ▯ Spider video ▯ Drug war video ▯ Freeway Ricky Ross Video  High status as a cocaine dealer ▯ ▯ President Nixon started the DEA ▯ ▯ President Nixon declared the War on Drugs ▯ ▯ The majority of Americans feel that marijuana is not dangerous ▯ ▯ Prohibition – laws that would outlaw the manufacturing of alcohol ▯ ▯ Prohibition in the 1900s was an attempt by idealists to impose their moral values on society which resulted in a crime wave ▯ ▯ Valentine’s Day Massacre = gang-related ▯ ▯ Violent street gangs formed; when alcohol was legalized, the drug gangs disappeared ▯ ▯ Drugs come from poverty ▯ ▯ Freeway Ricky Ross is the inventor of crack cocaine ▯ ▯ Ringing the bell = term used to describe the intense high you get when you smoke crack cocaine for the first time; you will never get that high again ▯ ▯ Chasing the rock = term used to describe the usage of more and more crack cocaine to get the same intense high; the more crack you use, the more tolerance your body builds up ▯ ▯ Addiction is a disease of the brain ▯ ▯ Drug War began with President Nixon  First against marijuana  Then cocaine  Then crack  Then methamphetamine ▯ ▯ San Paolo, Brazil video ▯ ▯ The drug war is now world wide with US allies ▯ ▯ SocSci 120 8 lecture th 01/26/2016 ▯ Misha Glenny guest lecturer  Worked in Yugoslavia  War was used as a cover to appropriate state assets and privatize them  Turn Yugoslavia into a hub of dealing anything and everything (untaxed cigarettes, drugs, women, weapons)  European Union = biggest consumer market of over 500 million people  Went to Brazil o Social, political, and economic problems were enormous o Rocinha is the largest favela in Rio de Janeiro; in Brazil  Founded in early 1930s; over 120,000 people live there  Brazil is the 7 largest economy in the world; by 2030 it is estimated to be the 5 th  Largest exporter of coffee, beef, soya  Large amounts of oil, rare earth minerals  Cultures in Brazil are very different  Sao Paulo – center of banking, industrial, insurance industries  Portuguese language – proud of their language  Slums and favelas were largely self-governing  Rocinha – primary distributor of cocaine (60%) in Brazil o One of the few saint favelas o Half of earnings from cocaine industry went to police to pay them off every month o Pay off higher up classed police to tell them if raids were going to happen  Portuguese did not bring women with them when they were colonizing Brazil  Enslaved West Africans and shipped them over  Brazil is the 2d largest Black African country in the world after Nigeria  There was a lot of mixing of races in Brazil; not the same racism as in US or South African Apartheid  Cocaine increased the level of homicide in Brazil by more than 3x in only a span of 7 years in the 1980s  In the 1980s, Brazil became a major transit group from Colombia to Europe  Highest per capita addiction rate of heroin is Iran  Gangs started using profit from cocaine to buy weapons (late 1980s)  PCC – largest criminal organization in Sao Paulo  By 1990s, there are 3 organizations who control the favelas: Red command, third command, friends of friends o Fight each other (turf wars) for cocaine  Poverty + inequality = involvement in drugs trade  3 pillars of power – monopoly of violence, support from community (provided basic necessities that the state was failing to do), corruption of the police  Pacification – sending in powerful security forces in favela, disarming gangs and trying to arrest or kill them during raids; placing police inside favela to prevent return of gangs  Brazil has around 50,000 murders every year due to War on Drugs  ▯ ▯


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