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Notes for Quiz 3

by: Edward Avakian

Notes for Quiz 3 Soc Sci 120

Edward Avakian
GPA 3.62

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Lectures 9-11 and notes from the Honduran article that will be on Quiz 3
Transnational Gangs
Al Valdez
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Edward Avakian on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc Sci 120 at University of California - Irvine taught by Al Valdez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Transnational Gangs in Social Sciences at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
Soc Sci 120 9 lecture th 02/09/2016 ▯ The drug war is now world wide with US allies ▯ ▯ There are no more Tijuana born people who live in Tijuana; only the Sinaloa cartels live there since it is the closest city to America ▯ ▯ There are drive-by shooting drills in elementary schools in TJ (Tijuana) ▯ ▯ Violence changes you ▯ ▯ Students collect “souvenirs” with their cellphones ▯ ▯ DEA research suggest that the majority of drugs that are sold and consumed illegally in the country are imported from foreign countries via our neighbors to the north and south ▯ ▯ Canada and Mexico have both been ports ▯ ▯ Mexican drug cartels/ trafficking organizations are Sullivan and Bunker generation three gangs ▯ ▯ 8 HIDTA regions (High intensity drug trafficking association)  Southwest  Pacific  Unique gang behaviors and drug consumption in all 8 areas Robin Hood concept = happening today in south Georgia Marijuana is #1 illegal drug used in America If we divided country in half, as far as CNS stimulants, the western half #1 is methamphetamine; the eastern half #1 is cocaine International corridors  Asian Organizations o East coast and southwest corner of America  Colombian Organizations o Tend to be in eastern half of US; that’s probably why cocaine is #1 CNS stimulant  Mexican organizations o Cartels operate in over 1,200 cities in the United States o Since 90% of all illegal drugs come from southern border, cartels are held responsible ▯ ▯ Drug consumption is part of the international drug sales ▯ ▯ Mexican (DTO’s) have emerged as the primary drug traffickers in almost every region of our country ▯ ▯ Atlanta, Georgia is the eastern hub; Los Angeles is the western hub ▯ ▯ Infrastructure = railroads, bus routes, truck routes, air routes ▯ ▯ There can be a family connection to transnational crime ▯ ▯ Jamaican posses are formed in Jamaica and imported to America ▯ ▯ Shower posses = posses that would “shower” individuals with bullets ▯ ▯ Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and meth as well as pharmaceuticals and other dangerous drugs pose varying threats to the country ▯ ▯ Illinois has the highest density of gang members in America, not California ▯ ▯ Indoor cultivation of marijuana video ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Soc Sci 120 10 lecture th 02/11/2016 ▯ Special Guest Lecture (we are responsible for the material for the quiz)  Santa Ana has a really high incarceration rate  “Placas, the Most dangerous tattoo”  Central American Resource Center  In 2008, there was a specific case that woke up the city around immigration and gangs in San Francisco  Sanctuary City Policy – meant to support Central American refugees escaping war; strong until 2008-09  If a juvenile gets arrested in sanctuary city and go to juvy, their juvenile status will not be shared  Bologna Case – 3 men, father and 2 sons were murdered over moving a car; Edwin Ramos, member of MS-13 was the shooter  Sanctuary City Policy was removed thereafter  Placa – multiple meanings; play is about a guy covered in tattoos who leaves the gang; only way he can leave the gang is if he removes all his tattoos; he wants to be a father to his child ▯ ▯ Alex Sanchez (main story behind the play)  1996 – going through personal time in his life when he needed to figure out who he was  he was a father of a young boy who’s mother had abandoned, who was also in the gang  undocumented, been deported before  he didn’t want to be a gang member, go to prison anymore  He wanted to be someone who made a difference in his life and his child’s life  Fleeing El Salvador  All he wanted was for his son to say that he had a good father  His mother took care of Alex’s son and did not want for him to get hurt if he were to go out with Alex  La Sombra Negra “The Black Shadow” = war in El Salvador  La Mirada is a gang that started here as well  Gangs came together and started an organization  The word “homies” came about since El Salvadoran women didn’t agree with the word “homeboys”  MSS13 = extra S was for “stoner”  13 = significant to bad luck, evil, not for loyalty to Mexican Mafia  Misinformation gets you killed easily ▯ ▯ SocSci 120 11 lecture th 02/16/2016 ▯ Mark Emery is the Prince of Pot ▯ ▯ Average age to start smoking weed is 16-17 in the US ▯ ▯ Addiction is the disease of the brain ▯ ▯ If you go to the police asking for drug addiction help, you can’t get in trouble for it ▯ ▯ Meth is a growing concern in country, Mexican (DTO’s) are supplying large quantities of top grade drugs (Ice) to distributors throughout the country ▯ ▯ Mark Emery has extracted THC from weed and made specific doses to help people ▯ ▯ There is a medical value in marijuana ▯ ▯ You can’t die from smoking marijuana ▯ ▯ You fall asleep from ODing on marijuana ▯ ▯ Frequent use of pot = at least 3 times a week ▯ ▯ You can get physically addicted to marijuana (small percentage) ▯ ▯ Orgasm = best feeling you can physically have; the high from meth has been described as 2-3x higher than an orgasm ▯ ▯ Dopamine = hormone that is released from smoking meth ▯ ▯ Mexican (DTO’s) are strengthening their position in the region by establishing alliances with street, prison, and Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMG’s) ▯ ▯ Street, prison and OMGs are the primary distributors of drugs ▯ ▯ Robin hood effect = people don’t want to turn in the people who take care of them ▯ ▯ El Salvador = most violent country in the world today; more than 1 homicide in the country every day ▯ th rd ▯ MS13 and 18 street are Sullivan and Bunker 3 generation gangs in El Salvador; have de facto governments ▯ ▯ Canadian marijuana is transported by traffickers into the region ▯ ▯ International criminal groups, including trans gangs tend to be illegal immigrants or first gen US citizens who have fled their perspective home lands to the US in search of a better life ▯ ▯ It’s usually the children of 1 generation parents that get st involved with gangs ▯ ▯ The primary person people leave ▯ ▯ Refugee = one is leaving the country due to violence ▯ Immigrants = one is leaving the country in search for a better place (difference is violence) ▯ ▯ In jail, you are separated by gang affiliation, not by race ▯ ▯ MS13 will kill just for the sake of killing ▯ ▯ Media is the greatest propaganda tool this country has ▯ ▯ MS13 is not the world’s most dangerous gang ▯ ▯ Corruption is one of the biggest problems in Mexico ▯ ▯ Joining gangs is a survival mechanism for many kids ▯ ▯ Deportees are usually hired as muscle for gang members ▯ ▯ In Mexico and Central America, there is a growing number of addicts, and they don’t want to deal with that ▯ ▯ Review  Marijuana = most popular illegal drug in America  Meth is most dangerous because it is highly addictive  America’s drug appetite fueling the importation  Mexican cartels can have direct relationships with US based street, prison and OMGs ▯ ▯ 94 year old woman  she had 6 kilos of marijuana strapped to her and was smuggling drugs across the border ▯ ▯ Mexico is our #1 trade partner  Mexico grows marijuana, produce meth, and transports/distributes cocaine (does not produce cocaine)  Mexico is the largest foreign supplier of marijuana and meth to the US  Primary distributor of cocaine for US  Every 12 minutes, there is a kidnapping in Mexico  Mexico accounts for about 90% of cocaine in US ▯ ▯ The cartels have diversified their operations (money laundering, drugs, fraudulent goods, etc) ▯ ▯ Street and prison gang members are involved in this international drug business ▯ ▯ Local drug users are part of the international drug trade/market ▯ ▯ Drugs are behind most of the violence in California state prisons ▯ ▯ You can pay people off with drugs for hits in prisons ▯ ▯ Prison gangs are part of the international drug market ▯ ▯ The Hector Model  A Latin King gang member in Chicago; son of Mexican immigrants  19 years old; wears the uniform of his gang and has never traveled outside the city  Hector gets the crack and sells in the streets of Chicago  It has most likely been touched and handed down at least 2-3 times  He makes about 50 dollars profit/day  There is a myth about local drug dealers today; you think you will rise in being a dealer but that is not the case anymore since the drug cartels have a direct relationship with buyers ▯ ▯ The Hector Model refers to street drug dealers throughout the world ▯ ▯ Primary source of income is through drug sales ▯ ▯ ▯ Honduran Gangs Article ▯ Among the areas hardest hit are the country’s urban centers. For example, San  Pedro Sula, Tegucigalpa, and La Ceiba. These are also areas where the gangs Mara  Salvatrucha (MS13) and Barrio 18 have the greatest presence and influence.  ▯ ­Late 1990s, following legislation in the United States that led to increased  deportation of ex­convicts, numerous MS13 and Barrio 18 members arrived in the  country.  ▯ ­Gov’t responded by passing “iron fist” legislation and arresting thousands of  suspected gang members. The policy allowed them to consolidate their leadership within  the prison system, expand their economic portfolios and make contact with other criminal organizations.  ▯ ­Barrio 18 and MS13 are smaller operations than previously understood.   Membership comes at a high price. The youngest members may be forced into service, and many of them leave without ever becoming full members. ▯ ­All major gangs in Honduras rely on extortion revenue from the public transport  sector.  ▯ ▯ History ▯ 1970s and 1980s there was presence of small and local gangs. For example, La  Killer, Los Fantom, Los Nazi.  ▯ ­Few of these youth gangs engaged in large­scale violence or organized crime of  the type we see today.   Goal was to dominate NOT kill.  ▯ ­Deportees that arrived in the 90s in Honduras included members of MS13, the  Barrio 18, the Mau Maus, and the Vatos Locos—california gangs whose rivalries were  already filling juvenile detention centers, jails and morgues in the United States.  ▯ ­MS13 and Barrio 18 were and remain part of the Surenos.  ▯ ­“jump in” remains a fundamental part of gang identity.  ▯ ­By 1990s, Barrio 18 had five operational cells, “cliques” in San Pedro Sula.  ▯ ­Legislation in Honduras criminalized illicit association with gangs.  ▯ ­As a result, there was a boom in prison population.  ▯ ­the country’s prisons are at 189% capacity ▯ ­This mass incarceration changed the gangs criminal economy. They resorted to  extortion of small businesses and public transport.  ▯ ▯ Geographic presence ▯ Tegucigalpa controlled by Barrio 18 ▯ ­MS13 has leadership in both El Salvador and Honduras.  ▯ ­Tela has a strong base of operations by MS13.  ▯ ­Colonias are fundamental to the way that the gangs are organized and expanded.  ▯ ­Clicas=small cells of operators.  ▯ ▯ Structure and modus operandi of Barrio 18   Nominally hierarchical in structure but the true nature of their operation is  more horizontal.   Top figure is referred to as the “toro,” or bull.   Top of the clique is a “homie” and each homie has a number of soldiers below him.   Below the rank of soldier is “paisas”  Firmes are on the verge of becoming soldiers.   Below paisas are banderas that are not yet members and often forcibly  recruited. Age: 6 and 14.   Girl friends play an important role too such as dealing drugs, managing  finances, take money and drugs into prisons for bulls and other gang members who are on the inside.   Remains dependent on extortion within their areas of influence, which is  turning the local population against them.   Seeks to control the drug economy.   Barrio 18 has the rep for being the more violent of the two gangs.   Fight security forces   Little evidence to suggest that it is close to developing deeper relationships  with trans drug trafficking organizations.   Stopped putting known gang tattoos in visible places on their body.  Extortion on the macro level mostly involves collection from the taxi and bus  collectives.   Theft and resale is another form of revenue. Cars  Has a loose code of conduct. o Respect the hood ▯ MS13 structure and modus operandi   Nominally hierarchical in structure but the true nature of their operation is  more horizontal.   At the top is a “palabrero” and is typically incarcerated. They keep  communication with their members on the street as well as relatives and  leaders of gangs in other countries.   Imprisoned members are often referred to as “old men”  El Salvador is trying to join the international market.   Chief has a colonia under his purview.   Chiefs have a sergeant or a second­in­command.   To achieve security, MS13 have ‘locos’  they keep a close eye on what MS13  calls mules.   Flags notifies the locos whenever anyone who is not from the hood trespasses.  Policy of avoiding local extortion, which has helped the gang forge a more  benevolent image.   Relies heavily on revenue from local drug peddling at the local level.   Does not fight security forces.   Stopped putting known gang tattoos in visible places on their body.  Stricter codes of discipline and internal rules regarding behavior.   Women are not allowed into the gang ▯ ­Both gangs recruited more selectively, so that the core membership were fewer,  but more dedicated—more willing to demonstrate their dedication through violence.  ▯ ­Gang has increasingly sought underage youth for operations.  ­Honduran law “anti­mara” has no clear definition of what constitutes a gang member.  ▯ ­There is so much gang­related violence in Honduras because of territory.   Territory is about physical space that grants access to revenue streams, via  activities such as extortion and drug peddling. Also, ensures more recruits and enhances a gang’s status.   Personal matter as well when speaking about territory.  ▯ ­Other gangs in Honduras can be broken down into three major categories:  derivatives, militias, and “barras bravas” ▯ ­derivatives are born from other criminal groups such as MS13 or Barrio 18.  ▯ ­militias develop from frustration with the gov’t to combat street gangs  themselves. Example, los pumas.  ▯ ­Barras bravas are soccer clubs that engender passionate, strong fan bases. They  support their soccer clubs with so much passion that causes outbreaks of violence  between barras seeking to “defend the honor” of their soccer club. 


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