EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabelle Hue on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT3080 at University of Cincinnati taught by Heather Vough in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
teams-Two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task- oriented purpose.</em> —differ from groups in that they are dependent work teams- A relatively permanent team in which members work together to produce goods and/or provide services, long life span and high member involvement —ex self managed work team, production team, sales team, sports team management team- A relatively permanent team that participates in managerial-level tasks that affect the entire organization, long life span, moderate member involvement —ex top management team parallel teams- o>A team composed of members from various jobs within the org anization that meets to provide recommendations about importan t issues, lifespan varies, member involvement is low —ex. quality circle, advisory council project teams-oA team formed to take on one- time tasks,</em> <em>most of which tend to be complex and re quire input from members from different functional areas, life span varies, member involvement varies —ex. product design team, research group, planning team, team teach* actions teams -oA team of limited duration that performs complex tasks in conte xts that tend to be highly visible and challenging, professor Vough does not care about this type of team varies/varies —ex. surgical team, musical group, expedition team, sports team VARIATIONS WITHIN TEAM TYPES Virtual teams- oA team in which the members are geographically dispersed,</e m> <em>and interdependent activity occurs through e-mail, web conferencing,</em> <em>and instant messaging 5 STAGES OF TEAM PROGRESSION 1. forming-The first stage of team development, during which members try to get a feel for what is expected of the m, what types of behaviors are out of bounds,and who's in charge 2. storming-The second stage of team development, during which conflict occurs due to members' ongoing commitment to ideas they bring with them to t he team, 3. norming-The third stage of team development, during which members realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals and consequently begin to cooperate, 4. performing- The fourth stage of team development,during which members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress toward goals, 5. adjourning-The final stage of team development, during which members experience anxiety and other emotions as they disengage and ultimately separate from the team, ****situations in which team development sequence is less applicable…. punctuated equilibrium- A sequence of team development during which not much gets do ne until the halfway point of a project,after which teams make nec essary changes to complete the project on time TEAM INTERDEPENDENCE INTERDEPENDENCE 3 TYPES Task Interdependence 4 types 1. task interdependence- The degree to which team members interact with and rely on othe r team members for information,</em> <em>materials,and reso urces needed to accomplish work for the team.</em>*most complicated form of interdependence • pooled interdependence- 0A form of task independence in which group members complete their work assignments independently,</em> <em>and then the ir work is simply added together to represent the group's output, track team, sales team • sequential interdependence- 0A form of task interdependence in which group members perfor m different tasks in a prescribed sequence,</em> <em>and me mbers depend on only the member who comes before them in the sequence, relay, assembly line • reciprocal interdependence -0A form of task interdependence in which group members intera ct with only a limited subset of other members to complete the te am's work, architecture firms, subgroups that that work together and don’t talk so to other groups • comprehensive interdependence-0A form of task interdependence in which team members have a gre at deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the collaboration involved in accomplishi ng the team's work, IDO (novel solutions to products, innovative) brainstorming—pros=more novel ideas and adapt quickly, cons=takes a lot of time, can reduce productivity 2. goal interdependence- 0>The degree to which team members have a shared goal and ali gn their individual goals with that vision, 3. outcome interdependence- 0 >The degree to which team members share equally in the feed back and rewards that result from the team achieving its goals, social interdependence theory-the way rewards are structure will determine team dynamics—>individual=competition (high motivation) —>team=cooperation (low motivation) TEAM COMPOSITION team composition- >The mix of the various characteristics that describe the i ndividuals who work in the team. —Member Roles (see slides) for subtypes of these • role- The behavior a person is generally expected to display in a given context, • leader-staff teams- A type of team that consists of members who make recommendat ions to the leader who is ultimately responsible for team decisions , • team-task roles- Behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team task s • team-building roles- Behaviors that influence the quality of the team's social climate • individualistic roles- Behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of the team, —Member Ability (3 different • disjunctive tasks- Tasks with an objectively verifiable best solution for which the me mber with the highest level of ability has the most influence on te am effectiveness, how good the best person is determines the performance of the team (trivia night with a trivia wiz) (when there a clear cut answer) • conjuntive tasks- Tasks for which the team's performance depends on the abilities o f the team's weakest link, (converse of disjunctive) racing, depends on weakest link (speed tasks) (assembly lines) • additive tasks- Tasks for which the contributions from every member add up to d etermine team performance, (added performance of everyone) (tug of war) —Member Personality —Diversity • team diversity- The degree to which team members are different from one anothe r, • value in diversity problem-solving approach- A theory that supports team diversity because it provides a larger pool of knowledge and perspectives, • similarity-attraction approach- A theory explaining that team diversity can be counterproductive because people tend to avoid interacting with others who are unli ke them, • surface level diversity- Diversity of observable attributes such as race, gender, ethnicity, and age • deep level diversity- Diversity of attributes that are inferred through observation or exp erience,</em> <em>such as one's values or personality —Team size 4-5 is best TERMS personality-oThe structures and propensities inside a person tha t explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought,</em> <em >emotion,</em> <em>and behavior. Personality reflects what p eople are like and creates their social reputation.</em> traits-o-Recurring trends in people's responses to their environm ent cultural values- oShared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture that influence the expression of traits HOW CAN WE DESCRIBE WHAT EMPLOYEES ARE LIKE THE BIG 5 TAXONOMY BIG FIVE- oThe five major dimensions of personality including conscientious ness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion. • conscientiousness-oOne of the “Big Five” dimensions of person ality reflecting traits like being dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering.— accomplishment striving • agreeableness-One of the ”Big Five” dimensions of personality r eflecting traits like being kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, courteous, and warm.—communion striving • neuroticism-One of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality refle cting traits like being nervous, moody, emotional,insecure, jealous, and unstable,—negative affectivity —associated with differential exposure and differential reactivity —external locus of control—a person who is neurotic in the same situation as someone who is not will feel more stress, they fear they cannot handle that stress • openness to experience- One of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality reflecting traits lik e being curious, imaginative, creative,complex, refined, and sophisticated “castle" • extraversion-One of the “Big Five” dimensions of personality refl ecting traits like being talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant.—easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situations status striving—positive affectivity accomplishment striving-A strong desire to accomplish task- related goals as a means of expressing one's personality communion striving- A strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing one's personality, zero acquaintance- Situations in which two people have just met, status striving- Astrong desire to obtain power and influence within a social struct ure as a means of expressing one's personality, positive affectivity-A dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation, negative affectivity- A dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance, differential exposure-Being more likely to appraise day-to- day situations as stressful, thereby feeling that stressors are encountered more frequently differential reactivity- Being less likely to believe that one can cope with the stressors ex perienced on a daily basis locus of control- Whether one believes the events that occur around him or her are self-driven or driven by the external environment, myers-briggs type indicator (MBTI)- oA personality framework that evaluates people on the basis of fo ur types or preferences: extraversion versus introversion, sensing versus intuition, thinking versus feeling, and judging versus perceiving, RIASEC model- An interest framework summarized by six different personality typ es including realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional, interests-oExpressions of personality that influence behavior thr ough preferences for certain environments and activities, culture-oThe shared values, beliefs, motives, identities, and inter pretations that result from common experiences of members of a society and are transmitted across generations individualism-collectivism-oThe degree to which a culture has a loosely knit social framework (individualism) or a tight social fra mework (collectivism), team process- The different types of activities and interactions that occur within a team as the team works toward its goals. WHY ARE SOME TEAMS MORE THAN THE SUM OF THEIR PARTS? process gain- When team outcomes are greater than expected based on the ca pabilities of the individual members process loss- When team outcomes are less than expected based on the capabi lities of the individual members, 2 Forces Foster Process Loss 1. coordination loss-first force that fosters process lossProcess loss due to the time and energy it takes to coordinate work activities with other team members,-causes process loss, and is driven by production blocking • production blocking- A type of coordination loss resulting from team members having t o wait on each other before completing their own part of the team task, 2. motivation loss- oProcess loss due to team members' tendency to put forth less eff ort on team tasks than they could • social loafing- A type of motivational loss resulting from members feeling less ac countable for team outcomes relative to independent work that re sults in individually identifiable outcomes, TASKWORK PROCESSES-3 TYPES taskwork processes- The activities of team members that relate directly to the accompl ishment of team tasks. • creative behavior-coming up with novel and useful solutions • decision making • boundary spanning TASKWORK PROCESSES 1. creative behavior • brainstorming-a team process used to generate creative ideas. • nominal group technique- A team process used to generate creative ideas, whereby team members individually write down their ideas and th en take turns sharing them with the group-offshoot of brainstorming that addresses some of its limitations 2. Decision Making • -3 factors that account for a teams ability to make effective decisions 1. decision informity- The degree to which team members possess adequate informatio n about their own task responsibilities 2. staff validity- The degree to which team members make good recommendation s to the team leader, 3. hierarchal sensitivity- The degree to which the team leader effectively weighs the recom mendations of the members 3. Boundary Spanning(going beyond the team) boundary spanning- Interactions among team members and individuals and groups wh o are not part of the team • ambassador activities-oBoundary- spanning activities that are intended to protect the team, persuade others to support the team, or obtain important resources for the team—being politically savvy and selling your team and its product. attempt to develop sponsors in management, vertical interaction (relationship mgmt up the chain of command • task coordinator activities-Boundary- spanning activities that are intended to coordinate task-related iss ues with people or groups in other functional areas,—horizontal interaction with other teams and parts of the organization, involves getting feedback, trading services, pushing each other to reach deadlines • scout activities-Boundary- spanning activities that are intended to obtain information about t echnology, competitors, or the broader marketplace, gathering info useful to the team, often involves interaction outside the organization ****this is important in that teams develop personalities-or ways of managing their boundaries TEAMWORK PROCESSES teamwork processes- The interpersonal activities that promote the accomplishment of t eam tasks but do not involve task accomplishment itself 1. transition processes-Teamwork processes, such as mission analysis and planning, that focus on preparation for future work in the team, 2. action processes-Teamwork processes, such as helping and coordination, that aid in the accomplishment of teamwork as the work is actuall y taking place, 3. interpersonal processes-Teamwork processes, such as motivating and confidence building, that focus on the management of relationships among team mem bers, ◦ relationship conflict- Disagreements among team members with regard to interpersona l relationships or incompatibilities in personal values or preference s—universally bad, not work related, threats building cohesion ◦ task conflict- Disagreements among members about the team's task, arguments about goals objectives, small to mediums amounts its good for the team (devils advocacy), in high amounts its bad ◦ process conflict-how should we be doing our work, who is responsible for what and how things should be delegated, graph skewed more left than task conflict, low amount is good—no more than that COMMUNICATION Factors that influence communication process • communicator issues • noise-5 types ◦ biased interpretation-people hear what they want to hear ◦ message distortion-convey message in a way that puts them in a positive light, saying thing people wanna hear rather than the truth ◦ message tuning-tailoring a message based on a particular recipient—(encoding)-think you and kels-we assume we understand each other and will be able to extrapolate, doesn’t always work though and can be problematic ◦ perspective-taking failures-lack of understanding of someone else’s point of view—don’t know what the other knows and therefore can’t convey messages clearly—experts aren’t always the best teachers, the best are those who have done it once because they get how it may be hard ◦ indirect speech acts-beat about the bush, “its getting cold in here” for close the door lol you do this all the time • information richness • network structure communication-The process by which information and meaning i s transferred from a sender to a receiver. • information richness- The amount and depth of information that is transmitted in a mes sage • network structure- The pattern of communication that occurs regularly among each member of a team — —leadership predictability——avg group satisfaction—— range in member satisfaction wheel network-very high——low——high Y network —high——low——high chain network-moderate—moderate—moderate circle network-low—moderate—low all channel network—low-high-low **some of these have a clear leader/someone with more power, can be good, but can access limit access to information TEAM STATES team states- Specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working t ogether • cohesion-A team state that occurs when members of the team d evelop strong emotional bonds to other members of the team and to the team itself—emotional attachment to the team —high levels of cohesion=high commitment and high motivation— conducive to group think—not really correlated to task performance—high consensus-not conducive to task conflict which may hurt performance? ◦ group think- Behaviors that support conformity and team harmony at the expe nse of other team priorities, • potencty-A team state reflecting the degree of confidence amon g team members that the team can be effective across situations and tasks, higher task performance • mental models- The degree to which team members have a shared understanding of important aspects of the team and its task, degree to which members have matched perceptions • transactive memory- The degree to which team members' specialized knowledge is int egrated into an effective system of memory for the team, (Voughs favorite) ◦ specialized knowledge is distributed—expertise distributed—bar back knows the knowledge of drinks so when a customer asks he can ask bar tender (ky basketball team ex. in slides) ◦ members know who has what knowledge HOW IMPORTANT ARE TEAM PROCESSES? TEAM TRAINING 4 TYPES 1. transportable teamwork competencies- Team training that involves helping people develop general team work competencies that they can transport from one team contex t to another 2. cross training- Training team members in the duties and responsibilities of their t eammates, • personal clarification - Training in which members simply receive information regarding t he roles of the other team members, • positional modeling- Training that involves observations of how other team members p erform their roles, • positional rotation- Training that gives members actual experience carrying out the re sponsibilities of their teammates 3. team process training- The use of team experiences that facilitates the team's ability to f unction and perform more effectively as an intact unit • action learning- Team process training in which a team has the opportunity to wor k on an actual problem within the organization, 4. team building- oFun activities that facilitate team problem solving, trust, relationship building, and the clarification of role responsibilities WHEN ARE TEAMS A REALLY GOOD IDEA —when 1 person can’t do it alone —when problems are complex and you need creative solutions that draw on multiple sources of knowledge —when the task is not extremely time sensitive —when satisfaction is more important than efficiency leadership-The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement. POWER 5 MAJOR TYPES, power-The ability to influence the behavior of others and resist u nwanted influence in return. ORGANIZATIONAL POWER FORMS 3 • legitimate power- >A form of organizational power based on authority or position— based on hierarchy and job description, given right to power by position in organization——*guidelines for use-dont exceed scope of authority(don’t ask employees to do your laundry) • reward power- A form of organizational power based on the control of resources or benefits—controlling resources valued by others (materials, money, equipment) • coercive power- A form of organizational power based on the ability to hand out pu nishment, authority over punishment, fueled by fear of negative consequences (dismissal demotion, make do unpleasant tasks)— guidelines for use—avoid unless necessary, provide warning, beware of side effects (retaliation) PERSONAL POWER FORMS 2 *most effective when leader is central to work process, highly visible, have discretion, and are the sole controllers of resources and information—stronger impact on commitment and performance • expert power- form of organizational power based on expertise or knowledge— can have a dark side—keeping procedure/techniques secret, using jargon—guidelines for us (must maintain knowledge advantage, don’t make rash/dumb decisions, could lose power)—doctor camel smokes commercial doctors=experts and they smoke so its okay to smoke • referent power- A form of organizational power based on the attractiveness and c harisma of the leader, leads to identification with the person in power—guidelines for use—be supportive and fair, show positive regard for others most likely to be able to use their power---- • when the resources they control are non-substitutabnle • when managers have high levels of discretion • when ones job is central and critical to the organization • when the power and position are highly visible to others substitutability -The degree to which people have alternatives i n accessing the resources a leader controls, discretion-The degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own, centrality-How important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasks, visibility—How aware others are of a leader and the resources th at leader can provide INFLUENCE 10 TACTICS **leaders can use 10 tactics to achieve their objectives influence-The use of behaviors to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others, **not only used downward, you can influence your boss or peers TACTICS MOST EFFECITVE TACTICS 4 • rational persuasion - The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show someone tha t a request is worthwhile (only tactic that is consistently successful with upward influence) (12 angry man, uses rational info to convince them not to convict) • inspirational appeal- An influence tactic designed to appeal to one's values and ideals, </em> <em>thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reactio n, dad give me more money for food because you want me to be healthy • consultation-An influence tactic whereby the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request— get the person you are trying to influence in on the decision—you wanna take a day off in march, sit down with boss and say like what day will work best, more likely to buy into decision • collaboration-Seen as both a conflict resolution style and an infl uence tactic whereby both parties work together to maximize out comes, NOT on exam MODERATE LEVELS OF EFFECTIVENESS 4 • ingratiation -The use of favors,compliments,</em> <em>or frie ndly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer, suck up/brown nosing, best way to do this is obviously not to be obvious, by starbucks for someone for a month before you ask not the just once right before you ask • personal appeals- An influence tactic in which the requestor asks for something bas ed on personal friendship or loyalty, I’ve been so loyal to you so you should be loyal for me • exchange tactics- An influence tactic in which the requestor offers a reward in return for performing a request, take walt out ill scratch your back • apprising-An influence tactic in which the requestor clearly expla ins why performing the request will benefit the target personally LEAST EFFECTIVE 2 • pressure->An influence tactic in which the requestor attempts to use coercive power through threats and demands, • coalitions-An influence tactic in which the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target RESPONSES TO INFLUENCE TACTICS 4. internalization-A response to influence tactics where the target agrees with and becomes committed to the request, 5. compliance-When targets of influence are willing to do what the l eader asks but do it with a degree of ambivalence, 6. resistance-When a target refuses to perform a request and puts f orth an effort to avoid having to do it, (pressure and coalition) POLITICS **politcal behavior is most likely to occur in organizational situations where individual outcomes are uncertain organizational politics- Individual actions directed toward the goal of furthering a person' s own self-interests. political skills- The ability to understand others and the use of that knowledge to influence them to further personal or organizational objectives, CONFLICT RESOLUTION 5 STYLES *leaders use power and influence to resolve conflicts through 5 conflict resolution styles- • competing-A conflict resolution style by which one party attempt s to get his or her own goals met without concern for the other pa rty's results, • avoiding -A conflict resolution style by which one party wants to r emain neutral,</em> <em>stay away from conflict,</em> <em >or postpone the conflict to gather information or let things cool down, • accommodating-A conflict resolution style by which one party gi ves in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way, • collaboration->Seen as both a conflict resolution style and an in fluence tactic whereby both parties work together to maximize ou tcomes, most effective and most difficult tactic this is the one you want to aim for • compromise NEGOTIATION **leaders use both distributive and integrative bargaining strategies to negotiate outcomes-4 steps in negotiation **negotiation is a choice 4. more than 50% of job applicants negotiate at all 5. of MBA students 57% of men but only 7% of woman negotiate-can be an explainer for wage gaps 6. masters students who negotiated raised salaries by 7.4% (4,000$) 7. takes 9 years longer to make the money you would have if you negotiated WHY NOT NEGOTIATE • fear of employers perception—when actually you are perceive more positively if you negotiate • fear of losing the offer—FALSE • fear of conflict/emotion—it can be uncomfortable to negotiate-it doesn’t have to be uncomfortable • fear of employers power—they’ve chosen you, so you hold some of the power • fear of negotiating poorly (only valid fear of these ◦ BOTTOM LINE 100% of recruiters say it is good to negotiate, as long as its done professionally BASICS • interests-why you want what you want, (comfy life, prestige, equality, pay off mortgage) • positions-what you tell the other party you want out of negotiations (driven by interests) (higher salary, car with all the bells and whistles, luxury apt) • interests are the foundation of positions (if th other party understands your interests, they can be creative in getting you what you want • BATNA-best alternative outside the negotiation—back up plan, it is outside of current negotiation, can’t agree on salary-stay in school —there is always a BATNA, know your BATNA!!!! BATNA is a source of power(if you don’t know it, then you can get stuck, BATNA gives you a sort of way out, power in this) negotiation-A process in which two or more interdependent indiv iduals discuss and attempt to reach agreement about their differe nces. NEGOTIATION STRATEGIES • distributive bargaining- A negotiation strategy in which one person gains and the other pe rson loses, fixed pie(you gain = amount that partner loses)-zero sum game • congruent-same preferences (not always evident) crucial to recognize these or its a lose lose • integrative bargaining- A negotiation strategy that achieves an outcome that is satisfying for both parties,(different preferences-can feel distributive) but different emphasis on preferences allow for trades to help both sides, are NOT compromises (have to talk about more than one at once) books and weeks—>one party care more about one term and the other the other (utility is is inverse but on different scales) successful negotiations end in integrative solutions-with most parties getting most of what they want-leads to more stable outcomes/relationships, the resolve is more stable (not coming back to renegotiate) BE CREATIVE LOOK FOR INTEGRATIVE NEGOTIATIONS- NEGOTIATION PROCESS 4 STAGES 1. preparation- The first stage of the negotiation process,</em> <em>during whi ch each party determines its goals for the negotiation, • BATNA-A negotiator's best alternative to a negotiated agreement, 2. exchanging information- The second stage of the negotiation process,</em> <em>during which each party makes the strongest case for its position, 3. bargaining- The third stage of the negotiation process,</em> <em>during w hich each party gives and takes to arrive at an agreement, 4. closing and commitment- The fourth and final stage of the negotiation process,</em> <em >during which the agreement arrived at during bargaining gets fo rmalized 3RD PARTY RESOLUTIONS alternative dispute resolution- A process by which two parties resolve conflicts through the use o f a specially trained,</em> <em>neutral third party mediation-A process by which a third party facilitates a dispute r esolution process but with no formal authority to dictate a solutio n arbitration-A process by which a third party determines a bindin g settlement to a dispute between two parties WHY ARE SOME LEADERS MORE POWERFUL THAN OTHERS? EFFECTS ON JOB PERFORMANCE/COMMITMENT power and influence have moderate positive relationships with job performance and organizational commitment. however, for these beneficial effects to be realized, leaders must wield their power effectively and rely on effective influence tactics in negotiating outcomes leadership -The use of power and influence to direct the activities of f ollowers toward goal achievement leader-member exchange theory-A theory describing how leader– member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis,\ role taking-The phase in a leader– role making-The phase in a leader– follower relationship when a follower voices his or her own expectation s for the relationship,</em> <em>resulting in a free-flowing exchange of opportunities and resources for activities and effort, leader effectiveness- The degree to which the leader's actions result in the achievement of t he unit's goals, the continued commitment of the unit's employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader– member dyads-effective leader improves performance and overall well being of his unit also cultivates high-quality leader-member exchange relationships on a dyadic basis through role taking and role making processes leader emergence- The process of becoming a leader in the first place, linked to a number of traits including • conscientiousness • disagreeableness • openess • extraversion • general cognitive ability • energy level • stress tolerance • self confidence 3-8 also predict leader effectiveness DECISION MAKING STYLES **from high leader control to high follower control • autocratic style- leadership style where the leader makes the decision alone without ask ing for opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit, • consultative style- A leadership style where the leader presents the problem to employees asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision himself or herself • facilitative style- eadership style where the leader presents the problem to a group of e mployees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else's, • delegative style- A leadership style where the leader gives the employee the responsibili ty for making decisions within some set of specified boundary conditio ns, WHEN ARE THE STYLES MOST EFFECTIVE? **there is no one decision making style that is effective across all situations, the below model offers a guide to choosing the best decision making style based on seven factors and in what combination they are presented time-driven model of leadership- A model that suggests that seven factors, including the importance of the decision, the expertise of the leader, and the competence of the followers, combine to make some decision- making styles more effective than others in a given situation, according tho this model the appropriateness of the above styles depends on the following: • decision significance • the importance of commitment • leader expertise • the likelihood of commitment • shared objectives • employee expertise • teamwork skills DAY-TO-DAY LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS **fall into these 2 categories • initiating structure- A pattern of behavior where the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment—behaviors/duties include 1 initiation 2 organization 3 production sorts of duties • consideration-A pattern of behavior where the leader creates job rela tionships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings-behaviors include 1 membership 2 integration 3 communication 4 recognition 5 representation sorts of duties life cycle theory of leadership- A theory stating that the optimal combination of initiating structure an d consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit, • readiness-The degree to which employees have the ability and the wil lingness to accomplish their specific tasks, 1 telling-When the leader provides specific instructions and c losely supervises performance, 2 selling-When the leader explains key issues and provides o pportunities for clarification 3 participating-When the leader shares ideas and tries to hel p the group conduct its affairs, 4 delegating -When the leader turns responsibility for key be haviors over to employees TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS transformational leadership- A pattern of behavior where the leader inspires followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and vi ew problems from new perspectives-fundamentally changes the way employees view their work-inspires employees to commit to a shared vision or goal that provides meaning and challenge to their work—has a moderate positive relationship with job performance and strong positive relationship with organizational commitment (has a stronger effect on these outcomes than other leadership behaviors) —leaders can be trained to be effective, training often used to increase transformational behaviors— the behaviors that underlie transformational leadership include the 4 I's • idealized influence • inspirational motivation • intellectual stimulation • individualized consideration 1 idealized influence- When the leader behaves in ways that earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the le ader, 2 inspirational motivation- When the leader behaves in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision of the future, 3 intellectual stimulation- When the leader behaves in ways that challenge followers t o be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions an d reframing old situations in new ways, 4 individualized consideration- When the leader behaves in ways that help followers achiev e their potential through coaching, development, and mentoring, laissez-faire leadership- When the leader avoids leadership duties altogether transactional leadership- A pattern of behavior where the leader rewards or disciplines the follow er based on performance, emphasizes “carrot & stick” approaches to motivating employees whereas transformational leadership fundamentally changes the way employees view their work 7. passive management-by-exception- hen the leader waits around for mistakes and errors,</em> <em>then takes corrective action as necessary 8. active management-by-exception- When the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and takes corrective action when required, 9. contingent reward- When the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using rewards in exchange for adequate performance substitutes for leadership model- A model that suggests that characteristics of the situations can constra in the influence of the leader, which makes it more difficult for the leader to influence employee perf ormance, those constrains come in 2 varieties • substitutes-Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of t he leader while simultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance, • neutralizers-Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader and do not improve employee performance in any way,
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