Exam 2 : Review, CRCJ 3300
Exam 2 : Review, CRCJ 3300 CRCJ 3300
Popular in Theoretical Criminology
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Camacho on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRCJ 3300 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Arthur G. Vasquez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Theoretical Criminology in Criminal Justice at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Review CRCJ 3300 : EXAM 2 Test Questions 1. Which of the following is true according to Akers’s theory of Social Structure and Social Learning (SSSL)? Social structural factors indirectly affect behavior. That is, social structural factors affect social learning factors which, in turn, directly affect criminal behavior. Review DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES 1. Know difference between Theories of continuity vs change Theories of continuity: Gottfredson & Hirschic. Argues that: once a trait emerges or becomes part of someone’s personality, this trait is hard to “get rid of”. Individuals can never escape from their low self-control. Behavior is stable and continuous. Heterogeneity to describe how people vary in their orientation toward criminal conduct. Individual trait perspectives tend to be continuity theories. In short, the trait produces continuity in criminal behavior. (Low self theory) Theories of continuity or change: Terrie Moffit. LCP (life course persistent) start antisocial acts early and continue their waywardness into and beyond adolescence. AL (adolescence limited) start and finish their criminality during their teenage years. This theory is to explain why one group, the LCP’s manifest continuity in offending, while the other group AL’s manifest discontinuity or change in offending. Theories of continuity and change: Sampson and Laub. Pathways and turning points thorough life. Pathways – people can be caught in life trajectories that form a continuous line over a substantial time period. Turning points – they were raising the possibility that entering a criminal trajectory is not life sentence. Experience points at which they change and turn away from crime. Explains what creates continuity along criminal pathways and what creates change at key turning points in life. Key agent of change is establishing social bonds. By author Ex: Gottredson & Hirschic what kind of theory is theirs (Low-self theory) it is a continuity theory o Low self control emerges in childhood. o Individuals with low self control will tend to be impulsive, insensitive, physical, risk taking, etc. o Low self control is highly resistant to being altered even if individuals experience fortuitous changes in their life circumstance (good job) or criminal justice system (rehab) o Individuals with low self control carry this bundle forever o Think of the present, not the future. They want it now! Immediate gratification o Link criminal propensity to inadequate parenting 2. Moffitt: Life course persistent: talks about Neuropsychological deficits what does deficits cause? o Normal brain development is disrupted through pre- or postnatal exposure to drugs, poor nutrition, injury, exposure to toxins, lack of stimulation. Resulting in psychological deficits. Which leads to high activity levels, irritability, poor self-control, low cognitive ability. o Verbal & executive functions are important & have been found to be associated with antisocial behavior across the life course. Verbal deficits affect listening, reading, problem solving, expressive speech, writing, and memory. (inattention and impulsivity) During adolescent – who is committing crime? o The age-crime curve peaks because both the LCP’s and AL’s are offending When do most adolescents stop? o When they mature into adults “maturity gap” , when they get a job. o After 18 years old. Finish their criminality during their teenage years 3. Heterogeneity: to describe how people vary in their orientation toward criminal conduct Gottfredson & Hirschi: o What do they say about self control: suggest that an enduring propensity to commit self-control, emerges in childhood. o What does self control explain: link to failure to develop internal controls- failure of parents upervise their children, punish and correct such conduct when It occurs. o What is true of Gottfredson & Hirschi 4. What did Sampson & Laub find when they followed the Glueck’s sample? There is both continuity and change in behavior 5. Sampson & Laub: what can help people transition out of a life of crime? Pathways and turning points characterize a life course. Social bonds Turning points : marriage, employment, military service are potential sources of informal social control that foster desistance from crime. Human agency: subjective reality that affects our decisions. “bringing motivation back in” They predict that adult development is unpredictable. Life is not “unfold” but rather shaped and chosen 6. Sampson & Laub compared to Giordano How does marriage stand for each one? o Sampson & Laub: the marriage present social control o Giordano: the marriage allows cognitive transformation Turning points vs hooks o Turning points – Sampson and Laub o Hooks – Giordano Giordano: o Know the 4 cognitive transformations for change 1. Opennes for change: believe that they can change 2. Exposure to a hook: must see the opportunity as a positive 3. Ability to envision a replacement self: forms a new identity 4. Transformation in how the actor views the deviant behavior or lifestyle itself: no longer sees deviant behavior as positive. The process of desistence is complete at this stage o Replacements self, etc SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION 7. Know the zone (Burgess) Zone 2 (highest crime, cheap housing, recent immigrants, factories) 8. Shaw & Mckay What are the characteristics of inner city & high rates of crime? These caused social disorganization. o Poverty o Rapid population growth o Heterogeneous (diverse) o Transient: people moving in and out quickly What is overall true about their research? o How is delinquency caused? They didn’t really discuss this. However, they suggested that social disorganization referred to the breakdown of the social institutions in a community– argued these changes and forces outside the individual influenced criminal behavior. o Used burgees o Instead, crime tended to be concentrated in particular areas of the city, and importantly, remained relatively stable within different areas despite continual changes in the populations who lived in each area. o Found crime is caused by kinds of places, not kinds of people o Crime was caused because of social disorganization. People were constantly moving, impossible for a value system to develop. o Measured the structural “antecedents” or causes of social disorganization and then examined whether these factors were related to crime 9. Sampson & Wilson What is true of their theory? Structural social disorganization and cultural social isolation o They accept the basic thesis of disorganization theory, that a breakdown of community controls, rooted in structural conditions, is criminogenic. However, they argue that the Chicago was incorrect in seeing social disorganization as a “natural” part of the process by which cities grow. o Racial inequality: macrostructural factors; economic, conscious political decisions consigning African americans to these inner city. Ex: loss of job due to deindustrialization. o Linked to racial inequality o Social isolation: concentrated poverty areas o Culture is the acquisition of “cognitive landscapes” o Develop a tolerance for deviance o They extend social disorganization theory by placing it within the realities of contemporary america Isolated neighborhoods, tolerance, unavoidable What is the cause of crime? 10. How do Sampson, Raudenbush & Earls extend social disorganization? What increases crime rates? o “concentrated disadvantage” – a combined measure of a community’s poverty, race and age composition, and family disruption- is related to neighborhood rates of violence. 11. How do Sampson & Groves extend social disorganization? They actually empirically tested SD Measured social disorganization directly They discovered that , to a large extent, the structural factors predicted their measures of social disorganization and, in turn, that weakly organized areas did indeed have higher crime rates. 12. Collective Efficacy: willingness of community residents to: Exercise informal social control and trust and help each other The perceived ability to community residents to mobilize their stock of social capital to accomplish a collective goal Combination of both internal social control and social cohesion It is not simply being organized and having close social ties, but rather is the “process of activating or converting social ties to achieve desired outcomes” Social disorganization portrayed as a “condition” - static factor 13. Understand concepts of Broken windows theory 14. Sampson & Wilson’s work How do socially disorganized areas emerge? o Because of microstructural factors- some economic, some political decisions- are responsible for disproportionately consigning African americans to these inner cities. LEARNING THEORIES 15. Sutherland (and cressy) differential association What does it argue – that people become criminals because of they are taught. o Argues people learn to engage in criminal behavior. Learn the same way that you learn non-criminal behavior. Both micro & macro level learning theories. Criticisms: Sutherland does not give a good description the definitions favorable or unfavorable to crime. Argued people hold beliefs that approve of, justify, or excuse crime in certain situations. Fails to fully describe the process by which crime is st st learned. Someone has to 1 learn. Who taught the 1 criminal? And how is criminal behavior learned o Learned in interaction in the process of communication o Occurs within intimate personal groups (not the media, papers) How does differential association vary? (4 things) o Frequency: how often o Duration: how long o Priority: how early in life (assume that lawful behavior developed early in childhood may persist through life) o Intensity: how respected is the source (and emotional reactions related to the associations) 16. Akers social learning theory (4 major concepts of social learning theory) Know the difference between o Differential associations: process by which a person is exposed to definitions favorable or unfavorable to illegal behavior. Normative: exposure to different patterns of norms and values. 2 dimensions: behavioral interactional; direct association and interaction with behavior. Primary groups: family and friends. Secondary groups: church, school, and mass media. o Definitions: attitudes or meanings that are attached to a given behavior. Approving attitudes toward crime can be, positive: makes the behavior desirable or neutralizing: justifies or excuses the behavior. o Differential reinforcement: balance of anticipated or actual rewards or punishments that follow or are consequences of behavior. Whether individuals will continue or stop a behavior depends on: past, present, and anticipated rewards and punishments. o Imitation: engagement of behavior after observation of similar behavior in others. Plays a role in the initial acquisition of the behavior. Whether or not the behavior is imitated is affected by characteristics of the model. 17. Know the difference between Reinforcement: negative and positive o Positive: presenting a positive stimulus o Negative: removing an aversive stimulus Punishment: indirect & direct o Indirect: removing a positive stimulus o Direct: presenting an aversive stimulus 18. Aker’s – Social structure & Social Learning (SSSL) What is true about it: indirectly affect behavior CODE OF THE STREET 19. The heart of the concept of the theory? Being treated “right” “respected” Respect is hard-won but easily lost: must be guarded Code provides a framework to getting respect Respect can help someone avoid being bothered and/or “dissed” 20. What does the code suggest? Difference between: Decent & Street families o Decent families: accept mainstream values & instill them in their kids. Value hard work and self-reliance. Value the church and school. Strict in child-rearing practices. Teach kids to respect authority. Morals. o Street families: unable to cope with physical & emotional demands of parenthood. Have superficial & sporadic family relationships. May aggressively socialize their children into the code. Very disorganized. Drug addiction, limited financial resources, and deep-seated bitterness and anger. 21. What is true about the girls & the street code? Copy the boys and try to have own version of manhood o Developed their own sense of honor/status, based on things like beauty and boyfriends. Mainly inner city. o Major cause of conflict “he says, she says” (gossip) o Must defend self against slander (social media fights)
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