History 202 Test Two Study Guide
History 202 Test Two Study Guide HIS 202-003
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by mcunnin4 Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 202-003 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Dr. Chad Gregory in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see History-202-003 in History at Tri-County Technical College.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Matthew Cunningham Test Two Study Guide History-202-001 Homestead Strike (1892): Steel workers at Andrew Carnegie’s factory in Homstead, Pennsylvania factory close to Pittsburg went on strike. The workers in Carnegie factory believed in politics and civic affairs. In 1982 steel prices falling craftsman got replaced with machines to save on labor and wage cost which busted John McLuckie’s union the Amalgamated Association of Iron. Carnegie not wanted to deal with it went to Scotland leaving it to his plant manager Henry Frick. Frick being anti-union built a three mile, 15-foot high fence only allowing those who opposed unions in the plant. On July 1 Frick ordered a lockout. Frick hired detectives to make their way to the entrance but MuLuckie and the community lit a boat on fire. The battle left nine strikers and three detectives dead. Alexander Berkman an anarchist with no ties shot Frick in the neck leaving him wounded. The Pullman Strike (1894): George Pullman was the owner of a luxury sleeping railcar factory outside of Chicago. In times of depression Pullman cut wages but did not cut the rent that it cost his employees to live in the company housing. Pullman workers belonged to the American Railway Union. Lead by Eugene V. Debs. Debs believed that labor organization was an integral part of workers right of political and economic citizenship. The Pullman Strike was broken up by the federal government. Railroad Association convinced Richard Olney a former railroad lawyer that the strike was interfering with the delivery of U.S Mail. After the troops failed to end it, a junction was filled against Debs on other Union Leaders. Usage of the Sherman Anti-Trust act was able to charge Debs and others with contempt and put them in jail ending the strike. Company town - The company owns everything in the town even the houses the workers lived in. - They weren’t paid with real money; they were paid with scrip by the company. - 5 Wage Cuts lead to the strike - American Railway gets involved Union: Eugene Debs The switchman who hookup the trains on the locomotive to boycott it. The court issues Pullman an injunction, an order to stop doing something. In this case it’s an order for the union to stop the strike. Eugene Debs goes to jail for not stopping the strike. Spent six months in jail and believes capitalism is evil and comes out a socialist. Eugenics: Racial Purity Eugenics: Racial Purity Prevented pairing or procreating. Indiana was the first state to pass a Eugenics law in 1902. 65,000 sterilized. This excluded if deemed unfit like feeble minded, insane, etc. The supreme court upheld this in “Buck vs. Bell (1927) “Buck vs. Bell” was overturned in 1942 when we entered WW2. Not wanting to practice what Hitler was doing on a larger scale. No Racial Intermarriage often had to prove they were “racially pure” prior to marriage. Alexander Graham Bell was a champion of eugenics. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911): Factory Location: New York City, Greenwich Village Fire broke out on the 8 floor of the factory th th Quickly spread to the 9 and 10 floor. The ladders on the fire trucks couldn’t reach that high. 9 floor doors were locked to keep workers in. A fire broke out, leaving 146 people killed. The stairways were bolted shut, to cut down on employees going out to take a smoke break. There was elevators, but limited the amount of people that can go down at once. Some escaped the roof and crawled via later to another building top. Fire escape collapsed due to the amount of people on there. Two Choices: Jump Out The Window or Burn. Many jumped to their deaths. Fireman tried to get a tarp to catch them but the velocity was to much and broke the tarp. The owners of the company were acquitted on criminal charges, but in the civil case they had to pay $75 to each victim’s family. After this incident a lot of state passed labor legislation. ‘ No a reform movement, but it leads to a reform. Social Darwinism: Natural Selection Based on the studies of Charles Darwin He wasn’t the first to suggest evolution. “Survival of The Fittest” Competition Progress Excellence Critics in the 1900’s believed that Darwinism justified inequality. NO GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT Survival of the fittest Those who don’t adapt will not succeed. Like Carnegie and Vanderbilt, they could have turned out the same way but decided to make something of themselves. The Jungle (1906): - Upton Sinclair: An author or novelist writer of “The Jungle” - A socialist - “I aimed at the public’s heart, but I hit them in the stomach” - Went undercover at a meatpacking plant in Chicago to show America how tough workers have it. - He showed what was in the meat throughout the book to the American people, often gross. - To remove a hid to remove fur-using acid that burned their fingers off of the workers. - Sometimes men fell in the acid being put in the meat. - Teddy Roosevelt read “The Jungle” to see if it was true with two federal investigators only to find it was worse than the book. - The meat workers wanted regulations; Europe had stopped accepting the US meat because it was so bad. They wanted the European market back. - Based in a meatpacking town in Chicago - Congress responded by passing “The Meat Inspection Act”. Trench Warfare: WW1 transformed Adolf Hitler’s life, he was a runner in WW1. He used his resentment from the Reside Treaty to power his movement. All the trenches combined could circle the globe at least once. 1. Trench Series Usually in 3’s Front Line Support Trench Reserve Trench 2. “Going Over The Top” Come out of trenches try not to get caught in your own barbwire and try to attack the enemy head on. Both had machine guns at this point of time. The saying “Over the top” came from trenchwarfare. 3. Rats, Lice, and Mud -Rats could get as big as cats, from eating corpses. Trench Foot: Feet rotting due to mud and water. Shell Shock: PTSD Basket case: Quadruple amputee, you could carry their torso around in a basket the original meaning. F. Election of 1912 Theodore Roosevelt decided not to run for a third term. Roosevelt picked William Howard Taft to replace him deeming him the best candidate. Roosevelt wasn’t satisfied with Taft’s job as president. 1912 Teddy Roosevelt decides to rerun as president. 1. Bull Moose Party Teddy Roosevelt’s new party. Technically called the “Progressive Party” The name became due to a question where he responded “I feel as fit as a bull moose”. Workers Compensation Social Security Votes for women Should be able to overturn judicial decisions Taft was against overturning judicial decisions. New Nationalism: a program aimed at corporations; instead of breaking up the trust let’s just regulate them with a government agency. Roosevelt divided the trust into two, the good trust and the bad trust. 2. Republicans Leader: William Howard Taft Status Quo: We like things the way they are. Increase the Tariff He was stuck in the White House bathtub, they made one to fit him. 3. Democrats Candidate: Woodrow Wilson He was an academic a professor and later president of Princeton University and the Governor of New Jersey. Promised to lower the tariff: Appealed to farmer. Limit the usage of injunctions: typically used against labor unions. New Freedom: Appealed to small business. “New Freedom” was the opposite of Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism” 4. Socialist Party Candidate: Eugene Debs: Was former the head of the railway union. Wanted to dismantle capitalism Classless Society Thought there was no difference between the Republicans and Democrats Debs wanted to government to take control of big business. Debs ran for president in jail during WW1 and got nearly a million votes. The Republicans Split: Still one part but split right wing and left wing which makes it the conservative party we currently know. The Democratic Party becomes a more liberal party. Woodrow Wilson wins the election. Plessy v. Furguson (1896) Supreme Court Case: Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 It was a test case, intentionally done. Took Place in Louisiana. Homer Plessy was 1/8 black. Supreme Court Ruling: Separate but Equal. This court case was in effect until 1954. Blacks had to swear on a different Bible than Whites in Mississippi. In 1875 the Supreme Court shot down the “Civil Rights Act”. Book Definition: 1896 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the legality of Jim Crow legislation. The Court ruled that as long as Jim Crow laws did not violate the “equal but separate” facilities for whites and black, Jim Crow laws did not violate the equal protection act of the 14 Amendment. Jim Crow: Late 19 Century statutes that established legally defined racial segregation in the South. Jim Crow legislation helped ensure the social and economical inferiority of southern blacks. Booker T. Washington Wanted blacks to obtain Skills and Craft No focus on equality. Born into Slavery Freed under Emancipation Proclamation Educator W. E. B. Du Bois (1903): First Black Man to get a PHD at Harvard. Comprehensive Liberal Believed they should obtain an education Focus on Equality One of the founders of the “National Advancement of Colored People” (NAACP) Separate Spheres: Separate Spears: The women’s place was at home, the men where suppose to be outside the home in the “work sphere”. Thought men and women had different characteristic (competitive vs. submissive, religious vs. less religious) Jacob Coxey: During a time of Economic Depression - Unemployment - The second worst depression behind the great depression, shorter but just as severe. Jacob Coxey: Marches to Washington D.C in order to demand the federal government help with unemployment. People started joining him on his march. He wanted congress to put $500 into public works to create jobs. He was jailed briefly for walking on the White House lawn and charged a fine of $5. Congress said “NO”. Forshadowing of what FDR does with the “New Deal”. The Zimmerman Telegraph (1917) The message went public February 24 1917 A telegram sent from Germany to Mexico. The message was from Arthur Zimmerman the German foreign Minister When decoded Germany promised all the land they lost in the Mexican War back if they declare war on the United States such as Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. The messages never made it, the message was intersected by the British. British didn’t want to admit they were listening to US communication. British made it look like it came from someone in the US and got away with it. The British turned over the message to Woodrow Wilson the president of the United States. In late February and March the German U-Boats sank several US merchant ships. War declared by the US April of 1917. Ida B. Wells/ Lynching The fight against lynching was Lead by Ida B. Wells She was an African American Journalist from Memphis, Tennessee. Spoke about the lynching that took place. Whites were lynched too mainly “cattle rustlers. The Federal Government didn’t make an anti-lynching law until the 1940’s. Schenck v. United States (1919) Fredrick Winslow Taylor: A Philadelphia Engineer Reduced Manual Labor and Independent Action of Workers Stopwatch calculated studies of how to break down jobs into simple task using the least amount of time. The workers were no different than the machine they operated. Used Scientific Management This helped create big outlet stores we know today (Macy’s, Nordstrom’s, etc.) because of the rapid pace these good were created at, the price for them went down. Oppose to people at work who didn’t do the best they could at work. He wanted to get rid of “slacking off” at work. Pioneered “Time and Motion Studies”. -Tried to find the best way to get a job done. More Production Advocated that workers should be paid by “piece rate” based on productivity.
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