Study guide for Final
Study guide for Final PHIL 1020
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PHIL 1030 - 002
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1020 at Auburn University taught by Jody L Graham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
No scantron is necessary. I’ll be in my office December 7 12-1pm if you have any questions. I’ll check emails the evening of the 7 at 9pm and post announcements on CANVAS if necessary. You may use the discussion board to post study sessions you are organizing. Length: Expect about 15 questions like your test questions and then ONE question from part III. You will NOT have a choice of questions for Part III. Here is how to study: Review the study sheet and go through your notes and make charts on key discussions and concepts we’ve studied and the arguments that are relevant for each topic. Write up your written questions, and then break those down into index study cards. Have some “go to” examples to help you out when you need to explain something. Basic Terminology: What IS ETHICS? What distinguishes an empirical claim from a normative claim? What other disciplines are normative? What is it to study metaphysics? epistemology? e.g. when one speaks about the law reflecting the moral order, one is making a metaphysical claim, when one speaks of the inner church vs. organized religion one is making a metaphysical distinction. Logic – Basic argument identification.You should be able to identify premises and conclusions and know what makes a good/bad deductive argument. You should be able to evaluate basic inferences as valid/invalid. Pay attention to arguments like the difference argument for cultural relativism – there is a good chance you will see those on the test. Also, be prepared to explain how to counter certain claims (if something has human DNA it is a person) or inferences (One ought to respect autonomy and so physician assisted suicide is ok). Theories about morality: (see notes and handout on moral theories on Canvas) Here is a question you will get: what is ethics and why must we study it through abstract theories as well as case studies? a) Basics: What is nihilism and how is it different from subjectivism? How is subjectivism different from objectivism? Which theories are objectivist? What is a sign that someone is an objectivist? e.g. what views of happiness did we study that were objectivist? why? What would a subjectivist account of happiness be – and what challenge would you raise for that view? Can you have a mixed view – objectivist and subjectivist – on an account of happiness and what would that be like? b) Make sure you can explain what MAKES acts right/wrong or things good/bad on these theories. Theories we’ve studied: Moral Subjectivism,Cultural Relativism, Divine Command Theory, Utilitarianism, Kantian morality – morality as principles. Use the Dax case to illustrate. Why can’t Subjectivism and cultural relativism capture disagreement and reasoning in ethics? c) Be prepared to discuss objections we’ve raised to test these theories: e.g. subjectivism doesn’t capture genuine moral disagreement, Divine Command Theory leaves God’s commands without reason. Be prepared to compare these theories: e.g. What are Kant’s fundamental objections to a Utilitarian approach to morality, and what does he think his theory captures about morality? Use an example from our class discussion to help show the difference between any of these theories. Particular Moral Problems: For euthanasia and capital punishment, you will be asked to understand the basic arguments that we studies for it and challenges to those arguments. Physician assisted Suicide: Be prepared to evaluate the arguments we discussed in class (see handout on Canvas).What are the challenges that could be raised to these arguments? What is meant by human dignity in this discussion? Capital punishment: why does Berns think that we are justified in having Capital punishment rather than just some other kind of punishment? What is the notion of human desert that Nathanson appeals to?Have some cases in mind to helpexplain your concepts. Abortion and embryo selection: a) Be prepared to explain Marquis, psychological view, interests view and human biological view of personhood– and how the metamorphosis view fits into this debate. Apply to the Nash case. b) Study T homson. e.g. What would Thomson say to someone who said “you knew you might get pregnant and so now you can’t have an abortion”? What is the point of the people seed? violinist? Why did we talk about two meanings of “parent” with Thomson? Doctrine of Double Effect: what is it? what does it say about the Trolley car and harvesting organs? Rawls’s theory of justice:a) what is a social contract view of morality? b) what is the original positionand what is Rawls trying to capture by this concept and the veil of ignorance? What principles would rational beings choose in it according to Rawls? e.g. Dax case– what would we choose for a policy? Part II – You will be given a series of quotes from your reading. You will have a multiple-choice question OR be asked to describe the key point that is being made and its significance in our study of morality (see mid term study sheet for an example) Part III – You will see ONE of these on the test, worth 10% of your exam. But the material may show up in II or I. 1. Write an essay about Capital punishment laying out Berns’ and Nathanson’s arguments. What challenges must each be prepared to address? What do you think is the strongest argument concerning capital punishment? 2. Write an essay on what it is to live a happylife by laying out thehedonist view of happiness, Steindl-Rast’s view and challenges to each view. Then lay out the most promising view, with examples, and defend why it fairs better than its opponents 3. Given our work this term, which two theories seem to be the most plausible accounts of the nature of morality? Explain what the theories are and,using an example, why they seem most plausible while the others fail. Be sure to use the criteria of evaluation that we used at the beginning of class.
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