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Macro (EC102)_ Aggregate Expenditure & Output in the Short Run

by: Linda Perks

Macro (EC102)_ Aggregate Expenditure & Output in the Short Run EC102

Marketplace > Boston University > Economcs > EC102 > Macro EC102 _ Aggregate Expenditure Output in the Short Run
Linda Perks

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These notes cover lecture 8, a little bit about aggregate expenditure as well as output in the short run.
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EC102, Macroeconomics, aggregate expenditure, short run, output
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Linda Perks on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EC102 at Boston University taught by Watson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Macroeconomics in Economcs at Boston University.


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Date Created: 03/02/16
Zara Mahmood Oct 1, 2013 EC102 Lecture 8: Aggregate Expenditure and Output in the Short Run Economy experiences a business cycle around the long-run upward trend in real GDP  Business cycle is the ups and downs in an economy Aggregate Expenditure (AE) – Total spending in the economy: the sum of consumption, planned investment, government purchases, and net exports  When AE and production of goods and services increase by the same amount o Firms will sell what about what they are expected to sell o Probably will not increase/decrease production or workers hired  When AE increases more than production of goods and services o Firms will increase production and hire more workers  When AE does not increase as much as total production o Firms cut back on production and lay off workers (recession) AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE MODEL Aggregate Expenditure Model – A macroeconomic model that focuses on the short- run relationship between total spending and real GDP, assuming that the price level is constant  Level of GDP is determined mainly by the level of aggregate expenditure Aggregate Expenditure Relationship between changes in aggregate expenditure and changes in real GDP  4 components of aggregate expenditure that equal GDP o Consumption, Planned Investment, Government Purchases, Net Exports o AE = C + I + G + NX What is Investment?  Plant and Equipment (78% of all investment)  Housing (19% of all investment)  Inventories (2% of all investment) o Finished goods not yet sold o Raw materials not yet sold o Unfinished goods still in the production process Determinants of Investment  Expectations of future profitability o Optimism or pessimism  Taxes o Higher taxes means less investment Zara Mahmood Oct 1, 2013 EC102 o Corporate income tax o Investment tax incentives  Cash flow  Real interest rate o R increases then investment decreases  More expensive for firms/developers to borrow Financing Alternatives What are a firm’s financing alternatives?  Borrow the money (9%) external o Bank loans o Bonds  Sell ownership shares in the company (2%) external o Stocks  Use their own savings (75%) internal o Retained earnings The Difference between Planned Investment and Actual Investment Inventories – Goods that have been produced but not yet sold  Changes in inventories are included as part of investment spending o Business amount plan to spend may be different from amount actual spent  Spending on machinery, equipment, office buildings, and factories also included o Business actually spends planned amount on this Changes in inventories depend on sales of goods  firms cant always predict  Actual Investment will equal planned investment only when there is no unplanned change in inventories o Unplanned inventory increase  actual investment spending greater o Unplanned inventory decrease  actual investment spending less Macroeconomics Equilibrium Macroeconomics equilibrium occurs when total spending (AE) equals total production (GDP)  AE = GDP Determining the Level of Aggregate Expenditure in the Economy Consumption Consumption follows a smooth, upward trend  Only during periods of recession does the growth in consumption decline Current Disposable Income – Total current income (GDP) after taxes are taken out D and after transfer payments are added  Abbreviate Y Zara Mahmood Oct 1, 2013 EC102  Y – T(tax) + TR(transfer) 5 most important variables that determine level of consumption  Current disposable income o Higher the disposable income, the more they spend o Lower the disposable income, the less they spend o Consumption increases when current disposable income increases  Household wealth o Wealth is the value of its assets minus the value of its liabilities o Assets (stock, bonds, bank accounts) Liabilities (loans,) o Wealth of household increases, consumption increases o Rise in stock prices, consumption increases  Expected future income o Looking at current income  difficult to estimate current consumption o People cut back and save based on income of the year o Current income is good indicator of consumption when it is normal compared to future incomes o (Y – T + TR) e  The price level o Measures the average prices of goods and services in the economy o Affect consumption through effects on household wealth o Price level rises, real value of your wealth and consumption decline  The interest rate o Interest rate high, reward for saving increases and consumption decreases o Consumption spending depends on the real interest rate o Interest rate changes most affect spending on durable goods (car interest) o Real interest rate = nominal – inflation o R increase, then C decrease  Costs more to borrow to finance consumption  There is more incentive to save The Consumption Function – The relationship between consumption spending and disposable income  Changes in consumption depend on changes in disposable income o Consumption is a function of disposable income  Slope = change in consumption/change in disposable income Marginal Propensity to Consume – The slope of the consumption function: The amount by which consumption spending changes when disposable income changes  MPC = Change in consumption/Change in disposable income  C/Y D  C = Y x MPC Zara Mahmood Oct 1, 2013 EC102 The Relationship between Consumption and National Income Similar relationship exists between consumption spending and GDP  GDP and national income used interchangeably  Disposable income = national income + government transfer payments – taxes o Disposable income = National income – Net taxes o National income = GDP = Disposable income + Net taxes  National income and disposable income differ by a constant amount o Changes in the two numbers always give us the same value  Can graph consumption function using national income  Can calculate MPC using either national or disposable income Income, Consumption, and Saving Y = National income (GDP) C = Consumption S = Savings T = Taxes  Y = C + S + T  Y = C + S + T o National income change must mean C, S, or T change o Taxes are always constant amount (T = 0)  Y = C + S Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS) – The amount by which saving changes when disposable income changes  Change in savings/change in disposable income  1 = MPC + MPS  Y/Y = C/Y + S/Y o When taxes are constant, MPC + MPS must always = 1


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